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The Gilbert Hyatt Controversy 
Ethernet— 10 Years After 

The FlexOS Operating System 
"Genetic" Algorithms 


Turbo Pa scr; 6.0 
Word 5.5 & Wcrci for OS/2 
Compaq SLT 

Remote-Control LAN Software 
Apple's new AAJ1C 
Folio Views 2.0 & Agenda 2.0 

$3.50 U.S.A./$4 «" ' : m>!ADA 


33 MH: EISA i486.'" 

• i486 microprocessor running at 33 MHz 

with 128 KB external cache. 
"""Commercial Lease Plan. Lease for as 
loiv as $377hnoi\th. 
330MB Super VGA Color System 

(800x600) $10,499 

Price listed includes 4 MB of RAM* 
80, 100, 190 and 650 MB hard drive 
configurations also available. 

25 MH: EISA i486. 

• i486 microprocessor ninning at 

25 MHz. 
Commercial Lease Plan. Lease for as 
low as $278/moi\th. 
190 MB Super VGA Color System 

(800 n 600) $7,499 

Price listed includes 4 MB of RAM* 
80, 100, 3 30 and 650 MB hard drive 
configurations also available. 

33 MHz EISA i486. 
• i486 microprocessor running at 

33 MHz. 
Commercial Lease Plan. Lease for as 
lotv as $307hrumth. 
100 MB Super VGA Color System 

(800x600) $8,499 

Price listed includes 4 MB of RAM* 
80, 190, 330 and 650 MB hard drive 
configurations also available. 

25 MHz EISA i486. 
• i486 microprocessor running at 

25 MH:. 
Commercial Lease Plan. Lease for as 
loxv as $235hnonth. 
100 MB Super VGA Color System 

(800x600) $6,499 

Price listed includes 4 MB of RAM* 
80, 190, 330 and 650 MR hard drive 
configurations also available. 


25 MHz 386.™ 

• Intel 80386 microprocessor ninning nr 

25 MHz with 32 KB external cache. 
Commercial Lease Plan. Lease for as 
loivas $112/month. 
40 MR VGA Color Plus System $2,999 
Price listed includes I MB of RAM* 
80, 100, 190, 330 and 650 MB hard drive 
configurations also available. 

16 MH: 386SX. 

• Intel 80386SX microprocessor ninning 
at 16 MHz. 

Commercial Lease Plan. Lease for as 
low as $79hnonth. 

40 MB VGA Color Plus System $2,099 
Price listed includes I MB of RAM.* 
20, 80, 100 and 190 MB hard drive 
configurations also available. 

2 0MHz386SX. 
• Intel 80 386SX microprocessor ninning 
at 20 MHz. 

Commercial Lease Plan. Lease for as 
loiv as $l04/month. 
40 MB VGA Color Pius System $2, 799 
Price listed includes I MB of RAM* 
80, 100, 190, 330 and 650 MB hard 
drive configurations also available. 

12.5 MHz 286. 

•80286 microprocessor ninning at 
12.5 MHz. 

Commercial l^ease PIoti. Lease for as 

low as $59/month. 

20 MB VGA Monochrome 

System $1,549 

Price listed includes I MB of RAM * 
20, 80 and 100 MB hard drive 
configurations also available. 

20 MHz 386SX. 
• Intel 80386SX microprocessor running 
at 20 MHz. 

Commercial Lease Plan. Lease for as 
loivas $131/month. 
20 MB, 1MB RAM* $3,599 

40 MB hard drive configurations also 

16 MH: 386SX. 
• Intel 80386SX microprocessor running 
at 16 MHz. 
Commercial Lease Plan. Lease for as 
loivas $ 112/mont Ji. 
20 MB. 1MB RAM* $2,999 

40 MB hard drive configurations also 

The Dell System 433TE and 425TE ore class A devices sold for use in commercial environmenlS only. 'Performance Enhoncemonts:W«thin the first megabyte ofmemory, 128KB(316SX,320LT,316LTond210)96K8(333Dand325D)or3aitKB(320lX,425E,433E,425TE 
and 433TE) of memory is reserved far use by the system lo enhance performance. Canbeoptianolly disobled on 333D,325D,316SX and 210. All systems are photographed with optionaiextras. All pneesond specifications ore subjecttochongewifhoutnoFice Dell connol be responsible for 
errors m typography or photography. tSource. From Compaq October 15. 1990 press reteose. htSource: from Compaq July 23. 1990 press releose "Poymentbosedon36.month.apfn end lease. OLeasmg crronged by leosmg Group. Inc. In Conoda configurations and pnees may 

vary Dell «nd DELL SYSTEM ore registered trademarks. 425E and SmortVu are trademarks of Dell Compuier Corporation. Intel is o registered trademark and 3B6, 486. and i486 ore trademarks of Intel Corporation. Other trademarks ond Irode names ore used to identify the entities claiming 
the maiks ottd names c ihon p-oducrs Dell Computer Corporation discloims any proprietary interest in trademarks ond trade names o!her Ihori its own -On-site service moy not be available in certain remote locations. Shipping, handling and applicable soles tox not included in the prce. 
rxDrinformotononondocc^ofM's30-doylo:olScvs ; cct>onGuaranr^^ » 1990 Dell Computer Corporation. All nghfs reserved 

So what do you get by 


paying the extra mark-up 
for a Compaq? 

Not a better computer. 
Dells new 386™ systems are 
as fast, expandable and 
compatible as Compaq's. 

Not better service. In 
8 straight PC Week polls of 
corporate customers, Dells 
service rated much higher 
than everyone else's. 

Not better personal attention. From the 

moment you first call 




In Canada 800-387-5752. In the UK. 0800 414535. In France 
(I) lnGerniiiny06103/701-0. In Sweden 0760-7 13 50. 

with you custom configuring your computer and 
answering any questions — no matter how small 
—whether it be technical, sales or service 

In fact, the only thing extra you get from 
Compaq is, well, mark-up. 

Our new 386's pull a fast one on pricier 
computers. Both the 33 MHz Dell System® 
333D and 25 MHz Dell System 325D are faster 
and more expandable than most higher priced 

The new Dell®325D is a fast, reliable 
mackine with up to 16 MB of RAM on the 

The new Dell 33 MJ-fc and 25 MI-fc 386 computers. 
System includes: VGA Color Plus Monitor, 100 MB hard drive, 4 MB RAM. 

system board and a 32 KB cache designed into a 
compact footprint. 

The new Dell 333D is as good as a 386 PC 
can get. Not only is it 33% faster than the Dell 
325D, it has a 64 KB cache for an extra kick in 

We design every machine to our specs, then 
build it to yours* We design our computers; we 
know them inside out. So when you call us, we 
can talk to you about what you need a computer 

us, and for as long as 
you own your 
computer, we 11 work 

NEW DELL SYSTEM 325D25 MHz 386. 


• Intel 9 80386 microprocessor running ac 
33 MH2 (333D) or 25 MH: (325D). 

• Page mode interleaved memory architectui 

•6 industry standard expansion sloes (five 16-bit, 
one 8-bit). 

• High-performance IDE (40 MB, 80 MB, 100 
MB, 190 MB)and ESDI (330 MB, 650 MB) 
hard disk drives. 

Standard 1 MB of RAM* optional 2 MB or . ... , . __._ .. 

4 MBof RAM expandable to 16 MB on system * ^^"Sil™ IT"' COm P at,ble 


• Integrated VGA controller with 1024 x 768 

• Integrated hard drive and diskette drive 

mouse port, all integrated. 

♦ 177 watt power supply. 

• 12-month Xerox" On-Site Service Contract. 

333D |25D 
40 MB VGA Color Plus 
64KB(333D)or32KB(325D)SRAMcache. System $3,599 $2,999 

SmartVu-Advanced System Diagnostic Display. Prices listed include I MBof RAM* 80, 100, 

Socket for Intel 80387 or WEITEK 3167 math l< ?°> 330 ™? 65 ° MB hard drive ""^^ons 

also available, 

• 5.25" 1.2 MBor 3.5" 1.44 MBdiskette drive. V ADCODE11EA1 


But, for the sake of 

Compaq's 33 MHz arid 25 MHz 386 computers. 
System includes: VGA Color Monitor, 120 MB hard drive, 4 MB RAM. 

for, and then put together the most efficient, 
economical package for you. We take you 
through all the choices you have in memory sizes, 
monitors, storage devices, high performance 
controllers and accessories. Once you agree about 
exactly what you need, we immediately begin 
custom configuring your computer, perform a 
completed system test, then send it off. 

Then you get 30 days to use it. If you arerft 
satisfied, send it back. We'll return your money, 
no questions asked. 

Even if something goes wrong, it worit 
wreck your day. Actually, one of the nice things 
about our service is that you'll rarely need it. 
Another PC Week poll category we dominate is 
the one called "reliability — due in no small 
measure to our extensive burn-in testing on each 
computer before it goes out the door. 

argument, let's suppose 
something does go wrong 
with your Dell computer. 
Both the Dell 333D and 
325D come with our 
SmartVu,™ the built-in 
diagnostic display that 
Jgjj ingeniously identifies 
problems even if the 
monitor goes down. 
If you still need help, 
our Dell toll-free technical support hotline solves 
90% of all problems over the phone, often within 
4 or 5 minutes. Or, if you use our new Dell 
TechFaxlineatl-800-950-1329,we , llfaxback 
technical information immediately. 

If we still haverit solved the problem, we'll 
send trained technicians from the Xerox 
Corporation^ your desk the next business day 
with the solution in hand. 

For sale, for lease? for less. Call us. Talk to 
a computer expert whose only job is to give you 
exactly what you want in computers, service, 
software, printers and financing. 

You'll get solid information that could save 
you time and money on computers with high 
marks, not high mark-ups. 



Circle 85 on Reader Service Card 




When you buy a computer from a 
typical computer store, here's what 
you get: 

A beefy retail mark-up. 

Pressure to buy things you don't want. 

That crummy feeling of not knowing 
what you're getting, because the salesman 
isn't sure what he's selling. 

And, when there's a problem, some 
guy with a screwdriver taking your 
computer apart. 

When you call Dell, on the other 
hand, here's what you get: 

A frank talk with computer experts 
about what you need, and a recommenda- 
tion about the best overall package for you. 

Custom configuration, with options 
including monitors, memory sizes, 





In Canada 800-387-5752. In the UK. 0800 414535. In France 

(l)3O.60.68.CO.InCcimanyO61O3/701-0.InSweden0760-7l3 5O. 

accessories and 
Service — 

THE NEW DELL SYSTEM* 333D 33 MHz 386. 


• Intel® 80386 micioprocessor nrnninff at 33 MHz. • Page mode interleaved memory architecture. • Standard I MB of RAM*. 
optional 2 MR or 4 MR of" RAM expandable to 16 MR on system board. • Integrated VGA controller with 1024 x 768 support. 

• 64 KR high-speed SRAM. • Socket tor Intel 80387 or WEITEK 3167 math coprocessor. • 5.25" 1.2 M Bor 3.5" 1.44 MR 
diskette drive. • 6 industry standard expansion slots (five 16-bit, one 8-bit). • High-performance IDE (40 MR, 80 MR, 100 MB. 
190MB) and ESDI (330MR. 650 MR) hard disk drives. • 1 parallel port, 2 serial ports, PS/2 compatible mouse port.. ill integrated 

• Smart Vu" -Advanced System Diagnostic Display. • 12-month On-Site Service Contract provided by Xetoxr 
40 M B VGA G .lor Plus System S 3 . 599 

Price listed includes I MR of RAM. 80. 100, 190, 3 10, and 650 hard drive configurations also available. 


consistently voted the best in the industry— 
by computer experts who know our computers 
inside and out. 

A variety of financing and leasing options. 

A firm promise to perform a fully configured 

systems test, and ship by two-day air standard. 

A 30-day, no questions asked, money back 

A one-year limited warranty. 

And a great price. 

Call us now. Why waste a trip when everything 
you need is right in front of you? 

bur Gompetitio 

^to Shreds. 





33-MHz 386DX., 
EISA.. .$1995 

The ALR 

Its What You Need 
to Thrive in Today's 
Hostile Business World 

It's a sink or swim world out 
there, and if you don't take 
advantage of the latest in today's 
technology, your competition will 
To survive in a sea of reduced 
budgets and accelerated time 
schedules, you need a computer 
that's both inexpensive and fast. 
You need a system that will 
exploit the best of today's and 
tomorrow's technology without 
exploiting your budget. You 
need the ALR BusinessVEISA. 

One of the easiest ways for your 
company to remain competitive 
is to reduce its spending; that's 
why we've priced the 
BusinessVEISA Model 101 at 
just $1995. With its 33-MHz 
386-processor and its advanced 
32-bit EISA bus, the 
BusinessVEISA gives you all the 
power you'll need to devour 
today's most advanced business 

Designed to survive the chang- 
ing tides of your business envi- 
ronment, the BusinessVEISA 
can take advantage of both 
standard 8- and 16-bit add-on 
boards and advanced 32-bit 
EISA enhancement products. 
This powerful system can feast 
on the latest in today's and 
tomorrow's high-speed I/O and 
multimastering technology. 

As you conquer new territories, 
your BusinessVEISA can 
expand its jaws to accommo- 
date i486 power. Just Upgrade 
the CPU! ™ Simply plug in an 
ALR VEISA 25 or 33-MHz i486 
CPU module to boost your per- 
formance up to 270%. Then 
watch your competition scatter. 

Don't ignore your killer instinct. 
Call ALR today. 


Hunt for 

the Real 32-bit System 


BusinessVEISA Premium™ 

386/33-1 01 386SX/16-5V 



CPU Speed 

33-MHzv 16-MHz \ 


386DXi/ 386SX i 

Data Path 

32-Bit./ 16-Bit J\ 


1-MB 1-MB J 


32-Bit EISA./ 16-Bit ISA 

List Price 

$1995 $2495 

Price of 25-MHz 

i486 Upgrade 

$1995 $4895 

Just Upgrade the CPU! ™ 

ALR VEISA 25-MHz i486 CPU Module 
ALR VEISA 33-MHz 386 CPU Module ^^ 33MHz i486 CPU Module 

ALR VEISA System Board 

9401 Jeronimo, Irvine, CA 92718 
f&Sft (714) 581-6770 FAX: (7 14) 581-9240 

Available at these selected resellers: 

Connecting Point S! j US S^ -S=^ 


Prices and configurations subject to change without notice. Prices based on U.S. dollars. System shown with optional monitor/graphics adapter and 3.5" floppy. VEISA, 
BusinessVEISA, and Just Upgrade the CPU! are trademarks and ALR is a registered trademark of Advanced Logic Research, Inc. All other brand and product names are 
trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. Shark photo: Ron Taylor/ Tom Stack & Assoc. ©1990 by Advanced Logic Research. 
AST, we saw your mailer. Would you like some of our product literature so you can get your information right next time? 

Circle 19 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 20) 



January 1991 
Volume 16, Number 1 


The BYTE Awards 

PAGE 147 


1 — " ^ ^ 

' ■ ■ ■■ 3 


^ fc=^J J. i 

BYTE editors 

choose 67 

of the most 

significant products 

from the past year. 


[OF 1 


.. — ^ ( 

223 Photo-Realism for Those with Time 
(and RAM) to Spare 

Pixar's MacRenderMan brings photo- 
realistic rendering to the Mac. 

227 A New Angle on OS/2 and Windows 

Wide Angle makes the virtual 
desktop a physical reality. 

228 Two Bumbling Detectives 

Dariana Technology Group's WinSleuth 
and MacSleuth miss the mark. 

230 Reviewer's Notebook 

New versions of Lotus Agenda 
and Folio Views make much-needed 
improvements that address 
user concerns. 



AMD shows its 386 clone, and 
Bellcore researchers make a 
breakthrough in holographic 
memory technology. 


EISA and SPARC systems, along 
with a trio of mouse substitutes, 
take the hardware spotlight. On 
the software side, dBASE takes 
to the Sun, and EZCosmos watches 
the stars. 


Turbo Pascal 6.0, 

Borland almost adds Windows 

Volante AT1000, inexpensive 
high-end graphics from National Design 

Toshiba T1000LE, a slimmer TJ000 

Word 5.5 and Word for OS/2, 

updated versions from Microsoft 

Taste, Delta Point's composite package 
for the Mac 

134 Citrix's New Multiuser OS/2 

OS/2-based workgroup computing 
without a LAN. 



Caching Cards Speed Data Access 

The BYTE Lab evaluates eight 
caching controller cards that help 
relieve hard disk drive bottlenecks. 

186 LAN Remote-Control Software: 
Better Than Being There 

The BYTE Lab examines eight 
communications programs that let you 
use workstations on a LAN via 
remote control. 

201 "Ultra" VGA Debuts on the MicroPaq 

Monolithic's MicroPaq 452 Ultra 
uses the new Edsun chip 
to make VGA screens shine. 

204 TARGA + Lowers Cost 
of High-End Graphics 

Truevision's new 32-bit TARGA + board 
makes raster graphics more affordable. 

210 The Compaq SLT: 

A Laptop Fit for the Desktop 

The BYTE Lab tests how well 
the Compaq SLT laptop performs 
with its new 386SX engine 
and other enhancements. 

213 A Workstation in a Mac's Clothing 

A/UX and the X Window System turn 
a Macintosh into a workstation 
in a near-seamless way. 

218 User Interfaces, C++ Style 

Zinc's class library brings text 
and graphical interfaces 
to your C++ applications. 



239 AI's Identity Crisis 

Can AI provide the kind of intelligent 
systems that will make all the work, 
and all the introspection, worthwhile? 

249 Overturning the Category Bucket 

Categorizing knowledge is one 

of the primary ways that an AI system 

can acquire "understanding." 

259 The Real-Time Expert 

Expert systems designed to work 
in real-time environments can make 
complex systems easier to handle. 

267 AI in Practice 

A real company's real-world use 
of AI techniques and methods. 

281 Putting the Experts to Work 

The 1990s will see the walls between 
intelligent applications and 
conventional applications crumble. 

289 Real Artificial Life 

Nature's skill and craftsmanship, 
when harnessed toward the creation 
of artificial life, presents a 
virtually unlimited reservoir of 
possibilities for engineering solutions. 

300 Resource Guide: Intelligent Software 

A guide to expert systems 
and neural-network simulators. 

4 BYTE • JANUARY 1991 



begins after page 72 

Who Made the Micro?/304 


304 Micro, Micro: Who Made the Micro? 

Is Gilbert Hyatt the father of 

the microprocessor, or just the most 

tenacious inventor in the U.S.? 

315 Ethernet: Ten Years After 

Rich Seifert, one of Ethernet's 
designers, talks about its 
first 10 years. 

323 Alternative Operating 

Systems, Part 6: FlexOS's Muscle 

Digital Research's FlexOS 
closes out our series. 

329 The Object-Oriented Amiga Exec 

The design of the Amiga operating- 
system kernel follows the rules 
of object-oriented programming. 

339 Putting Waveforms to Paper 

Here's how to get data from a Mac 
screen into a file or printout. 



Personal Supercomputing 
with the Intel i860 

Crunching numbers with the i860. 

Genetic Algorithms 

A novel technique crossbreeds 
algorithms to find the best 
programming solution. 


6 Spotlight 

Inventors and developers highlight 
this month's feature articles. 

10 Editorial 

The End of Intel's Monopoly? 

33 Letters, Ask BYTE, and Fixes 

Some object lessons learned. 




Math Reconstructed 

Stealing glimpses at the numbers 
upon which the universe is built. 


Amateur Systems 

Senior editor Ken Sheldon 
discusses the next step in AL 



Editorial Index by Company 


Alphabetical Index to Advertisers 


Index to Advertisers 

by Product Category 

Inquiry Reply Cards: after 408 


From BIX: Call (800) 227-2985 

From BYTEnet: Call (617) 861-9764 

On disk: See card after 160 





Jukebox Computing 

by Jerry Pournelle 

Jerry looks at new CD-ROMs 

and a CD-ROM drive, a brick 

of a computer, and a new trackball. 

The Power Man Cometh 

by Wayne Rash Jr. 

The big orange power truck 

pulls up again, but this time 

Wayne's ready. 




Embarrassment of Riches 

by Mark J. Minasi 
A report from the future: living 
with OS/2 2.0 and Windows 3.0. 


THE UNIX /bin 

SCO Hot 

by David Fiedler 

A brief look at the new SCO Unix 

and using PCs as X terminals. 



The Mac and Personal 


by Don Crabb 

Don shows how the Mac's 

oldest true personal programming 

system gets even better. 



NetWare Troubles 

by Barry Nance 

Whom do you call when NetWare 

acts up? With the right tools, 

you can do the job yourself. 

BYTE {ISSN 0360-5280/91) is published monthly with an additional issue 
in October by McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. subscriber rate $29.95 per year. In 
Canada and Mexico, $34.95 per year. Single copies $3.50 in the U.S.. 
$4.50 in Canada. Executive, Editorial, Circulation, and Advertising Of- 
fices: One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 03458. Second-class 
postage paid at Peterborough, NH, and additional mailing offices. Post- 
age paid at Winnipeg, Manitoba. Registration number 9321. Printed in the 
United States of America. Postmaster: Send address changes. USPS 
Form 3579. and fulfillment questions to BYTE Subscriptions, P.O. Box 
551 , Hightstown. NJ 08520. 


Circle 39 on Reader Service Card 


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2560 Ninth Street, Suite 316 Berkeley, C A 94710 
(415) 540-5441 ^^ FAX (415) 540-1938 

Trademarks are 
property of their 


Gilbert Hyatt 

Federico Faggin 

Ted Hoff 

Fathers of 

From processors and 
patents to Cabernet and 
coaxial cable in this 
month's BYTE 

This is a fascinating business. 
You never know whom you're 
going to meet, or where you're 
going to pick up a great story. 
Case in point: Jeff Bertolucci is a 
member of the BYTE news staff, located 
in San Francisco. Last August, Jeff was 
attending a software developer's confer- 
ence, the kind of event that's good for 
gathering background but generally not 
where you expect to find hot news. 

At one point, a public relations person 
took Jeff aside and said he wanted to tell 
him the most incredible story to hit the 
computer industry in the past 10 years. 
He took Jeff to a corner of the hotel— far 
from the other reporters— and showed 
him a thick document: a recently issued 
U.S. patent for a microprocessor design. 
According to the PR person, the patent— 
which was originally sought in 1970— 
made an unknown southern California 
engineer named Gilbert Hyatt the father 
of the microprocessor. 

On August 29, Hyatt announced his 
patent to an amazed computer world. By 
then, BYTE editors had already begun 
assembling an article on Hyatt's patent 
and its possible effect on the computer 

industry. Later, we interviewed Mr. Hy- 
att, as well as two of the people histori- 
cally credited with inventing the micro- 
computer: Ted Hoff and Federico 
Faggin. We also talked with industry ex- 
perts to get their opinions on the patent. 
You'll find the resulting article ("Micro, 
Micro: Who Made the Micro?") on page 
304. Among other things, it shows that 
success sometimes requires a great deal 
of patience. 

Of course, the ability to defer gratifi- 
cation for long-term benefit is one thing 
that differentiates humans from other 
creatures. It's not always easy. Take, for 
example, holding onto a fine wine long 
enough for it to reach its peak. Rich Sei- 
fert knows how much self-control that 
takes. On September 30, 1980, Rich pur- 
chased a magnum of Cabernet Sauvignon 
from Heitz Cellars. That was the day he 
and other developers completed and 
signed off on the specification for a new 
networking standard called Ethernet. 

Last September, on Ethernet's tenth 
anniversary, Rich opened that bottle at a 
gathering where the development team 
had reunited to celebrate and to reflect on 
the evolution of LANs over the past 10 
years. Rich tells the story of Ethernet and 
its subsequent history in "Ethernet: Ten 
Years After" on page 315 of this issue. 

We think you'll find this month's fea- 
ture articles as fascinating as the people 
behind them. Stick with us— you never 
know who we'll run into next. ■ 

—Kenneth M. Sheldon 
Senior Editor, Features 

6 BYTE • JANUARY 1991 


IDEK's MULTIFLAT Series of 21-Inch Color Monitors 

IDEK's MULTIFLAT Series of 21-inch Color Monitors take 
full advantage of the remarkable properties of their Flat 
Square Tubes (FST) to deliver superior resolution and a 
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our 21" Color Monitors reveals their matchless over- 
scanning capability that delivers a crisp, distortion-free 
display across the entire screen. 

In addition, Automatic Frequency Scanning realizes 
outstanding performance for business graphics, CAD/ 
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Mac or IBM compatible system. 

As you can see below, whether your requirements are 
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See for yourself what a difference a Flat Screen Monitor 
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MULTIFLAT Series (21" Flat CRT Monitors) 

IDEK also offers its new 
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H. Frequency 




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Circle 141 on Reader Service Card 

W)rd for Windows redef 

See what you do. 

With editable WYSIWYG, you can see 

and edit text and graphics formatting. 

Virtually everything for that matter. 

Right on your computer screen. 

Dorft get tied up. 

Tables make it easy to format 

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Cut corners. 

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an endless string of commands. 



"-"■ i p .f M. firMifyUil 

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EDITORIAL ■ Fred Langa 

The End of Intel's 

AMD's clone of Intel's 
386 chip has created 
stiff competition in the 
U.S. CPU industry— 
and you and I 
are the beneficiaries 

A year and a half ago, Advanced 
Micro Devices formed two 
separate teams to legally cir- 
cumvent Intel's attempts to 
maintain its (also legal) monopoly on 386 
production. One AMD team worked 
from a systems analysis perspective, de- 
fining the full functionality of the Intel 
386. The other team worked on reverse- 
engineering an i386 chip itself. 

In July of last year, the two teams fin- 
ished their work and merged their results 
into a single specification. AMD taped 
out the design in July and sent the chip 
masks to fabrication. Shortly thereafter, 
the first sample silicon was ready. 

The long, careful preparations paid 
off. The first time out, at 20, 25, and 33 
MHz, the new chip successfully ran 
OS/2, Windows, DOS, Unix, Xenix, and 
a variety of operating systems for em- 
bedded applications. Physically and 
functionally, except for the logos, the 
chips are essentially identical— clock for 
clock, state for state, and pin for pin. 

I saw an Am386DXL demonstration at 
Comdex: Mike Webb, director of mar- 
keting for AMD's Personal Computer 
Products division, took a pair of off-the- 
shelf machines (a Compaq and a PS/2 
bought at Businessland), pulled out the 
stock Intel 386s, plugged in AMD 386s, 
and started the machines. The computers 
ran exactly as they had before, even run- 
ning the BYTE benchmarks identically. 
What few differences there are be- 
tween the Intel and AMD chips are all in 

AMD's favor. For example, the AMD 
chip is entirely implemented in power- 
saving 0.8-micron-wide CMOS, unlike 
the partial-CMOS, 1-micron design of 

This change to an all-CMOS design 
allows for a much lower power consump- 
tion, with enormous implications for bat- 
tery-powered laptops and portables. For 
example, the AMD chip uses a scant one- 
third the power of the Intel 386 at 20 and 
25 MHz, and two-thirds the power at 33 
MHz. At the lower speeds, the Am386's 
power consumption is below that of an 

But there's more: The AMD chip can 
power down to a sleep mode that requires 
less than a milliamp of current, com- 
pared to the minimum current draw of 
133 mA for an i386DX and 60 mA for the 
newly introduced i386SL. 

Besides a true sleep mode, the Am386 
offers ultra low-power, slow-speed oper- 
ation for standby modes: You can slow 
the Am386 down to as little as 4 kHz (the 
i386 can't go slower than 8 MHz). 

All this adds up to power consumption 
that's just a fraction of that of the equiva- 
lent Intel chips. What's more, the 
Am386's design protects your data in 
these low-power modes— the chip's reg- 
isters and pipelines automatically remain 
intact. (If you shut down an Intel chip for 
maximum power savings, you must copy 
the registers' contents— usually out to ex- 
pensive static RAM.) 

The Am386's simple-to-implement 
low-power modes offer incredible power 
management flexibility for laptop de- 
signers. No longer will designers have to 
use the crippled SX chip to bring 386 
power to portables: true 32-bit, no-com- 
promise, no-bottleneck laptops with rea- 
sonable battery life are now possible. To 
top things off, AMD will offer its 386 in 
a plastic carrier ideally suited for space- 
saving surface mounting. Laptop and 
portable makers will eat these chips up. 

Desktop units will also benefit from 
AMD's improvements on the 386. Al- 

ready, AMD successfully has tested its 
chips at speeds of up to 50 MHz— and up 
to 40 MHz without special cooling. 

Webb told me that he believes a 40- 
MHz Am386 will be faster in real-life 
applications than an i486 running at 33 
MHz. Yes, some 486 instructions exe- 
cute in fewer clock cycles, but most com- 
mon instructions run about the same as 
on a 386, Webb says. Thus, the 2 1 per- 
cent speed increase to 40 MHz will de- 
liver faster real-life performance to most 
users. Although pricing for the AMD 
line is not yet set, a 40-MHz Am386 
should cost significantly less than a 33- 
MHz i486. 

Better, faster laptop and desktop ma- 
chines are the immediate short-term re- 
sult of AMD's hard work to take on Intel 
head to head. There are longer-range 
benefits, too. For example, AMD is ac- 
tively working on 0.65 -micron fabrica- 
tion, which it believes can be worked 
down to 0.25 micron with its current 

Sizes this small open up the opportu- 
nity for extremely high transistor-count 
devices— chips of unparalleled subtlety, 
power, and complexity, containing per- 
haps as many as 5 million transistors and 
operating at 50 or 60 MHz. 

AMD is not the only CPU maker 
working at the frontiers of manufactur- 
ing—and that is the point. Intel's at- 
tempts to block production of legal clone 
386 chips prevented healthy competition, 
delayed the performance increases and 
cost reductions users have come to expect 
from the computer industry, and forced 
too many of us to accept deliberately 
crippled chips, such as the SX, simply 
because there was no alternative. 

Now, thanks to AMD, there are alter- 
natives. Users everywhere will benefit 
from this competition. For more infor- 
mation on the Am386, see this month's 
Microbytes on page 19. 

—Fred Langa 

Editor in Chief 

(BIX name "f langa") 

10 BYTE • JANUARY 1991 

New Turbo C ++ Professional 


(OOP) is programming in the '90s. It's the 
next step after structured programming 
and is the best way to write applications. 

And Turbo C++ Professional is the first 
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Turbo C++ Professional also compiles ANSI 
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now, and move to C++ at your own pace. 

Environment ++ 

The best compiler deserves the best envi- 
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VROOMM adds room 

VROOMM™ (Virtual Runtime Object- 
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the 640K barrier. Just select the application 
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does the rest-swapping modules on 
demand. It's fast, easy, automatic. 

Another + 

Turbo C++ Professional gives you all the 
tools you need to build fast, reliable C++ 

Turbo Debugger® 2.0 debugs your 
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step backwards through your code to find 
the bugs you might have missed. 

New Turbo Profiler,™ the world's first 
interactive profiler, displays histograms of 
your program's performance. With it, you 



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can easily spot execution bottlenecks, and 
see where improvements or redesign of 
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And Turbo Assembler® 2.0 lets you 
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Turbo C++ Professional Compiler 

C++ conforming to AT&T's 2.0 


C++ class libraries 

Full ANSI C compiler 

VROOMM overlay manager 

Complete documentation and tutorials 

Programmer's Platform 

Open architecture for integration of 

your own tools 

Overlapping windows with mouse 


Multifile, macro-based editor 
1 Smart project manager provides visual 

1 Integrated debugging and hypertext help 

Turbo Debugger 2.0 

1 Class hierarchy browser and inspectors 
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| 286 protected-mode and 386 virtual-mode 
1 Keystroke record and playback 

NEW Turbo Profiler 

1 Displays histograms of program 

' Tracks call history, overlays, interrupts, 

file I/O 

Turbo Assembler 2.0 

1 Multipass assembler with NOP squish- 
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Special Offer 

The suggested retail price for Turbo C++ 
Professional is $299.^5 ($199.35 for 
Turbo C++). Borland is offering a special 
discount for registered Turbo C owners. So 
be objective, and SEE YOUR DEALER or 
call Borland at 1-800-331-0877 now! 



Mail orders to Borland. PO Box 660001. Stalls Valley, CA 95067-0001 For orders oulsidc the U S . call (40S) 438-5300 Turbo C. VROOMM. Turbo Debugger. Turbo Profiler Turbo Language and 
Turbo Assembler are trademarks or registered trademarks ot Borland International. Inc Copyright * 1990, Borland International. In: All rights reserved 386 and <18G are trademarks ot Inlet Corporation BI-1333C 

Circle 40 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 41) 

All the monitors you'll need for 

What you see is the remarkable MultiSync 8 3D color monitor from 
NEC. What you don't see is how this one monitor can accommodate not 
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Built around our award- 
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Computers and Communications 

all the resolutions you'll need. 

Especially since the MultiSync 3D also has a microprocessor-based 
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Circle 213 on Reader Service Card 




Frederic S. Langa 


Anne Fischer Lent 


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Audit Bureau of Circulation 

14 BYTE • JANUARY 1991 

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July 1990 



Mr two 





707 West Geneva 

Tempe, Arizona 


Tech Support 


Telephone 602.829-0584 

Fax 602.345.01 10 

Monday - Friday 
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9:00am-4:00pm MST 

All prices and specifications subject to change with- 
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The IEF™ can help you devel 
unprecedented quality, prod 

"The IEF is a superior tool for implement- 
ing Information Engineering because it 
integrates the entire process from planning 
through code generation. We're deploying 
the IEF throughout the corporation." 
David V. Evans 
Vice President 

Director, Information Systems 
J.C. Penney 


4&k 1 1 


^L^^^&flSl fa AlL x ,M 

"The strengths of the IEF are clear-cut. 
One obvious quality advantage is that 
application changes are made to diagrams, 
not code. This ensures ongoing integrity 
—the specification always matches the 
executing system." 
Paul R. Hessinger 
Chief Technology Officer 
Computer Task Group 

"We are using the IEF to develop a new 
generation of manufacturing systems 
replacing over 300 existing systems. We 
estimate that IEF will increase our produc- 
tivity by between 2-to-1 and 3-to-1 for 
new systems development.." 
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"I've seen other CASE tools fail, so I raised 

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"We used the IEF to rebuild our aging 

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our transactions complete in less than 

3 seconds." 

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Director of Data Resource Management 




"To meet the dramatically reduced time- 
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we need high-quality systems that can be 
changed fast. That's why we've chosen 
the IEF as the CASE solution for our entire 
John Pajak 

Executive Vice President 
Mass Mutual Life Insurance 

"Our users were extremely pleased when 
we finished our first project— a 60-trans- 
action system— in one-half the budgeted 
time. We had tried interfaced CASE tools 
without success. IEF integration makes 
the difference." 
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Division Head -MIS 

"Our first IEF system was completed 

faster, and with fewer errors, than any 

system I've ever seen. If I had to go back 

to the old ways, I'd find another 

job. ..outside the DP world. It means that 

much to me." 


Chief Consultant 

Nykredit (Denmark) 

op information systems with 
uctivity and maintainability* 

The success of Texas Instruments 
CASE product is proven — in the field* 

Major companies have used TFs 
CASE product, the Information 
Engineering Facility™ (IEF M ), for 
everything from rebuilding aging 
higl>maintenance'COst systems to 
development of new enterprise- 
wide strategic systems. 

Study shows zero code defects. 

The quality of IEF-developed 
systems is remarkable. In recent 
CASE research by The Gartner 
Group, application developers 
were asked to report the number 
of abends they had experienced. 
(An "abend" is a system failure 
or "lock-up" caused by code 
defects.) IEF developers reported 
zero defects— not one abend had 
occurred in lEF-generated code. 

Maintenance productivity 
gains of up to 10-to-l. 

In this same study, developers 
were asked to compare IEF 
maintenance productivity with 
their former methods. Of those 
responding, more than 80 percent 
had experienced gains of from 2-toA 
to 10-toA. (See chart.) 

Specifications always match 
the executing application. 

With the IEF, application 
changes are made to diagrams, 
not code. So, for the life of your 
system, specifications will always 
match the executing application. 
The Gartner Group research 
showed that all IEF users who 
reported making application 
changes made all changes at the 
diagram level. 

IEF Maintenance Productivity 
Compared to Traditional Techniques. 


I 60 ' 





I 20 


(Source: Gartner Group, Inc., 6/90) 





Less Same More 

Productivity Productivity Productivity 

Developers were asked to compare IEF maintenance to 
forme methods. Of those responding, more than 80% 
reported p odnctivity gains of from 2-to-i to i0-to*]. 

Mainframe applications can be 
developed and tested on a PC. 

With our new OS/2 toolset, you 
can develop mainframe applica- 
tions, from analysis through 
automatic code generation, on 
your PC. Then, using the IEF's 
TP monitor simulator and the 
diagram-level testing feature, you 
can also test these mainframe 
applications without ever leaving 
the PC. 

More environmental 
independence coming soon — 
develop on PC, generate for 

The IEF has generated applica- 
tions for IBM mainframe environ- 
ments (MVS/DB2 under TSO, 
IMS/DC, and CICS) since early 
1988. Soon you'll be able to 
develop systems in OS/2 and then 
automatically generate for other 
platforms. DEC/VMS, TANDEM 
and UNIX are scheduled for 
availability in 1991. More will 

follow. We are committed to 
increased environmental indepen- 
dence in support of the Open 
Systems concept. 

We are committed to standards. 

IEF tools and IEF-generated code 
will comply with standards as 
they emerge. We will adhere to 
CUA standards and to the prin- 
ciples of IBM's AD/Cycle and 
DEC's Cohesion— and we will 
support Open Systems environ- 
ments centering around UNIX. In 
any environment, the COBOL, C 
and SQL we generate adhere 
closely to ANSI standards. Our 
presence on standards committees 
helps us keep abreast of ANSI 
and ISO developments affecting 
the CASE world. 

Full-service support. 

Of course, our technical support, 
consultancy, training courses, 
satellite seminars, and other infor- 
mational assistance will continue 
apace. We also offer re-engineering 
and template services. This full- 
service support will remain an 
integral part of the IEF product. 

For more information, 

including a VHS video demo, 

call 800-527-3500 or 


Or write Texas Instruments, 

6550 Chase Oaks Blvd., 

Piano, Texas 75023. 

Xexas ^^ 

© 1990 Tl 

Information Engineering Facility and IEF are trademarks of Texas Instruments. Other product names listed are the trademarks of the companies indicated. 


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Edited by D. Barker 

AMD's Replicant 386: It's Alive, It's Compatible 

After what seems like years of 
negotiation, litigation, and specu- 
lation, Advanced Micro Devices 
(Austin, TX) has at last demonstrated its 
version of Intel's 386 processor. The 
company says its Am386DX, which 
clocks in at 20, 25, and 33 MHz, is 
completely pin- and instruction- 
compatible with Intel's archetype. AMD 
is also working on a version of the 
386SX but said it's about three months 
behind the DX. If AMD can overcome 
legal and manufacturing difficulties, its 
replicant CPU will be the first real 
alternative source of Intel's popular, 
profitable chip. 

AMD designed the processor by 
reverse-engineering the Intel 386 and 
then implementing its logic in a static 
CMOS design, company officials said. 
AMD made no changes to the instruc- 
tion set or performance characteristics 
of the Intel chip but did try to build a 
device that consumes less power. Ben 
Oliver, product-line director for AMD's 
Personal Computer Products division, 
said Intel's design for the 386 mini- 
mized transistor count, often at the cost 
of raising power requirements. AMD 
implemented its design in 0.8-micron 
CMOS rather than Intel's 1-micron 
CMOS. The Am386DX consumes 69 
percent of the power needed by the Intel 
386DX, Oliver said. 

Greater power savings will be 
possible using the Am386DXL, which 
has a zero-clock-rate standby mode, 
reducing power consumption to 
under 1 mA, Oliver said. An Intel 386 
running at 8 MHz, its lowest speed, 
consumes 133 mA. AMD officials said 
the DXL chip will be a natural in the 
portable computer market; Intel has a 
low-power version of the SX, but not of 
the DX. 

AMD plans to offer its 386 in a 
surface-mountable package as well as in 
the pin-compatible standard grid array 
package. The surface-mountable part is 
40 percent smaller than the standard 
part, making it attractive to designers 
working on notebook and other 
diminutive computers. 

During private meetings with BYTE, 
AMD showed engineering samples of 
its 386 running in two off-the-shelf 

systems: an IBM PS/2 Model 70 and a 
Compaq Deskpro 386/33. AMD 
officials said they had been testing the 
chips, with coprocessors, for over a 
month and had not yet hit any compati- 
bility snags with software. To ensure 
compatibility, AMD tested the pin-out 
values of all the pins on its chip, for 
every clock cycle of every instruction, 
against the Intel 386. The company said 
its engineers were also very careful with 
timing tolerances to make them more 
conservative than even Intel's. 

BYTE's initial tests indicated that 
AMD has indeed developed a processor 
compatible with Intel's. The Am386 ran 
BYTE Lab benchmarks at exactly the 
rates expected from the Intel processors 
of the same speed. The Am386DX has 
run DOS, Windows 3.0, OS/2, Xenix, 
and several real-time multiuser operat- 
ing systems without any problem, AMD 
officials said. 

The other big question is whether 
AMD will be legally allowed to sell the 
chip. At press time, this issue was still 
not resolved, but an arbitrator had ruled 
that AMD could use "386" as part of its 
product name. 

AMD had not decided on pricing or 
availability by press time. Company 
officials said AMD is not going to 
challenge Intel aggressively on price. 
"There is no reason to beat Intel on 
price; we have a better product," said 
Mike Webb, director of marketing for 
AMD's Personal Computer Products 
division. Intel's 386 prices currently 
range from $180 to $200. 

AMD is proceeding with sampling 
and says it's ready to go into full pro- 
duction. The surface-mount chip will be 
available sometime this year, the 
company said. 

At least 20 computer makers have 
been testing the 386 clone. While none 
was ready to commit to AMD's chip, 
most PC manufacturers interviewed by 
BYTE said that they're interested. Price, 
performance, and compatibility were the 
issues they all mentioned. "Tandy has 
always used multiple vendors of the 
286, so I assume we'd use multiple 
vendors of the 386," said Tandy vice 
president John Patterson. 

— Owen Linderholm 


Eastman Kodak (Rochester, NY) 
has come up with a series of 
development tools and utilities in- 
tended to guarantee that color images 
on a computer screen look exactly as 
they'll appear when put on hard 
copy. Kodak is hoping that vendors 
of computer software and hardware 
adopt its new technology, called 
PhotoYCC — essentially a new 
method for representing color in 
digital form — and that it becomes the 
industry standard for representing 
color in digital form across software 
applications, computer platforms, 
and peripheral devices. The new 
Color Management System software 
products define the way individual 
components in a color desktop 
graphics system — including scanner, 
monitor, CPU, and printer — read 
colors in a computer application, 
effectively calibrating the equipment 
to accommodate for the way people 
see color. Because the system resides 
individually in both the application 
and the hardware in use, a Kodak of- 
ficial explained, it is independent of 
device and operating system. Being 
able to predictably control the color 
space "has been lacking in the indus- 
try for 20 years," said John Warnock, 
chief of Adobe Systems. 

Turbo Windows: Borland Interna- 
tional (Scotts Valley, CA) is at work 
on a version of Turbo Pascal that 
will run under Microsoft Windows 
and produce true Windows applica- 
tions. "Turbo Pascal for Windows is 
a hosted graphical interface for 
Windows," said Gene Wang, 
manager of Borland's languages 
unit; in other words, Windows 
provides the user interface. It uses 
the Multiple Document Interface for 
handling multiple files, he said. 
While a demonstration program was 
running in one window, Wang 
compiled and ran a Pascal adaptation 
of Charles Petzold's Hex Calculator 
application. The company will 
deliver Turbo Pascal for Windows 
sometime in the first half of this 
year, according to Wang. 

JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 19 



IBM has become the thirteenth com- 
pany to join the coalition promoting 
the DOS Protected Mode Inter- 
face. The DPMI specification, first 
released last May, defines a standard 
for extended DOS programs to run 
in protected-mode, multitasking en- 
vironments on Intel-based PCs, such 
as Windows, OS/2, Desqview, VP/ 
ix, and Unisys CTOS. Microsoft and 
Intel are the two major forces behind 
DPMI; other supporting companies 
include Borland, Quarterdeck, 
Locus, Lotus, Phar Lap, Ergo, IGC, 
Phoenix Technologies, and Rational 
Systems. The group has sent out 
about 2000 copies of the specifica- 
tion, an Intel spokesperson said. 
DPMI-compatible products should 
be reaching users soon. 

The first laser printer to support 
PostScript Level 2 is slated to arrive 
in March. Dataproducts (Woodland 
Hills, CA) says its LZR 660 ($2995) 
can output images faster because of 
changes made to PostScript, not to 
the print engine itself. (The machine 
uses a Weitek RISC processor and is 
rated at 6 pages per minute.) Post- 
Script Level 2 supports compression 
and decompression, so files can be 
sent faster to the printer. There is 
one problem: Very few software 
programs are capable of driving 
PostScript Level 2. Dataproducts has 
a program to help developers get 
printers early so that they can work 
on drivers. 

The Open Software Foundation 

(Cambridge, MA) has released its 
version of Unix to customer 
companies, but users won't see it 
until sometime later this year. In 
addition to the Mach kernel, OSF/1 
incorporates "significant portions" 
of IBM's version of Unix (AIX 
v. 3.1), commands from both Unix 
System V and Berkeley BSD 4.3, 
symmetric multiprocessing features 
from Encore Computer, and security 
features from SecureWare. Many 
companies, including IBM, say 
they'll offer complete versions of 
OSF/1 or features from OSF/1 in 
their own versions of Unix but won't 
say when this will be. DEC could be 
one of the first, with an OSF/1 -com- 
patible version of its Ultrix variation 
of Unix by the middle of this year, 
DEC says. 

Breakthrough in Holographic Memory 
Could Transform Data Access 

Researchers at Bellcore (Livingston, 
NJ) have developed a new laser- 
based system that represents a break- 
through in using holograms as computer 
memory and holds promise for dramati- 
cally faster information access. The re- 
searchers have built a laser semiconduc- 
tor array for retrieving holographic im- 
ages, stored on a glass crystal, at speeds up 
to 1 gigahertz. 

Bellcore's research, aimed at changing 
the way holograms — recordings of light 
patterns that represent an image — are re- 
trieved, has yielded a chip the size of a 
thumbnail that contains an array of over 
1000 semiconductor lasers. The laser ar- 
ray replaces the single scanning laser beam 
currently used for retrieving holographic 
images. Single scanning laser beams re- 
quire large and expensive optical equip- 
ment such as lenses, beam deflectors, and 
optical tables. According to Bellcore re- 
searcher Ann Von Lehmen, the new laser 
array will replacethe 8- by 1 2-foot optical 
table and associated reflectors and lenses 
in her laboratory. 

Bellcore has tested its laser array by re- 
trieving holographic images from a pho- 
torefractive crystal made from lithium 
niobate and gallium arsenide. A single 
crystal, measuring 1 centimeter on a side, 
can store 10 million "pages of informa- 
tion," each page containing 100,000 bits 
(a capacity of 1 trillion bits). Each "micro- 
laser" in the array is associated with a 
single page of information and can re- 
trieve it in less than a nanosecond. The 
information is recorded by dividing the 
light emitted from the laser into two beams 
of light and recording the phase and 
amplitude at their intersection in the pho- 
torefractive crystal. Only one beam from 

the laser, called the "reference beam," is 
needed to retrieve the information from 
the crystal. Each laser measures 40-mil- 
lionths of an inch across, allowing arrays 
to contain thousands of lasers. 

The next step is to develop "optical/ 
electronic interfaces" that convert the 
parallel data of the holographic image to a 
serial bit stream suitable for digital com- 
puters. However, Von Lehmen says, the 
development of microchip-size laser-re- 
trieval systems also presents the opportu- 
nity to develop parallel data-access sys- 
tems that would be much faster than serial 
interfaces in use today. 

Although the researchers have demon- 
strated the retrieval of several images with 
high fidelity, they have not been able to 
retrieve more than a few. They hope to 
retrieve 500 to 1 000 images from a single 
crystal while maintaining high fidelity. 

Bellcore has not developed a way to 
store these images, but Microelectronics 
and Computer Technology (Austin, TX) 
is doing complementary research in that 
area (see the September 1990 Microbytes 
and the November 1 990 BYTE). MCC is 
using crystallite arrays rather than single 
crystals for storing holographic data. These 
crystallites eliminate crosstalk and signal 
weakeningproblems associated with large 
photorefractive crystals. According to 
MCC s Jerry Willenbring, MCC is enthu- 
siastic about the breakthrough at B ellcore. 
"We're working on a commercial optical 
system," says Willenbring, "and the use 
of a micro laser array is certainly a more 
advanced approach." It is possible that 
Bellcore's laser array will show up in a 
commercial product from MCC within 
the next few years. 

— Nick Bar an 

SPARC Is Turning into a Blaze 

I t's not the rabbit-like proliferation of 

DOS machines that IBM spawned 
with its PC, but this year will bring a 
substantial increase in the number of 
Unix systems based on Sun's SPARC 
architecture. At least 10 companies ex- 
hibited SPARC machines at the recent 
Comdex, and at least 10 more compa- 
nies have SPARC machines in the 
works. These RISC computers will be 
compatible with Sun's Sparcstation 1 or 
1+, but they will vary in price and per- 

Many of these systems will be based 
around the Sparkit chip set and proces- 
sor from LSI Logic. CompuAdd, 

Hyundai, Tatung, and RDI/TriGem 
expect to ship new desktop and laptop 
models soon. These systems will all be 
compatible with Sun's Sparcstation 1 
and will be able to run DOS applica- 
tions using Insignia Solutions' Soft-PC 
emulator. Some of the other companies 
planning to build computers around LSI 
Logic's chips include Northgate, 
Chicony Electronics, DCM Data 
Products, DTK Computer, Intelecsis, 
Sampo, and Twinhead. Opus, whose 
earlier RISC system was based on 
Motorola's 88000 chip, has moved to 
LSI Logic's SPARC CPU for its newest 
Unix workstation, as well as for an add- 

20 BYTE • JANUARY 1991 


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Neatest trick of the month? Trans- 
computer (Sunnyvale, CA) has 
shown a 50-MHz 486 running on a 
25-MHz 386 board. (The company's 
main product is a module that lets an 
Intel 486 run in a 386 system.) To 
get the 50-MHz speed, Transcom- 
puter is using a 25-MHz 486 
speeded up to 50 MHz with the help 
of a Velox Ice Cap refrigeration 
module. The current 486-PX 
module, which runs at the same 
speed as the motherboard, is a $486 
PC board about 2 inches square with 
pins to plug into a 386 socket on the 
bottom and a 144-pin socket to take 
a 486 on the top. The logic and other 
chips needed to do the conversion 
are buried in a layer of epoxy. 
According to George Zweif ler, vice 
president of sales and marketing at 
Transcomputer, the setup has run re- 
liably in their tests. Zweif ler admits 
the 50-MHz 486 is mostly an 
attention-getting device. 

JYACC (New York City), maker of 
the JAM application development 
environment, plans to ship a Motif- 
based development tool sometime 
this quarter. The not-yet-named 
software will let you construct Motif 
interfaces and access underlying X 
widgets, but you will also be able to 
compile applications down to 
character mode. JYACC says the 
software will permit "seamless 
integration" to multiple databases; 
the current JAM product accesses 
Sybase, Oracle, Ingres, and Rdb. 
Later this year, JYACC plans to 
release versions of the tool for Open 
Look and Microsoft Windows. 

Edsun Labs (Waltham, MA) is 
going to incorporate the Speedo 
font-scaling technology of type 
house Bitstream (Cambridge, MA) 
into its Continuous Edge Graphics 
chip (see the October 1990 Micro- 
bytes). The CEG chip is designed to 
plug into a VGA board and sharpen 
the images on the screen. With 
Bitstream' s Speedo, the chip will be 
able to scale outline fonts for display 
and printing. The CEG chip will 
process Speedo-produced bit maps. 
The two companies are also working 
on an OEM version of FaceLift, 
Bitstream' s commercial package for 
generating scalable type within 
Windows applications. 

in board that turns an AT into a SPARC 

One of the most unusual SPARC ma- 
chines slated to arrive this year is a 
portable designed by Research, Devel- 
opment & Innovations (San Diego, CA), 
and manufactured by Korean giant 
TriGem. In addition to being a Unix 
system, the 12-pound BriteLite also 
runs Macintosh software. 

"We emulate 68030 Macintosh 
software calls in a SPARC environment 
purely in software," making no use of 
Macintosh ROMs, RDI president Rick 
Schrameck said. "Any I/O port call is 
done as if it's SPARC because we want 
to keep the speed up in there. . . . We 
make no calls the way the Mac does 
internally; we can't, because our I/O is 
totally different." The company also 
emulates the Mac ROMs in software, he 
said. RDI has not run into any incom- 
patibilities yet, but some may exist with 
more hardware-dependent things like 
32-bit software, Schrameck conceded. 
No one has yet managed to legally 
emulate the Mac except by using 
original Mac ROMs. 

Schrameck said the system takes "a 
performance hit from 15.8 to 2.5 MIPS 
to do the emulation," which he said is 
better than with a plain Mac. The 
BriteLite can also run DOS software 
using Insignia Solutions' SoftPC. 

Solbourne, the company that built the 
first SPARC clone and designed its own 
processor, recently brought out a new 
model. Toshiba has designed a SPARC 
laptop around its own chips. One of the 
most unusual (and expensive) systems is 

coming from Meiko World, which is de- 
veloping multiprocessing computers 
that can use any combination of 
SPARC, Intel i860, and Inmos T800 
transputer chips. Several other compa- 
nies have announced SPARC com- 
patibles, including Mars, Solarix, and 
ICL — raising the number of SPARC 
doners to at least three times what it 
was six months ago. 

One major test of a SPARC system is 
whether it can pass SPARC 
International's SPARC Compliance 
Definition. SCD 1.0 is based on 
complete compatibility with the Sun 
Sparcstation 1. Some of the systems that 
have passed so far include the Sol- 
bourne S4000, the Mars Mariner 4i, and 
Tatung's color workstation, which was 
unwrapped at Comdex. Many of the 
other systems haven't passed yet 
because they're still in an early stage of 
development, said SPARC International 
president Bob Duncan. He expects that 
most SPARC clones will eventually be 
SCD-compliant. "It will not be long 
before an end user won't buy a system 
that doesn't have the compliance label 
on it," he added. 

This wave of new SPARC adoptees 
could help establish SPARC as a 
standard architecture for Unix worksta- 
tions. It's not just the numbers; the list 
of SPARC doners includes companies 
from all over the globe. "What we see 
now in the SPARC market is a move- 
ment in reality from a proprietary 
architecture ... to an open architec- 
ture," Duncan said. 

— Owen Linderholm and Larry Loeb 

Chips' Chip Breaks High Cost of Video Windows 

At least one component of 
multimedia computing will soon 
drop in price. Chips & Technologies 
(San Jose, CA) has developed an IC that 
will drastically cut the cost of hardware 
for displaying windows of live, motion 
video on a computer screen. Companies 
adopting this new $40 chip will be able 
to build video windowing boards for 
about $150 instead of $500, C&T 
officials say. That means users will be 
paying in the neighborhood of $500 to 
$800 to get capabilities that now cost 
more than $2000. A C&T engineer said 
that the chip replaces about $300 worth 
of gate arrays and other devices. 

C&T's new PC Video chip incorpo- 
rates all the logic for taking a digitized 
image, putting it in a window, and 
controlling its size, shape, and 
location."We have integrated the logic 

of a two-board device down to a single 
chip on a half -size card," said Steve 
Chen, vice president of C&T's Media 
Group. This one piece of silicon does 
the scan rate conversion, input cropping 
and scaling, memory timing, windows 
management, frame buffering, color 
keying, and other operations that require 
additional circuitry on current products. 
A board using the chip would also need 
a digitizing chip set, memory, and 
assorted logic. 

One thing missing is a compression 
chip, which Chen said C&T is "working 
on." He wouldn't commit to a delivery 
date, but he suggested that it would be 
sometime in the first half of this year. 

The prototype board that C&T dem- 
onstrated was able to take incoming live 
video (from a video camera), digitize it 
on the fly at 1 6-bit resolution, and then 

24 BYTE • JANUARY 1991 

The IBM PS/2 can 
really get apresentatj^ft 


Announcing Audiovisual 

adrenaline: full-motion 

Video For The PS/2. 

If one picture is worth a thousand 
words, consider the impact of thirty pic- 
tures per second. That's the inspiration 
behind the IBM® PS/2 M-Motion Video 
Adapter/A!" It lets you import full- 

overlaying graphics, narration, 
even an electronic order form. 

Sound Is Also Part 
Of The Picture. 

The M- Motion adapter is a 
highly capable audio facility, too. 
You can capture sound and music, 
live or recorded, then mix and 

iffer 1 



motion, full- color video 

from a variety of video 

sources, and show it on 

your Personal System/2® 

display screen. A remarkable achievement, 

but it's only the beginning. 

The Stopping Power Of A 
Moving Image. 

Once its on the PS/2® screen, your full-motion video 
image is as versatile as any other multimedia visual. You can 
window it, overlay text and computer graphics on it, and 
control the color, brightness, size and screen location. 

With M-Motion video, the impact of any TV image, from 
news footage to a rap video, can be part of your multimedia 
presentation. You can use a wide variety of video sources: 
NTSC or PAL, videodisk, live camera or any VCR. Imagine a 
sports training program that queries an athlete about his 
recent performance, then shows him the appropriate workout 
sequence from a videodisk library. Or a new product presenta- 
tion that combines videotape of your product in use, plus text, 

synchronize it with your visuals, 
all without stepping away from 
your desk. 

About Itself, Itself. 

The IBM M-Motion Video Adapter/A, like the entire family of 
PS/2 MultiMedia products, is superbly qualified to tell you 
about itself in text, graphics, animation, music and sound. For 
a free videocassette demonstration, and the name of an IBM 
Authorized Dealer near you, call 1 800 255-0426, ext. 131. 

How re you 
going to do it? 
PS/2 it! 

y mktuLa<.t-- rr _. 



r 'l&fcis! 

IBM, Personal System/2 and PS/2 ate registered trademarks and M-Motion Video Adapter/A is a trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. © 1990 IBM Corp. 
While PS/2 MultiMedia products do deliver a level of visual and aura I excitement that defies description on the printed page, our lawyers have asked us to remind you that your PS/2 will not actually become airborne. 

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In. I. . LI, I. nl. III.. ,1,1... I, ,111. ..I. Lull, I 

more power than you're used to. 

ware and business applications you already 1-800-548-4725 and ask for "The 486 Micro- 
own, so you won't spend any extra time or processor Means Business" brochure, 
money on training. 

The 486 PC. Plug it in and start shock- 
ing the corporate world. 

For additional information, call The Computer Inside.™ 

486 is a trademark of Intel Corporation. 


Circle 147 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 148) 



Lotus hopes to buy its way into the 
world of Windows word processing 
by acquiring Samna (Atlanta), de- 
veloper of the Ami programs. Lotus 
has no Windows applications yet; 
Samna has what's considered one of 
the best. Samna founder Said Mo- 
hammadioun was championing 
Windows back when it was the 
Rodney Dangerfield of windowing 
environments, shipping Ami in 
1988. Underthe terms of the 
proposed "definitive merger agree- 
ment," Lotus will pay approximately 
$65 million (or $18.84 per share of 
Samna common stock) to acquire 

Apple Computer (Cupertino, CA) 
has switched on a toll-free telephone 
line to help "solve customer 
problems." The new phone service, 
available weekdays from 6 a.m. to 5 
p.m. Pacific time, "is not designed to 
be a technical support hotline, but 
instead, is an extension to the com- 
prehensive Apple customer relations 
effort," the company said. The new 
Customer Assistance Center "solves 
the problem of people being unable 
to get satisfaction from their dealer," 
Apple spokesperson John Cook said. 
The number is (800) 776-2333. 

Multimedia pioneer MacroMind 
(San Francisco) plans to bring out 
software that allows OS/2 users to 
"play back" presentations produced 
with the company's Director 
program. Right now, Director users 
can run Director presentations on a 
Macintosh or on a PC running 
Windows 3.0. Director is a Mac- 
based software package for integrat- 
ing video, audio, still images, and 
other media. Plans call for player 
software for Unix platforms and for 
the Commodore Amiga. 

Nice toys, eh? DEC founder Ken 
Olsen once scorned personal 

computers as "toys," but now DEC 
is coming out with a multiprocessing 
server system based on Intel 486 
CPUs. The oddly named application 
DEC 433MP is designed to run SCO 
Unix with multiprocessing exten- 
sions, but there's no reason it 
couldn't use versions of NetWare or 
OS/2 LAN Manager in uniprocessor 
mode or when they support multi- 
processing in the future. 

smoothly scale and move it on the VGA 
screen. The card was pumping out the 
full-color moving video at 30 frames 
per second, C&T officials said. A PC 
Video board can put up multiple 
windows of various sizes, but only one 
window can be running motion video; if 
you want to have moving images in 
several windows, you can daisy chain 
the boards. 

The chip can position a window 
anywhere on a screen, tied to an x,y 
coordinate or keyed to a particular 
color. A board using PC Video supports 
input formats such as NTSC, PAL, 
RGB, and SVHS, meaning that it can 
take images from common devices such 
as TVs, VCRs, video cameras, and laser 
disk players; input resolutions of up to 

1024 by 512 pixels; and interlaced and 
noninterlaced outputs. PC Video can 
scale images in one-sixty-fourth 
increments, so you can have a picture as 
small as a postage stamp or as large as 
the full screen, rather than being limited 
to quarter-, half-, or full-screen video. 
Chen said the company is "getting a 
lot of calls" from manufacturers 
interested in putting PC Video on their 
boards. The first product built around 
the chip will come from New Media 
Graphics (Billerica, MA), whose Super 
VideoWindows digital video board will 
sell for $695. Comparable products, 
such as IBM's M-Motion Video and 
VideoLogic's DVA-4000 boards, cost at 
least three times that. 

— D. Barker 

In Focus Puts New Twist on Color LCDs 

In Focus Systems (Tualatin, OR) will 
soon start offering monitors incorpo- 
rating its patented passive-matrix LCD 
technology. Although active-matrix 
displays are considered the color display 
technology of future computers, 
particularly laptops, In Focus says its 
"subtractive" approach to the older 
passive-matrix technology delivers 
better-looking color LCDs today. 
Companies pioneering active-matrix 
color displays, such as Sharp and the 
IBM/Toshiba joint venture, are still 
perfecting their designs and manufactur- 
ing processes, and their costs are much 

In Focus's triple-supertwist-nematic 
(TSTN) LCD is based on three LCD 
panels — one cyan, one magenta, and 
one yellow — aligned and stacked 
together. When all pixels are off, the 
backlight shines through to produce 
white on the screen. As the .33-mm 
square pixels are turned on (darkened), 
they subtract different portions of cyan, 
magenta, or yellow from the white light 
to get other colors. In Focus says this 
produces sharper images and deeper 
colors. The new display demonstrated 
by In Focus appeared bright, viewable 
from all angles, and rich in color. The 
designers say that the color quality is 
partially due to each TSTN pixel being 
a single, fully saturated color. 

The company's new monitors, com- 
patible with IBM PC and Macintosh 
systems, are capable of displaying up to 
4913 colors at a resolution of 640 by 
480 pixels. There are two models, both 
with 10 l /2-inch diagonal screens: One 
displays up to 4913 colors; the other, 64 
colors. The display technology used is 

based on that in In Focus's color 
overhead projector panels. 

One advantage to this technique is 
that the displays are easy to manufac- 
ture, in quantity, using off-the-shelf 


True colors 




parts. They also don't bring the low- 
yield problems associated with active- 
matrix LCDs, says In Focus founder 
Steve Hix. Part of the problem, Hix 
says, is that each active-matrix panel 
incorporates a million interconnects; if 
one fails, you get a dead pixel on the 
screen. Another benefit of these 
monitors over regular CRTs is that they 
emit no extremely low frequency 
electromagnetic radiation, Hix said. 

One disadvantage of TSTN is its slow 
response to moving video images. The 
response time of the display is between 
200 and 250 ms. In Focus hopes to have 
reduced that to about 80 ms by the end 
of next year, a speed good enough to 
handle moving screen images. Also, the 

28 BYTE • JANUARY 1991 

Now you can 

use the incredible 

power of Windows 3.0 

to goof off 

a File Edit Formula Format Data Options Macro Window 

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Tetria for Windows 

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The New Microsoff Entertainment 
Pack for Windows™ gives you seven spiffy 
games. Each one designed for pure, unproduc- 
tive fun. And all accessible in seconds from 
any other Windows product. 

Which means you can go right from 
juggling numbers, to juggling 
those funny little blocks in 
TETRIS.™ Another click of the 
mouse, and you can go from 
typing a letter to testing your 
nerves on Minesweeper. Or 
honingyourskills onTicTactics. 

Or becoming seriously addicted to one of two 
new kinds of solitaire. 

Equally entertaining is IdleWild, the 
screensaver with seven radical selections. From 
a race through space, to a pattern that slices, 
dices, and scrambles your screen. 

Nowget to work. Call us at (800) 541-1261, 
Dept. Pll, and ask us all about the Entertain- 
ment Pack. We'll do our best to give you a com- 
pletely frivolous answer. 


Making it all make sense" 

? information, call (800) 541-1261, Debt. Pll. Customers in Canada, call (416) 673-7638. Outside North /bncrica, call (206) 936-8661. ©1990 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft and the Microsoft logo are registered trademarks and Making it all 
use and Windows are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. TETRIS h a trmiemark of V/O Eicctronorgtechnica (Elorg). Ml Rights Reserved. If you've read alt the way to this sentence, you obviously have enough spare time to really enjoy the Entertainment Pack. 

What does Compaq give 386 users 
who ex ect the moon? 

Giving demanding users 
the best PC possible is a 
tradition at Compaq. 
A tradition we upheld 
when we introduced the 
world's first PCs based 
on Intel's 386 and 386SX 
microprocessors. And a 
tradition that continues in 
our comprehensive line of 
desktop PCs. 

Within this line you'll find six different levels of 
386 performance and affordability. And a PC designed 
to give you the perfect balance of features and power. 
You'll find the reliability and compatibility you've 
come to expect from Compaq. Plus the flexibility to 
choose from a wide array of optional features. 

You'll also find an Authorized COMPAQ Computer 
Dealer, who's trained to match the right peripherals 
and software with the right PC. And to tailor a solution 
to your exact needs. All at prices that are more 
| competitive than ever. 

Come look at the COMPAQ 
| DESKPRO 386N Personal Computer, 
for example. It's a full-function PC 

with breakthrough 
features for networked 
environments. As a 
stand-alone PC, its 
16-MHz 386SX 
handles all of the 
general business 
applications our 
other 386SX-based PCs 
run. With so many integrated features, you can take care 
of your expansion needs using only two slots. 

And it comes with a host of unique network 
features like multilevel security, making it the best 
full-function PC for connected environments. All of 
this fits neatly into a space-saving design. 

Personal Computer is also designed 
to handle general business 
applications. Its 16-MHz 386SX 
microprocessor gives you exceptional 386 
performance. And its 32-bit architecture lets you 
run today's popular business software. It also 
offers the flexibility to run tomorrow's advanced 
business software. 

COMPAQ, DESKPRO, Registered U.S. Palent and Trademark Office. Product names mentioned herein may be trademarks and/or registered trademarks o( other companies. ©I!)9D Compaq Computer Corporation. All rights reserved. 



and other 

users will find everything they need 
to manage databases and speed through complex 
spreadsheets in the COMPAQ 
DESKPRO 386S/20 Personal 
Computer. It delivers the maximum 
in 20-MHz 386SX performance and 
a broad range of integrated features. 

The COMPAQ DESKPRO 386/20e Personal 
Computer is for experienced users. It's perfect for 
demanding applications like presentation graphics. 
And it's loaded with high- 
performance features like an 
advanced cache architecture. 
So it runs up to 50% faster than 
other 20-MHz, non-cached 386-based PCs. 

For users doing similar jobs, but with more 
stringent performance needs, we offer the COMPAQ 
DESKPRO 386/25e Personal Computer. Its 25-MHz 
32-bit performance lets you fly through financial 
analysis as well as other demanding applications. 

It's the perfect 
computer for 
people who 
are serious 
number crunchers, administrators 
who manage massive loads of 
information and engineers who 
work on generating complex two- 
dimensional CAD drawings. 

At the most demanding level of 386 computing are 
the power users who do graphic-intensive applications 
like 3-D CAD drawings and other performance- 
intensive applications. These people need the kind of 
high performance that the COMPAQ DESKPRO 386/33L 
Personal Computer delivers. It 
combines the fastest 386 chip 
with high-performance innovations. 
And it lets you easily upgrade to the 
power and performance of a 486 chip. 

If you're looking for the 386 desktop PC that simply 
works better for whatever you do, call 1-800-231-0900, 
Operator 129. In Canada, call 1-800-263-5868, Operator 129. 


It simply works better. 



RIP Z-1000: Zenith Data Systems 

(Mount Prospect, IL) has abandoned 
its plans to sell a multiprocessing 
Unix system. The company an- 
nounced the Z-1000 well over a year 
ago but has now decided to leave the 
multiprocessing business to its parent 
company, Groupe Bull. 

Hercules takes RISC: Hercules 
Computer Technology (Berkeley, 
CA), known primarily for its PC 
monochrome cards, has teamed up 
with AQuest (Santa Clara, CA) to 
develop graphics cards using Intel's 
i860 64-bit RISC processor. 

The U.S. government has virtually 
eliminated controls on the export of 
certain high-speed computers to the 
Soviet Union. Under the latest rec- 
ommendations being considered by 
COCOM (the Coordinating Commit- 
tee for Multilateral Export Controls), 
most personal computers based on 
the Intel 486, as well as many 
graphics workstations, could be 
exported to the Eastern Bloc. 

AT&T's Unix System Laboratories 

is opening a center in Summit, NJ, 
where software vendors can certify 
System V release 4 applications on 
various hardware platforms, includ- 
ing Intel, MIPS, Motorola, and 

Looking for scientific information 

from Japan? The National Science 
Foundation (Washington, DC) is 
now offering free searches of Japan's 
National Science Center for Science 
Information System (NACSIS). The 
database contains information on 
research activities funded by the 
Ministry of Education, Science, and 
Culture, as well as development at 
universities. American knowledge 
seekers can request a search by 
phoning the NACSIS operator, 
between 1 and 4 p.m. (EDT), at 
(202) 357-7278. 

Virtual book: Harcourt Brace 
Jovanovich (New York) plans to 
publish a book next year on virtual 
reality cowritten by one of its 
foremost explorers, Jaron Lanier. 
Lanier, founder of VPL Research, 
was paid a six-figure advance for the 
manuscript on "alternative sensory 
realities," the publisher said. 

monitors require a 50-watt direct 
backlight rather than the diffuse 
backlight used in most portables today; 
the new cold cathode backlights aren't 
direct enough to work with the In Focus 
displays, which means that the displays 
currently use a lot of power. 

In Focus has licensed its TSTN 
technology to an unnamed U.S. laptop 
manufacturer for products that are 
expected to appear in late 1991. Hix 
said the company will have a high- 
resolution color display later this year. 
— Owen Linderholm 

Telecommuting Gets Boost from Industry, Feds 

Representatives of industry and 
government have united to 
promote the concept of telecom- 
muting — people doing their work at 
remote sites such as home, for example, 
with the assistance of computers and 
telecommunications. The new organiza- 
tion, Telecommuting Solutions for 
America (Washington, DC), hopes to 
help implement ideas and technical 
standards for telecommuting. 

TSA founder Rich Thoma says tele- 
commuting improves the quality of life, 
is better for the environment, and in- 
creases productivity. "We're not talking 
about a futuristic dream," he said. "The 
technology exists for companies and 
government agencies to establish 
significant telecommuting programs 
today." The Environmental Protection 
Agency estimates that if 5 percent of 
Los Angeles commuters telecommuted 
one day per week, it would eliminate 
47,000 tons of pollutants and 205 
million miles of travel annually. 

Link Resources, a research firm, says 

that over three million Americans spend 
35 or more hours a week working from 
home, and some 22 million work partly 
from home or from satellite locations. 
According to Jeff Garbers, director of 
development at Crosstalk Communica- 
tions, a telecommunications software 
maker, this is now possible because all 
the factors have "started coming 
together on a widespread basis: cost- 
effective personal computers, easy-to- 
use communications products, and 
reliable and inexpensive services." 
The federal government is repre- 
sented in the group by the EPA, the De- 
partment of Transportation, the Office 
of Personnel Management, and the 
General Services Administration. Each 
agency has pledged to encourage tele- 
commuting both for its own employees 
and as public policy. Companies that 
support the new organization include 
MCI, Tigon (a subsidiary of Ameritech 
Corp.), U.S. Sprint, Novell, Hewlett- 
Packard, and Northern Telecom. 

— Allan Davidson and Jan Ziff 

Superfloppy Drive Will Work with Regular Disks 

The first very high-density floppy 
disk drive to work with regular 
floppy disks is scheduled to arrive this 
month. Insite Peripherals (San Jose, 
CA) plans to start shipping limited 
quantities of its Floptical disk subsys- 
tem, which can store 20.8 MB on Sc- 
inch floppy disks. But the drive can also 
read and write 720K-byte and 1.44-MB 
floppy disks, the company said. 

Insite's Floptical disk drive uses 
embedded optical tracks and a closed- 
loop servo motor to dramatically 
increase the storage capacity of a 
magnetic floppy disk. Because it can 

both read from and write to 720K-byte 
and 1 .44-MB media, it could become a 
standard A drive without making the 
installed base of drives and disks 

The drive offers an average seek time 
of 65 ms and a data transfer rate from 
the Floptical disk drive of 1.6 MBps, 
Insite says. When operating on older 
media, the transfer rate drops to 600 
Kbpsor 1.2 MBps. 

Volume production is planned for 
April 1991, the company said. The 
OEM price is $325. 

— Andy Reinhardt 

MAKE THE NEWS IN '91 . If you, your company, or your research group is 
working on a new technology or developing products that will significantly affect 
the world of microcomputing, we'd like to write about it. Phone the BYTE news 
department at (603) 924-9281. Or send a fax to (603) 924-2552. Or write to us at 
One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 03458. Or send E-mail to "microbytes " 
on BIX or to "BYTE" on MCI Mail. An electronic version of Microbytes, offering a 
wider variety of computer -related news on a daily basis, is available on BIX. 

32 BYTE • JANUARY 1991 



J .J I 






"You've got a friend in the business.' 

People the World Over 


Everywhere you look these days you'll find 
Gateway 2000 computers. That's because people 
, ft0 o ctf'"p«fen-/> /g//fa everywhere know a good 

% one. In all 50 
l states and in over 
{ \ 70 foreign 
| countries, 
, * thousands of 
r people are compar- 
ing price, quality and 
service -and .choosing 
Gateway 2000. 

In Gothenburg, Sweden 

Anders Bjernefors, a computer dealer and 
programmer, bought a Gateway 2000 25 MHz 486 
~~ system last April. "After many 

faxes and a lot of study, I selected 
Gateway 2000," said Anders. 
"I'm pleased with the machine. 
I received a very powerful, 
I well-built computer for an 

Hjernefors, Computer Link . , . , , . ., 

ft* Gateway 2000 25 MHz astonishingly low price. 

Anders was so impressed by 
his system and by the people at Gateway that he 
contacted the company about becoming a Gateway 
2000 reseller. "I telephoned my salesman," Anders 
remembered, "and he told me I'd have to visit the 
factory to make the arrangements. I was on the next 
plane out of Goteborg on my way to North Sioux City, 
South Dakota." 

In Worland, Wyoming 

Bob Borst, owner and operator of Cloud Peak Pest 
Control in Worland, spent two and a half months 

researching his 



. B purchase. He 
]h chose a Gateway 
* 2000 386SX. 
"My final 

Bob Borst, owner and operator of Cloud Peak 
Pest Control, and his Gateway 2000 386SX. 

decision was 

based on people, not hardware," said Bob. "The 
Gateway people make you feel like you're the most 
important person in the world. I didn't buy a 
computer - 1 bought Gateway." 

Bob was equally impressed by Gateway's service 
people. "One time I got into a file and couldn't get 
out of it," Bob related. "Even though it was a 
software problem, I called Gateway and they talked 
me through it." 

In Socorro, New Mexico 

Gordon Kane, Laboratory Associate at New 
Mexico Tech, runs a computer lab with 15 Gateway 
2000 286 systems. "At first we bought Gateway's 
because of the good prices," said Gordon. "But now I 
buy them because of the technical support, which is 
very superior, and because the company is committed 
to improving its product line." 

NMT also uses 
Gateway computers 
in its research 
programs. "A 
Gateway 386 cache 

-■&**£**' -; J , fjj 


j£":;.;l; , 




system will be used 

Gordon Kane, New Mexico Tech, 
Gateway 2000 286 lab computers. 

Choose Gateway 2000! 

at Kennedy Space Center next summer, 1 ' said Gordon, "We can't run that ad anymore," continued Ted, 

. "as part of a large program of thunderstorm studies grinning, "because we built a new plant 14 miles 

being conducted there by NASA and the Air Force. " ^ down the road in South Dakota. But the cows 

PC Magazine's survey about service and reliability ^/ . j ; i 

confirms what these customers are saying: ^r 

"Gateway shared top hilling with such heavy- '-v - i ' 
I weights as Compaq, IBM, and HP for 
those who would buy their products 
again. ..Overall, Gateway's high marks 
AZ1NEI bode well for the company's future, as Gateway's success. "We take a long-term 

does its commitment to customer service." approach to customer service." he said. 

PC Magazine Ufe ^ computer Mm{ ^ "When you buy a computer from 

September 25, 1 990 longevity should be measured in Gateway 2000, you become part 

do g years." of our family and we're going to be 

"We can't run that ad anymore," continued Ted, 
grinning, "because we built a new plant 14 miles 
A down the road in South Dakota. But the cows 
really worked for us. They made the phones 
i, ring. From then on, though, we built 

^ our business on value - good prices 
'■'I r^S^ on quality systems with old- 
X$|j> fashioned, personal service." 
^^x Ted mentioned another reason for 
Gateway's success. "We take a long-term 

From the Heartland 

The combination of price, quality and service 
makes Gateway 2000 the best value in the industry. 
But value alone doesn't explain how a little company 
in the Midwest, just celebrating its fifth anniversary, 

there for you as long as you own that machine. 
As Ted talked about the company's fifth 
anniversary, he laughed again. "In the computer 
industry, longevity should be measured in dog years," 
he chuckled, "because every- 

managed to outdistance hundreds of other companies, thing's moving so fast. That 

selling more systems through the direct market 
channel than any other PC manufacturer in the 










30,000 - 


10,000 — 

ket makes Gateway 35 years old! 

he But seriously, we've come a long 

itry. way in five years. And I owe 

It was the it all to the great people at 

laughed Ted 

Gateway and to our customers." weway 2000 

you 7// the cows come home. 

When you add it all up, 

1988 1989 1990 
4,000- -25,000- -100,000- 

date way 2000 sells more computers through the 
direct market channel than any other PC 
manufacturer in the country. 

Waitt, you'll understand why you've got a friend in the 

Gateway 2000 business at Gateway 2000. 

President and 

CEO. "Of I 

Computer magazine readers will remember the 
company's early ads featured a picture of the Waitt 
cattle farm with the headline, "Computers from Iowa?" 

You ve got a friend in the busine.s 

8 0-523-2000 

610 Gateway Drive • N. Sioux City, SD 57049 • 605-232-2000 ■ Fax 605-232-2023 


12MHZ 286VGA 

80286-12 Processor 


1.2 MB 5.25" Drive x 

1.44 MB 3.5" Drive 

40 MB 17ms IDE Drive 

with 32K Cache 


14" 1024x768 Color Monitor 

1 Parallel/2 Serial Ports 

101 Key Keyboard 

MS DOS 3.3 or 4.01 



■ 4 MB RAM 
1.2 MB 5.25" Drive 
1.44 MB 3.5" Drive 

: 140 MB 17ms IDE Drive" 
with 32K Cache 

■ 16 Bit VGA with 5 12K 

14" 1024x768 Color Monitor 

■ 1 Parallel/2 Serial Ports 
101 Key Key board 
MS DOS 3.3 or 4.01 


25MHZ 386VGA 


1.2 MB 5.25" Drive 

1.44 MB 3.5" Drive 

80 MB 17ms IDE Drive 

with 32K Cache 

16BitVGAwith 1 MB 

14" 1024x768 Color Monitor 

1 Parallel/2 Serial Ports 

101 Key Keyboard 

MS DOS 3.3 or 4.01 



25MHZ 386CACHEM 1 33MHZ 386VGA 


64K Cache RAM 


1.2 MB 5.25" Drive 

1.44 MB 3.5" Drive 

80 MB 17ms IDE Drive 

with 32K Cache 

16BitVGAwith 1 MB 

14" 1024x768 Color Monitor 

1 Parallel/2 Serial Ports 

101 Key Key board 

MS DOS 3.3 or 4.01 



64K Cache RAM 


1.2 MB 5.25" Drive 

1.44 MB 3.5" Drive 

200 MB 15ms IDE Drive 

with 64K Multi-Segmented Cache 

16 Bit VGA with 1MB 

14" 1024x768 Color Monitor 
II Parallel/2 Serial Ports j 

101 Key Keyboard 
I MS DOS 3.3 or 4.01 



25MHZ 486V G A 

64K Cache RAM 
1.2 MB 5.25" Drive 
1.44 MB 3.5" Drive 
200 MB 15ms IDE Drive 
with 64K Multi-Segmented Cache 
16 Bit VGA with 1MB 
14" 1024x768 Color Monitor 
I 1 Parallel/2 Serial Ports 
101 Key Keyboard 
MS DOS 3.3 or 4.01 



Same features as our 33 MHz 
386 VGA system except this 
machine has an 80 MB 17ms 
IDE Drive instead of the 200 
MB 15ms IDE Drive. 



• Microsoft® WINDOWS™ and Mouse with all 386 and 486 systems 

• 30-day money-back guarantee 

• One-year warranty on parts and labor 

• New leasing options now available 

• Toll-free technical support for the life of the machine 

• Free on-site service to most locations in the nation 

• Free overnight shipment of replacement parts 

• Free bulletin board technical support 

If our standard configurations don't fit your needs, we'll be happy to custom configure a system just for you. 
Due to the volatility of the DKAM market, all prices are subject to change. 

8 0-523-2000 

610 Gateway Drive • N. Sioux City, SD 57049 • 605-232-2000 • Fax 605-232-2023 


and Ask BYTE 

Object Orientations 

I just read Brad J. Cox's stimulating arti- 
cle "There Is a Silver Bullet" (October 
1990). His analysis hits the software cri- 
sis dead center. 

It is interesting to note the resistance of 
typical programmers to creating modu- 
lar systems, as well as to investing the ef- 
fort in making modules and programs 
user-friendly. Commercial software is 
certainly making strides toward being 
user-friendly (but not toward modular- 
ity). Programmers still appear to think 
that it is unprofessional to make their 
work accessible to users, much less to 
other professionals. This appears to be 
true even of those programmers who 
create modules for their own use. 

The modular approach is certain to be 
attacked by programmers as demeaning 
by changing a highly skilled occupation 
into one that merely produces useful ob- 
jects. However, the definition of useful 
objects, of collections of useful objects, 
and of hierarchies of useful objects is a 
higher-level and more difficult skill than 

Chris E. Kuyatt 
Sandy Spring, MD 

I fear that Christopher M . Stone and Da- 
vid Hentchel reflect their lack of experi- 
ence in the banking industry when they 
argue that the object-oriented approach 
is not the right thing for bank accounts 
("Database Wars Revisited," October 
1990). After spending many years lead- 
ing software development efforts for 
large banking systems, I can assure you 
that there is almost no area in computing 
that can benefit as much as banking ap- 

Why? Because the central profitability 
issue for a bank is being quick to market 
with new products (e.g., a new type of 
bank account). New accounts are clones 
of old ones with minor modifications. 
Take 10 COBOL programmers and six 
months using traditional technology to 
implement a new product, and you can 
find yourself clobbered by competitors 
who have grabbed your market share. 

Yet, in a few weeks, using inheritance 
as an example, a new account type can be 
up and running and fully tested. No 
competitor can beat this using conven- 
tional technology. 

In addition, version testing is extreme- 

There Is 

a Silver Bullet 

A software i/uiustrial revolution basal on retouMe 
ml imerdvmgealifi' parts will alter the iafftvare un/im 

ly useful to a bank. New products must 
be tested against a clone of a real data- 
base to look at profit-margin effects. 
Using conventional technology requires 
setting up a completely independent test 
database, which involves a lot of time and 
expense. By the time you are done, you 
always get somewhat ambiguous results, 
because a real production database is far 
too large and time-sensitive to accurately 

With version testing, the marketing 
department can run as-if scenarios 
against the real database and throw away 
the test versions after the results have 
been analyzed, all without affecting pro- 

The authors are correct in assuming 
that someone should not be able to check 
out an account using optimistic locking, 
allowing someone else to update it while 
it is in use. However, using object-server 

double-space your letter on one side of the 
page and include your name and address. 
Letters two pages in length or under have a 
better chance of being published in their en- 
tirety. Address correspondence to Letters 
Editor, BYTE, One Phoenix Mill Lane, Pe- 
terborough, NH 03458. You can also send let- 
ters via BlXmailc/o u editors. " 

Your letter will be read, but because of the 
large volume of mail we receive, we cannot 
guarantee publication. We also reserve the 
right to edit letters. It takes about four months 
from the time we receive a letter until we pub- 
lish it. 

technology, at the bank where I work, we 
implemented pessimistic locking with 
transaction processing performance an 
order of magnitude faster than relational 
systems and three times faster than 
benchmark results from a number of the 
best hierarchical database management 

The auditors were ecstatic with object- 
server technology that could store meth- 
ods in the database. Using methods as 
triggers, they could submit encrypted 
rules to the bank that caused certain ac- 
counts or certain transactions to be mon- 
itored. The database would automati- 
cally generate encrypted reports to be 
returned to the auditors or, alternatively, 
send a mail message to the auditor that 
something suspicious was going on. 

The trigger approach is the most ad- 
vanced auditing scheme currently avail- 
able, because transactions can be moni- 
tored without the knowledge of the 
banking staff and completely indepen- 
dently of any COBOL application pro- 
grammer's code. Only the database de- 
signers know how the public/private key- 
encryption algorithms are generated, 
and even they can't crack the auditors' 
encrypted audit requests or the encrypted 
reports generated by the system. 

Jeffrey V. Sutherland 

President, Object Databases 

Cambridge, MA 

The Object Lessons section (State of the 
Art, October 1990) was excellent, and it 
contained enough technical information 
for me to sink my teeth into. 

I would like to comment, however, on 
a recurring theme in this sort of subject 
area. I like to call it the Evangelical 
Theme. Simply put, it refers to support- 
ers of some new concept (in this case, ob- 
ject-oriented programming) believing 
that their method is going to revolution- 
ize computing and that no one will use 
the old way ever again. I detected quite a 
bit of evangelism in some of the articles 
in this section. 

I am what one of your authors would 
call a synthesist. That basically means 
that I recognize the inescapable fact that 
no one system, technology, or method- 
ology is appropriate to all programs. For 
the most part, people do not write data 
acquisition software in Scheme, and 
they don't write database software in 

JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 33 


FORTRAN. Why? Because neither of 
those languages is appropriate to the task 
at hand. 

A similar argument applies to the 
present "objective" craze. Object-ori- 
ented languages and techniques are use- 
ful for modeling object-oriented prob- 
lems, like the manipulation of desktops 
or message-passing simulations. Does 
this mean that you can't use C++ to do 
numerical analysis? Of course not. But it 
does mean that C++ or Smalltalk or 
Xlisp may not be the appropriate tool for 
the job. 

I liked the way your articles gave Ob- 
jective-C equal time alongside C++. 
Many programmers think that Objec- 
tive-C is in some way better that C++, 
and the debate is still not over. 

Garrett A. Wollman 
South Burlington, VT 

I read BYTE because it goes into ad- 
vanced topics sufficiently to stretch my 
mind; the comprehensive object-oriented 
programming (OOP) material in your 
October issue puffed my mind up like a 

In spite of my reverence for Edward 
Yourdon's knowledge and ability com- 
pared to mine, I disagree with some of 
his comments in "Auld Lang Syne." I 
approach analysis and programming by 
looking for the tool that will do the best 
job for what I want to do. I won't use a 
pipe wrench to drive a nail (well , I will in 
an emergency), and I won't use a ham- 
mer to put in a screw. If OOP in one area 
does the job better, I'll use it; if it does 
not, I won't. Saying that structured pro- 
cedural programming is always right is 
as foolish as saying that OOP is always 
the answer. 

However, I do believe that 00 A (ob- 
ject-oriented analysis) is a very benefi- 
cial shift of paradigm. It forces us to be 
sure that we really understand the sys- 
tem. I can't design it if I don't understand 
what it does or how it does it. 

Your articles on OOP and OOA/OOD 
(object-oriented design) really helped 
me understand the subject better. 

Thomas J. McCarthy 
Indianapolis, IN 

More from the Summit 

The quote from Bill Gates ("BYTE Sum- 
mit," September 1990) saying that chaos 
"doesn't impact computers" absolutely 
flabbergasted me. That is the equivalent 
of saying that disease is irrelevant to the 
development and use of the microscope. 
If not for the invention of computers, 
chaos would be nothing more than the 
constant annoyance that, despite our 

"great" knowledge, seems to constantly 
foil the best computed predictions of 
mice-using people. Chaos is seeing the 
forest for the trees. 

We in medicine have been constantly 
confounded by the perceived imprecision 
of nature. Why do some people with vir- 
tually identical environments develop 
cancer? Why do some survive while 
others perish? 

Computers made the science of chaos 
possible. Computers are the microscope 
of the future. A science discovered on 
computers and that defines the universe 
certainly deserves more than a few gra- 
tuitous lines in BYTE's prediction of the 
future. Chaos theory is important to 
computing because it will yield ways to 
make computers do (not simulate) things 
of which we now just barely dream. 

Thank you, BYTE; you've been my 
companion for 15 years. I hope you'll be 
here for many more years to come. Con- 
gratulations on your birthday. 

Dr. Kenneth D. Hackmeyer 
Cleveland, OH 

The BYTE Summit is about the future, 
and, according to the "experts," the fu- 
ture is bright. Computers will be more 
powerful, cheaper, faster, smaller, and 
so much a part of our lives that we won't 
even notice them anymore. 

Come on, BYTE, tell us something we 
don't already know. You chose to talk 
with people involved with the industry 
for many years. Why didn't you ask 
those "experts" to take a look back and 
reflect on the impact of the work they 
have done? Better yet, why didn't you ask 
users about that impact or about what 
they would like to see in the future? That 
kind of feedback could be useful and 

Although it makes a cursory nod to so- 
cial issues, the BYTE Summit is mainly 
an ode to technological progress, by a 
bunch of insiders cheering themselves on 
to a bigger and better future. I can't be- 
lieve I read the whole thing. 

Sarah Brehm 
Madison, WI 

Recycling Rebuttal 

"To Refill or Not to Refill" (July 1990, 
p. 142) contained inaccurate statements 
and did not tell the whole story. 

As a result of the introduction of 
Canon laser printers and copiers that use 
a replaceable cartridge containing the 
drum and toner supply, an entire indus- 
try has sprung up since 1985 to recycle 
used Canon toner cartridges. There were 
problems in those early days, with most 
cartridge refillers using the "drill and 

fill" method. This simply meant drilling 
a hole in the cartridge, dumping out the 
old toner, and filling the cartridge with 
new toner. The results were not always 
satisfactory, and the industry obtained a 
bad reputation. 

"Drill and fill" was soon replaced by 
a remanuf acturing process that was a vast 
improvement; however, the problem of 
parts wearing out (particularly the opti- 
cal photo coupler [OPC] drum) was still 
an obstacle in consistently providing a 
quality product to the end user. 

About a year ago, new technology 
caused some dramatic changes. You 
stated that the life of the OPC is limited. 
This is true, especially as it relates to the 
original OEM drum. However, cartridge 
recyclers now have available to them a 
new "super drum" that allows a car- 
tridge to be recycled as many as 10 to 20 
times with no noticeable drum wear. 
There are also replacement corona wires, 
wiper blades, and related products to en- 
sure quality. Most cartridge recyclers 
indicate on the cartridge the date and/or 
the number of times a recycle is com- 
pleted in order to monitor the life of the 

Because most cartridge recyclers 
guarantee their product (many even 
guarantee a minimum number of refills), 
it is not necessary to require that the re- 
cycler return the exact cartridge you sent 
him, although most recyclers will work 
with you should you require that the orig- 
inal be returned. 

Regardless of what a manufacturer's 
service representative tells you, using a 
recycled cartridge will not void your 
warranty. Manufacturers' official policy 
[often] states that if a refilled cartridge 
causes any damage, the warranty won't 
cover repairs caused by that cartridge. 
There is no record of damage caused by 
properly recycled cartridges during the 
industry's five-year history. Properly re- 
cycled cartridges can cause no more 
damage than a brand-new cartridge. 
Most cartridge recyclers will provide a 
guarantee in the event that this should 

Cheryle White 

President, American Cartridge 

Recycling Association 

Miami, FL 

Alternative Operating Systems 

Thank you for your reviews of alternative 
operating systems to OS/2, Unix, and 
DOS extenders. However, I was very dis- 
appointed in Ben Smith's review of OS- 
9000 ("From a Tiny Kernel. . . ," Sep- 
tember 1990). There were no compar- 
isons of the size of the kernel, or of the 

34 BYTE • JANUARY 1991 

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Vermont Views can be 
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speed of doing common operations ver- 
sus QNX, Xenix, or Unix. No mention 
was made of the ability to install, re- 
move, or modify drivers without regen- 
erating the kernel. 

Also, Smith stated, "You probably 
won't be using OS-9000 for your com- 
mon PC applications. " Why not? The ar- 
ticle was supposed to be about alternative 
operating systems, right? 

Ramer W. Streed 
North Mankato, MN 

My article was not a review, so my intent 
was to give a brief description of an oper- 
ating system, not to compare operating 

To do what you are asking, we would 
need to develop an independent set of op- 
erating-system benchmarks that tested 
the common advanced features of each 
operating system. That's a task that I 
would suggest as a doctoral project for a 
Ph.D. in computer science. 

—Ben Smith 


Hyperion Huzzahs 

Once upon a time, there was a marvelous 
little machine called the Hyperion and a 
marvelous word processing program 
with it, called In: scribe. The program 
did all the basic things that most people 
want. It did not do a bunch of things that 
pretty sophisticated people want, but the 
trade-off was that the program was virtu- 
ally idiot-proof and took only a few min- 
utes to master. The secret was the use of 
softkeys that were displayed on-screen in 
a cascading sequence. It was a delight to 

Do you know of any program now 
available that uses this system? If so, I'd 
like to know where I can get it. The near- 
est I have come is Microsoft Word. Also, 
is Inscribe for the more advanced ver- 
sions of MS-DOS still commercially 
available anywhere? 

P. M. Pitfield 
Westmount, Quebec, Canada 

Ahh. . . another fan of the Hyperion. In 
tracking down the current whereabouts of 
Inscribe, I keep running into more and 
more die-hard fans of the Hyperion por- 
table. Dynalogic Info -Tech (the develop- 
er of the Hyperion) disappeared some 
time ago, changing its name and merging 
several times. The technology behind In- 
scribe is currently part of the NT M Menu 
Manager interface from Diligence Tech- 

nologies. Now known as Notemaker, the 
program has been turned into an ASCII 
system editor, and while it still uses func- 
tion keys, it no longer has the cascading 
key sequences that were the Hyperion 's 
trademark. Too bad, too, as that idea 
was a popular one used in a number of 
commercial products. Hewlett-Packard 
used it in its 64000 series development 
system, and when I worked for Coleco, 
we used it on the Smart software family 
for the Adam. Maybe we 11 see it again 

In the meantime, Cornier m (93 Hymus 
Blvd. , Pointe Claire, Quebec H9R 1E2, 
(514) 694-4332) is still handling service 
on the Hyperion. The service division is 
undergoing a name change even as we 
speak, but if you contact the people there 
at the above address, they'll put you in 
touch with the right people. — H. E. 

A Luggable Beast 

As I read through "15 Years of Bits, 
Bytes, and Other Great Moments" (Sep- 
tember 1990), I was surprised to see a 
reference to the IBM 5 100 that was an- 
nounced in 1975. I have one of these 
"luggable" machines collecting dust in 
my garage because my wife refuses to let 
me bring it inside. When I told her it 
originally sold for around $9000, she 
was still not interested. 

As I contemplate selling the beast, I 
am curious to know what you thought I 
could sell it for today. Is it a collector's 
item, or should I consider using it as a 
boat anchor? 

Douglas G. Jones 
Valparaiso, FL 

I know exactly what you 're talking about. 
I have a dozen or more machines, some 
dating back to before the 5100. They 're 
neat to have, and it certainly seems like 
they should be worth something. Get a 
stout chain ready— I'll get to the 5100 in 
a second. 

There 's a fairly booming business in 
used equipment nowadays. If you 're 
looking to buy or sell equipment, you can 
contact the Boston Computer Exchange 
(P.O. Box 1177, Boston, MA 02103 
(800) 262-6399). The people there have 
set standard prices for common equip- 
ment, and for a $25 fee, they will ap- 
praise any unusual stuff. The BCE didn 't 
have a listing for the 5100. 

Another place to check is in one of the 
used computer listing books. The Nation- 
al Association of Computer Dealers pub- 
lishes the Computer Bluebook of whole- 
sale and retail prices. You can order the 
book directly ((800) 223-5264) for 
$15.95. A more detailed book is avail- 

able from Orion Research (1315 Main 
Ave., Durango, CO 81301, (303) 247- 
8855) for $124.95. 

Back to the 5100. None of the listing 
books shows the 5100. A specialty ma- 
chine like the 5100 has no real value as 
an everyday machine, unless you happen 
to need one specifically. That makes it 
hard to find a buyer. A curiosity seeker 
might give you $25 for it, while someone 
who has built an entire testing facility 
around one might offer you $1000 or 
more. You might take out an ad in the 
paper and see who bites. Basically, we 're 
talking Boat Anchor City here. 

Since the machine was built back in the 
1970s, it's one hefty beast. It's probably 
worth a fair amount for scrap value. You 
might contact some scrap dealers and sell 
it for enough to buy you and your wife a 
nice dinner out. If you want to see it used 
by someone, the folks at Orion Research 
recommend that you contact the National 
Christina Foundation for the Blind and 
Disabled ((914) 738-7494). It's a charit- 
able organization that helps get dona- 
tions (i.e., used computers) directly to 
people who can use them. The group 
doesn't resell the equipment, but it finds 
a good home for it. 

Someday, I expect we '11 be getting let- 
ters from people who need to find out 
what their old 486s are worth. It 's sad, 
isn't it?— W. E. 

On Pascal's Trail 

I am trying to learn Pascal. Can you rec- 
ommend a few textbooks on the subject? 
J. D. St. John 
Oak Creek, WI 

If you've made up your mind to learn 
Pascal, the first thing you should do is 
buy a good Pascal compiler. It will in- 
clude your most important resource: the 
language reference. Many compilers also 
come with tutorial books or floppy disks. 

A few popular compilers are from Bor- 
land International (1800 Green Hills 
Rd. , P. O. Box 660001, Scotts Valley, CA 
95066, (408) 438-8400); IBM (Old Or- 
chard Rd., Armonk, NY 10504, (800) 
426-2468); Jensen & Partners Interna- 
tional (1101 San Antonio Rd. , Suite 301, 
Mountain View, CA 94043, (800) 543- 
5202); MetaWare (2161 Delaware Ave., 
Santa Cruz, CA95060, (408) 429-6382); 
Microsoft Corp. (1 Microsoft Way, Red- 
mond, WA 98052, (800) 426-9400); and 
MicroWay (P.O. Box 79, Kingston, MA 
02364, (508) 746-7341). 

When you order, you should also ask 
about any companion books for the spe- 
cific compiler you choose. 

Pascal is no longer the hot language it 

36 BYTE • JANUARY 1991 






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once was. Some publishers— such as the 
Waite Group, which put out very good 
Pascal books in the past— are no longer 
carrying titles on the subject. 

Holt, Rinehart & Winston (301 Com- 
merce St., Suite 3700, Ft. Worth, TX 
76102, (800) 776-2606) has discontinued 
a fine book on Pascal by James Peters. 
The company still has some Pascal books 
in its catalog, so you can give the people 
there a call. 

Osborne/McGraw-Hill (2600 10th St. , 
Berkeley, CA 94710, (800) 227-0900) 
has some titles geared toward Borland 's 
Turbo Pascal. Sybex (2021 Challenger 
Dr., Suite 100, Alameda, CA 94501, 
(800) 227-2346) has an introductory 
book on Pascal as well as titles covering 
Microsoft's Quick Pascal. For other 
books on Quick Pascal, call Microsoft 
Press (P.O. Box 97200, 10700 Nor thup 
Way, Bellevue, WA 98009, (800) 888- 
3303). You can call any or all of these 
publishers and request a catalog. 

-S. D. 

OOP Help 

At British Steel, we are looking into ob- 
ject-oriented programming, and I need a 
comprehensive text for reference. 

I have long been a convert to BYTE 
and would like to know if you could 
either recommend a sensible book or 
quote me a price for a collection of BYTE 
articles packaged up that I could refer to 
in my work on a pilot project. 

Gary R. Pead 
South Yorks, U.K. 

I love to answer reader requests that are 
so easy. 

The October 1990 State of the Art sec- 
tion is devoted to object-oriented pro- 

There are quite a few OOP books out. I 
suggest you browse through a bookstore 's 
technical section. Here are some titles to 

• Designing Object-Oriented Software 
by Rebecca Wirfs-Brock, Brian Wilker- 
son, and Lauren Wiener (Englewood 
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1990). 

• Object Oriented Program Design with 
Examples in C + + by Mark Mullin 
(Reading, M A: Addison-Wesley , 1990). 

• Object-Oriented Turbo Pascal by Alex 
Lane (Redwood City, CA: M&T Publish- 
ing, 1990). 

-S. W. 

CAI Search 

I am looking for authoring software for 
developing CAI courseware on the PC. 

Would you please let me know the names 
and addresses of reputable manufac- 
turers and the names of their products. I 
would also appreciate it if you could send 
me the address and telephone of Kinko 
Academic Software. 

Dr. Ivan Tomek 
Nova Scotia, Canada 

Authoring software continues to evolve 
on the PC. The coming year should bring 
some exciting products. For now, there is 
Authorware Professional for Windows 
(Authorware, 8500 Normandale Lake 
Blvd., Minneapolis, MN 55437, (612) 
921-8555); Guide (Owl International, 
Inc., 2800 156th Ave. SE, Bellevue, WA 
98007, (206) 747-3203; ask for Sharlene 
or Julie); Icon Author (Aimtech Corp. , 77 
Northeastern Blvd. , Nashua, NH 03062, 
(800) 289-2884); and Quest (Allen Com- 
munications, 5225 Wiley Post Way, Suite 
140, Salt Lake City, UT 84116, (801) 

I cannot find a listing for Kinko Aca- 
demic Software. Perhaps one of our read- 
ers has the information. Any takers ? 

-S. D. 

Faster, Please 

Help! I have an upgrade question that 
probably is answered in Computer Sci- 
ence 101, but for which I can't find an 
answer locally. 

I own a Leading Edge Model D that 
works fine for me. I added an Amdek 
600 color monitor, a 30-MB hard disk 
drive, and an Epson 24-pin printer. 
However, my wife has gotten the geneal- 
ogy bug, and some of the sort routines on 
her program are taking too long to run. 
Ergo, I want to speed up the machine. 

I considered using a 286 board, but I 
was told that I could double the operating 
speed by using a V20 CPU. I would prob- 
ably have to upgrade the RAM chips and 
would need a new ROM, but I can't find 
out which one. 

I wrote to Leading Edge in Westbor- 
ough, Massachusetts, back in July but 
never received an answer. So, if some- 
one at BYTE could run the solution by 
me, I surely would appreciate it. 

Sure, a 486 or even a 386 would be 
nice, but I have neither the money nor the 
need for a new machine, so my D and the 
Heath H-89 will keep on doing fine. 

JoseC. Cabanillas 
Orange Park, FL 

You 've been misinformed. The V20 CPU 
is a direct replacement for the 8088. You 
don 't need faster RAM chips or a new 
ROM BIOS. At most, the new CPU would 
give you a 5 percent increase in comput- 

ing power. Plugging a 286 speedup board 
into your computer may work, depending 
on how old your Model D is. Early 
models had bugs in the BIOS ROMs, and 
they may not work with speedup boards. 
You could try the speedup with the pro- 
viso that you could return the upgrade if 
it didn 't work. 

Leading Edge was bought out by Hyun- 
dai Electronics, and support for the 
Leading Edge is practically nonexistent. 
Goodluck.—S. W. 

It Kept Going, and Now It's Gone 

I have an Epson PX-8 laptop computer 
that I have used to good effect on busi- 
ness trips here and overseas since 1983. 
It is just the right size to fit in my brief- 
case and carry along without constantly 
reminding me of its presence. 

My problem is that the rechargeable 
battery has finally given up the ghost. 
Where can I find replacement batteries 
for the PX-8 and for the separate 3Vi- 
inch floppy disk drive? 

David M. Dacus 
Chantilly, VA 

Epson still carries replacement batteries 
and parts in its catalog. You can bring 
your machine to any sales and service 
center and have the battery replaced. If 
you 'd rather do it yourself, a number of 
service centers will sell you the parts di- 
rectly. You can reach Epson 's Accesso- 
ries division at (800) 873-7766. The peo- 
ple there will give you the name of a 
service center in your area. 

One place you might try is Transaction 
Equipment in Yorba Linda, California, at 
(714) 970- 7881. The people there seem to 
know anything you 'd ever want to know 
about the PX-8. Unfortunately, the PX-8 
accessories are no longer available, but 
that machine was fairly popular, and ser- 
vice should be available for a long time to 
come. Just remember that as parts be- 
come less and less common, they become 
more and more expensive. That battery 
you need won 't be cheap.— H. E . 


• The price of a single-user PC license 
for the Pick operating system ("Pick: OS 
or DBMS?" November 1990) was incor- 
rect. The correct price is $495. 

• As careful readers of the time line 
("15 Years of Bits, Bytes, and Other 
Great Moments," September 1990) well 
know, the importance of the original 
IBM PC cannot be overstated. ■ 

JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 41 






SPARCstation™ 2. If you 
think limits were made to be 
exceeded, this is your kind of 

After all, it exceeds all our 
own limits. Last year, SPARC- 
station 1 broke every record for 
price and performance. And 
became the best-selling work- 
station in history By far. But we 
went right back to the drawing 
board. And created the entire 


To begin with, you get twice 

the performance. For about the 
same price. 28.5 MIPS. 21 
SPECmarks. And 4.2 MFLOPS. 
You can even have up to 96MB 
of RAM. And as much as 
7.6GB of mass storage. 

But more than just a hot 
engine, you get everything 
else you need to do your job. 
Unbelievably real graphics. 
Easy networking. A huge 
selection of software. And 
complete expandability 

Put all that together, and 
you get the kind of power you 
can actually use. 


Just look at SPARCstation 
2GX. It gives you ultra-high 
speed at no extra cost. And 
brings a whole new level of 
performance to X- window 
applications. So it's ideal for 
electronic publishing. Financial 
analysis. And for anyone who 
has to work with 2-D and 3-D 
wireframe applications. 

And that's just the most 
basic color model. We've also 
built SPARCstation 2GS. It lets 

• 1990Sun Microsystems, Inc. Sun Microsystems and the Sun logo are registered trademarks. nndSun, SunOS, OpenWindows, DeskSutand Computers that network people are trademarks, oiSun Microsystems, Inc. SPARCstation andSPARCware 

QD CD LlJ GD ( Tn ~ J ( f "--J fc 


filter: I pi/ 

->HfC5| • — 

you create 3-D solid images 
in 24-bit true color. It's the 
kind of machine you hate to 
share. And from now on, you 
won't have to. 

At the high end, there's 
SPARCstation 2GT. It does all 
the above, but it's been tuned 
especially for PHIGS, which 
is the highest standard for 3-D 
graphics on the planet. So it 
runs five times faster than the 
GS. With all this, it gives you 
a level of image quality you've 
never seen at anywhere close 
to its price. 


At Sun, we make a full line 
of SPARC-based systems. From 
the lowest-cost RISC/UNIX @ 
workstation in the world to 
servers that support hundreds 
of users. They're all binary 
compatible. And they're built to 
run the most widely accepted 
standards for workstations. 

On the subject of software, 
there are more than 2100 
SPARC ware™ applications. In- 
cluding all the most popular 

solids modeling programs. 
And the most popular PC soft- 
ware. And with our OPEN 
LOOK® interface, you'll spend 
less time learning the system. 
And more time on your real job. 
If you'd like to know more, 
callusat 1-800-821-4643. (From 
California, 1-800-821-4642.) 

And we'll give you a better 
machine to strive with. 


X^ microsystems 
Computers that network people!" 

are trademarks of SPARC International, Inc., licensed exclusively to Sun Microsystems, Inc. SPARC products are based on an architecture developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. OPIiN LOOK is a registered trademark of UNIX System laboratories. Inc. 

Circle 307 on Reader Service Card 

What's New 


486 EISA in a Tower 

CCS Custom Computer 
Systems has introduced 
its CCS 486-25c EISA com- 
puter. The 25-MHz system has 
six EISA slots for bus-master 
devices, as well as one 16-bit 
and one 8-bit slot. 

The CCS 486-25c uses a 
Mylex MAE486-25 mother- 
board with a Phoenix BIOS. 
The board provides 128K bytes 
of static RAM write-back 
cache in addition to its 8K-byte 
internal cache. The 4-MB 
80-ns single in-line memory 
modules on the board are ex- 
pandable to 32 MB. A Weitek 
WTL4167 math coprocessor 
socket is also provided. 

The CCS 486-25c has two 
floppy disk drives (one 5 l A- 
inch, one 3 ! /2-inch), a Con- 
ner Peripherals CP3200F 212- 
MB SCSI drive, and a real- 
time clock/calendar with 
battery backup. Housed in a 
30- by 10- by 29-inch tower 
case with 12 half-height 
drive bays, the CCS 486-25c 
has a 375-W power supply. 
Options are available. 
Price: $9999. 

Contact: CCS Custom Com- 
puter Systems, Inc., 191 
WoodportRd., Sparta, NJ 
Inquiry 1271. 


The 25-MHz Solarix/4 
Personal Workstation Plus 
(Solarix/4 PW+) operates at 
18 MIPS; by replacing its 
credit-card-size processor 
module, called the A-Module, 
you can upgrade to 40-MIPS 

The Solarix/4 PW + uses 
both the SPARC 32-bit SBus 
and the SPARC 64-bit MBus 

The CCS 486-25c EISA features a Mylex MAE486-25 
motherboard with a Phoenix BIOS. Its 128K bytes of write-back 
cache provides zero-wait-state operation. 

and provides 8 to 32 MB of 
RAM using standard single 
in-line memory modules. You 
have the option of adding 
from 64 to 128MB with 
Solarix SIMMs. 

Available as a mini-tower 
with an internal bay support- 
ing up to six half-height pe- 
ripherals, the Solarix/4 PW + 
works as a stand-alone unit 
or as part of a network. It 
comes with 8 MB of RAM 
and a 17-inch monochrome 
monitor. A second config- 
uration offers a 104-MB SCSI 
internal hard disk drive, a 
17-inch monochrome monitor, 
8 MB of RAM, and a 1.44- 
MB floppy disk drive. 
Price: Standard configura- 
tion, $6995; configuration 

with SCSI internal hard disk 
drive, $7995. 
Contact: Solarix Systems, 
46791 Fremont Blvd., Fre- 
mont, CA 94538, (415) 
Inquiry 1272. 

The Mariner 4i is a work- 
station that combines the 
power of SPARC technology 
with DOS accessibility, all in 
one box. The heart of the 
Mariner 4i is a Sun-compatible 
SPARC workstation, but be- 
cause it's based on a standard 
ISA bus, you can add an op- 
tional DOS module for full 
DOS compatibility. 

According to Mars, the 25- 
MHz Cypress SPARC CPU 
provides 16.8-MIPS perfor- 


Your new product is important to us. Please address information to 
New Products Editors, BYTE, One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peter- 
borough, NH 03458. Better yet, use your modem and mail new 
product information to the microbytes.hw or microbytes . sw 
conferences on BIX. Please send the product description, price, 
ship date, and an address and telephone number where readers can 
get more information. 

mance. Add the plug-in DOS 
module, and you get a 386 
processor with cache, VGA 
display capability that runs in 
a window of the SPARC 
screen, and up to 8 MB of 
RAM. The module includes 
four PC bus connectors that 
let you use AT peripherals. 
Price: Diskless unit with 
16-inch monochrome moni- 
tor, $5995; unit with DOS 
module, 19-inch color moni- 
tor, and 207-MB hard disk 
drive, $10,995. 
Contact: Mars Microsys- 
tems, P.O. Box 1080, Mars, 
PA 16046, (412) 934-1040. 
Inquiry 1273. 

A Smaller EISA 386 
for Small Businesses 

In addition to 33-MBps 
burst DMA transfers, the 
25-MHz Micro Express ME 
386-EISA system offers 14 in- 
dependently programmable 
channels. It comes with 1 MB 
of RAM, a 1.2-MB floppy 
disk drive, and one serial and 
one parallel port. It is housed 
in a mini-tower case. 

A Phoenix EISA BIOS is 
included on the motherboard, 
with an expanded memory 
manager and disk caching as 
standard features. The sys- 
tem and video BIOS are trans- 
ferred to shadow RAM to in- 
crease performance. The 
standard 8 MB of RAM is 
expandable to 16MB with an 
8-MB add-in board. 

The ME 386-EISA accom- 
modates six 32-bit EISA ex- 
pansion cards and two 8-bit 
ISA cards. It has a socket for 
an Intel 80387 or Weitek 
WTL3167 math coprocessor. 
Price: $1799. 
Contact: Micro Express, 
1801 Carnegie Ave., Santa 
Ana, CA 92705, (800) 642- 
7621 or (714) 852-1400. 
Inquiry 1274. 

44 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 


A Hand Scanner 
for PCs and Macs 

The M800 Plus, an 800- 
dpi hand scanner, lets you 
scan an image as small as a 
postage stamp and retain the 
full details of the image. For 
use with PCs and Macs, it pro- 
duces 64 levels of gray and 
12 halftone patterns. 

WiththeM800 Plus's in- 
verse image function, you can 
create special effects. The 
PC version includes PC Paint- 
brush Plus and CAT Reader 
OCR; a special PC version, 
M800W Plus, is compatible 
with Windows 3.0; the Macin- 
tosh version includes Digital 
Darkroom and Scanlink. 
Price: PC version, $459; 
Macintosh version, $549. 
Contact: Marstek, Inc., 
17795-F Sky Park Cir., 
Irvine, CA 92714, (714) 
Inquiry 1275. 

Eight Keys 
to Easy Typing 

Vatell is offering an alter- 
native to the QWERTY 
keyboard: the Accukey. The 
2-pound, eight-key unit is 

Marstek 's 800-dpi hand scanner 
to let you scan stamp-size images 

works with PCs and Macs 
and create special effects. 

economically designed and 
about half the size of a conven- 
tional keyboard. According 
to Vatell , an average user can 
learn to touch-type on it in 3 
to 4 hours following the tutori- 
al included with the unit. 

Each key has three states: 
forward, backward, and neu- 
tral. You produce characters 
by using one finger of each 
hand to form two-finger 
chords. Your fingers always 
rest on the same keys, and 
your palms rest on the base 
of the unit. 

The Accukey performs all 
the functions of other key- 

boards and is compatible with 
all types of computers and 
CRT terminals, according to 

Price: $500, including a 
multiuser tutorial. 
Contact: Vatell Corp., P.O. 
Box 66, Christiansburg, VA 
24073, (703) 961-3576. 
Inquiry 1276. 

Economically designed, the Accukey is Vatell 's alternative to 
the QWERTY keyboard. 

An Upgrade Kit 
Long on 

A hard disk drive kit for 
your PC that offers a total 
upgrade solution and easy in- 
stallation is available, accord- 
ing to its manufacturer, Mi- 
cropolis. Called the PC PAK 
(Performance Advantage 
Kit), each kit contains a high- 
speed ESDI controller or a 
SCSI host adapter, software, 
hardware, and an installation 

Compatible with PC-DOS, 
Novell, Xenix, and Unix sys- 
tems, the PC PAK comes in 
half-height (180-MB or 380- 
MB) and full-height (760- 
MB or 1.2-gigabyte) capaci- 
ties. The hard disk drives 

feature read-ahead caching and 
command queuing. They 
carry a mean-time-between- 
failures rating of 150,000 
hours, according to the 
Price: $1895 to $5895, de- 
pending on configuration. 
Contact: Micropolis Corp., 
21211 Nordhoff St., Chats- 
worth, CA 91311, (818) 
Inquiry 1277. 

Remote Audio 


for Your Mac 

Based on VLSI technol- 
ogy, Mirror Technol- 
ogies' CDR-10 CD-ROM/ 
audio player offers full audio 
support and an embedded SCSI 
interface. The company 
packages the unit with its cus- 
tom remote-control software, 
which controls the audio por- 
tion of the CD-ROM. 

The CDR-10's 350-ms ac- 
cess rate lets you use it with 
any Macintosh. You can also 
attach it to an audio system via 
RCA jacks. The audio player 
has variable volume control 
and reads any disk written in 
HFS High Sierra ISO 9660 
standard format. Each unit 
comes with a 30-day guaran- 
tee, a one-year warranty, and 
lifetime technical support. 

Price: $697. 

Contact: Mirror Technol- 
ogies, 2644 Patton Rd., Rose- 
ville, MN 55113, (800) 654- 
5294 or (612) 633-4450. 
Inquiry 1278. 

JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 45 



A D D - I N S 

Fly Through 
Your Graphics 
with These Cards 

According to National 
Design, the Volante 
Series intelligent graphics 
controller cards, based on 
the Texas Instruments 
TMS34020 graphics proces- 
sor, have a processing speed 
50 percent faster than cards 
based on the TMS34010 pro- 
cessor. The cards are also 
equipped with application- 
specific ICs. 

Volante cards are available 
for ATs and compatibles and 
for the VMEbus. They in- 
clude an AutoCAD software 
driver and are designed to 
handle all major graphics envi- 
ronments. Able to support 
256 active colors from a palette 
of 16.7 million, they have a 
maximum resolution of 1280 
by 1024 pixels. 

The cards' standard 512K 
bytes of DRAM is expandable 
to as much as 4 MB; their 
1 MB of video RAM is ex- 
pandable to 8 MB. The option- 
al TMS34082 floating-point 
processor is capable of per- 
forming functions such as 3- 
D convolution. 
Price: $995 to $3495. 
Contact: National Design, 
Inc., Houston Building, Suite 
230, 9171 Capital of Texas 
Hwy., Austin, TX 78759, 
(512) 343-5055. 
Inquiry 1279. 

Colorful Windows 
from Matrox 

The M-WIN 1280 is the 
first of Matrox's new M- 
WIN series of graphics 
boards for 286 and 386 sys- 
tems. It is also compatible 
with 486 EISA computers. 

A high-resolution, single- 
slot controller, the M-WIN 
1280 displays up to 256 

The Volante XT1000 video graphics card has an AutoCAD 
driver and supports 256 active colors. 

screen colors from a palette of 
16.7 million. The board, 
based on Western Digital's 
8514/A chip set, runs pro- 
grams such as Lotus 1-2-3 and 
WordPerfect at a resolution 
of 1024 by 768 pixels. It has 
1280 by 1024 drivers for run- 
ning Windows 3.0, Presenta- 
tion Manager, and X Win- 
dow System 11.4. 
Price: US$2495. 
Contact: Matrox Electronic 
Systems, Ltd., 1055 St. Regis 
Blvd., Dorval, Quebec, Can- 
ada H9P 2T4, (514) 685-2630. 
Inquiry 1280. 

The MAC-56 DSP 
System Lets You 
Be Original 

A digital signal processing 
system based on Motoro- 
la's DSP56001 microproces- 
sor is available for the Macin- 

tosh. The system, a joint 
venture of Momentum Data 
Systems and Ariel, com- 
prises a MAC-56 board and 
software that lets you develop 
your own programs for the 
DSP56001 chip. 

The MAC-56 has 144K 
bytes of zero-wait-state mem- 
ory, expandable to the chip's 
limit of 576K bytes. You can 
use DSPnet, the board's 
high-speed parallel interface, 
to interconnect multiple 
MAC-56 boards. 

Bundled software includes 
a Motorola-compatible macro 
assembler and SCSI and 
DSPnet drivers. The MAC-56 
incorporates a private SCSI 
bus for real-time signal I/O. 
For audio I/O, it includes a 
Next-compatible DSP port. 
Price: $2995. 
Contact: Ariel Corp., 433 
River Rd., Highland Park, NJ 
08904, (201) 249-2900. 
Inquiry 1281. 

Cache Your Data 

The ESDI-Security Cache 
Controller from GSI ac- 
commodates up to four ESDI 
drives with up to 3 MB of 
cache per drive. The control- 
ler is designed for use with 
disk-intensive applications 
such as CAD and database and 
network server applications. 

Features include a 20- 
MHz transfer rate, a 5-MBps 
bus transfer rate, vertical and 
horizontal skew, and an on- 
board BIOS with built-in util- 
ities that supports drives with 
up to 2046 cylinders. 
Price: $495. 

Contact: GSI, 17951 H Sky 
ParkCir., Irvine, CA 92714, 
Inquiry 1282. 

Fax/Modem Card 
for Toshiba Laptops 

Matrox 's M-WIN 1280 graphics card is compatible with 
Windows 3. 0, Presentation Manager, and X Window System 11.4. 

The MaxFax 9624LT-T is 
Macronix's new inte- 
grated fax/modem for To- 
shiba laptop and notebook 
computers. The 9600-bps fax 
and Hayes-compatible 2400- 
bps modem card fits into the 
dedicated internal modem slot 
on most Toshiba laptops. 
Able to operate in the 
background, the MaxFax has 
an auto-direct function that 
determines whether an incom- 
ing call is for the fax or the 
modem. The MaxFax supports 
dot-matrix and laser printers 
and allows direct faxing from 
scanner input. 
Price: $599. 

Contact: Macronix, Inc., 
1348 Ridder Park Dr., San 
Jose, C A 95 13 1,(408) 
Inquiry 1283. 

46 BYTE • JANUARY 1991 

DBMS Case Study 

The Exxon Valdez Disaster 

March 24, 1989. Exxon VALDEZ tanker runs 
aground, creating the worst oil spill in U.S. history. 
11,000,000 gallons contaminate the pristine waters 
of Alaska's Prince William Sound. 

I , j n Major disasters, like the 
Exxon Valdez spill, 
require quick response based on careful data 
analysis. Fortunately, an easy-to-use database 
was already being created which would help. 

Snrt/Select Report Format Retrieve Configure 


The Application 

The Alaskan Marine 
Database lets oceanographic chemists easily 
access 60 megabytes of data covering the past 
decade. The database is provided free of 
charge on CD-ROM, and the Windows 
interface means they can get right to work, 
assessing damage to the ecosystems of Prince 
William Sound and other Alaskan waters. 






1,2,3,6,7,8-HEXRHVDROPVRENE ? 
17flLPHA(H) ,21BETft(ll)-HDPnNE C29 
17RLPHft(H) f 21BETR(il)-K0PRHE C30 
17RLPHfl{H),21BETn(H)-H0PnNE C31 R 

i7nLPHn(H),2inEin(ii)-H0PnME C31 

The Solution 

db_VISTA III is the only 
DBMS with the features 
this project required: C language support, 
Windows compatibility, royalty-free runtime 
distribution, quick performance in large data- 
bases, quality documentation and support. With 
the Alaskan Marine Contaminants Database, 
the difficult job of calculating the long-term 
effects of the Exxon spill is a little easier. * 

db VISTA m 


A Microsoft Windows front end lets chemists select regions from a map 
to retrieve data. And. dbVISTA Ill's SQL-based query and report 
writer lets users perform complex SQL data searches. 

Your DBMS problems may not make the 
headlines, but they are no less important and 
often no less challenging. If you develop 
applications for MS-DOS, MS Windows, 
UNIX, VMS, QNX, OS/2, Macintosh, and 
other environments, db_VISTA III is your 

Call 1-800-db-RAIMA d-800-327-2462) 

In Washington State call: (206)747-5570. Ask for extension 101. 

* Reprints of the story, as published in PC Week and Data Based Advisor, 
are available from Raima. 

Power Tools For C Programmers 

fil RAIMA B 


Database Management System 

Snerifirations" C° m Pl ete C source code available. No Royalties 
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Network Data Model. Relational B-tree indexing. Relational SQL query and report 
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Raima Corporation 3245 146th Place S.E., Bellevue, WA 98007 USA (206)747-5571 Fax: (206)747-1991 Telex: 6503018237 MCI UW 
International Distributors: Australia: 61 2 419 7177 Austria: 43 022 43 81861 Urnxil: 55 11 829 1687 Central America: 50628 07 64 Denmark: 45 42 887249 France: 33 1 46092784 
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Circle 273 on Reader Service Card 

dbVISTA III DBMS ratednumber#l 

For Performance and Flexibility of DBMS Programming Tools- 
PC WEEK Poll of Corporate Satisfaction, August 28, 1989. 


Multi- Platform 

MS-DOS • WINDOWS • OS/2 • DOS 386 • UNIX 386 


Zortech's industrial strength compiler 
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most of which are added in direct 

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Zortech C++ also uses the Rational 
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Zortech's new C++ Workbench 
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In response to hundreds of requests, 
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Along with the C++ compiler comes a 
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14 C/C++ 
in its May 
1990 issue, 
editor J. D. 

to name an overall winner in 
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nearly overwhelming... it's an 
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Thousands of our customers had 
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CodeView™ compatible, but that's 
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Debugging large programs is no 
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Support for new extended keywords 
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together with the standard DOS 
Developer's Edition. 

Upgrades for existing OS/2 Compiler 
Option owners now available. Please 
call for details. 


UNIX 386 x* 

Not a day passes at Zortech HQ 
without numerous requests for a 
UNIX version of Zortech C++. Now, 
DOS and OS/2 developer's can reach 
new markets by easily moving their 
code to SCO UNIX 386 and binary 

The Zortech 
UNIX 386 
generates the 
same tight, 
fast code that 
Zortech's DOS 
and OS/2 
users have come to expect. UNIX 
specific versions of Flash Graphics 



and the C++ Workbench are also 

In line with the traditional Zortech 
Policy, owners of the Zortech C++ 
V2.1 UNIX 386 Compiler will be able 
to inexpensively upgrade to the 
forthcoming Zortech C++ V2.1 UNIX 
386 Developer's Edition. 

DOS 386 yV 


Now, with the 386 you can address up 

to 4 Gigabytes of memory. Why 

spend so 


money on 



and not use 


which will 



of it? 

On the 

other hand, 

you need to 

retain the facilities of standard 

MS-DOS too. 

MS-DOS developers can now build 
true 32 bit C and C++ applications for 
386 processors using Zortech's 
powerful 386 development system. 
The Zortech C++ V2.1 Developer's 
Edition for DOS 386, contains 32 bit 
versions of the C and C++ Compiler, 
Flash Graphics library, C++ Debugger 
and full standard library source code 
together with all the familiar features 
provided with the standard DOS 
Developer's Edition. 

Using Phar Lapp's much acclaimed 
386/DOS Extender Technology, you 
can build applications which access 4 
Gigabytes of linearly addressable 
memory. Your applications will also 
be Plug & Go for use with Phar 
Lapp's 386 DOS Extender which 
may be purchased seperately. 

Circle 373 on Reader Service Card 


Zortech's C++ Video Course is all the 
training material you need to move a 
team of good C programmers into the 
world of C++. Many corporations 
have already done just this. 

Cut the hotel bills, travel expenses 
and fees of outside training courses 
and seminars - not to mention the 
inconvenience and disruption to your 
normal routine. 

Use a proven training tool, 
that in one hour a day, over a 
period of six weeks, can train your 
whole team in C++ for the price of 
one airline ticket. 

The course consists of 32 tutorials on 
six one hour VHS tapes together with 
one 256 page workbook containing 
course notes and exercises. Unlimited 
additional course workbooks are 
available at modest cost. 
Compiler & hardware 
independent. NTSC or PAL 
format available. 




3-D Viewing 
in Two Styles 

StereoGraphics is ship- 
ping its new Crystal- 
Eyes/PC eyewear. Designed 
for stereo 3-D viewing by PC 
and Macintosh users, the 
lightweight eyewear is geared 
for users of such specialized 
graphics applications as CAD/ 
CAM, CAE, architectural, 
sensing/mapping, and medical 
image processing. The view- 
er is activated by infrared sig- 
nals from an emitter on top of 
the display monitor. 

CrystalEyes/Pro, another 
3-D viewer, is an enhanced 
version of the company's 
CrystalEyes. Also activated by 
infrared signals, Crystal- 
Eyes/Pro has a Stereo/Pseudo 
switching option that gives 
users an enhanced visualiza- 
tion capability for applica- 
tions with complex depth infor- 
mation, such as mapping. A 
multiple-range emitter permits 
viewing by single users or a 
group. The Brite Mode option 
allows users to make rapid 
transitions from stereo viewing 
to brighter, nonstereo 

Price: CrystalEyes/PC, 
$995; CrystalEyes Pro, $1995. 
Contact: StereoGraphics 
Corp., 2171-H, East Francisco 
Blvd., San Rafael, CA 
94901, (800) 247-8373 or 
(415) 459-4500. 
Inquiry 1287. 

When a Mouse May Not Be a Mouse 

Alternatives to the tradi- 
tional mouse are available 
from several companies. 

The Icontroller is Sun- 
com's mouse emulator 
for the PC. It sports speed 
selectability, three mouse 
function buttons, and a fin- 
gertip cursor-control knob 
with a selectable function 
button. Compatible with 
Microsoft and Mouse Sys- 
tems software, the space- 
saving Icontroller attaches to 
either side of the keyboard. 
Price: $79.95. 
Contact: Suncom Technol- 
ogies, 6400 West Gross 
Point Rd.,Niles,IL 60648, 
Inquiry 1284. 

Zeny's cordless Zen 
Mouse uses urethane 
wheels in its two-wheel di- 
rect drive system to elimi- 
nate maintenance problems 
and allow smooth tracking 
on most surfaces. With an 
operating range of 4 feet, the 
Zen Mouse draws its power 
from three rechargeable 
nickel-cadmium batteries. A 
power-saving feature is acti- 
vated when motion is not de- 
tected. Operating at from 10 
to 1000 dpi, the Zen Mouse 
is compatible with Micro- 
soft, Logitech, and Mouse 
Systems mice. 

The Icontroller mouse 

The cordless Zen Mouse 

Price: $129; corded version 
Contact: Zeny Computer 
Systems, Inc., 4033 Clipper 
Court, Fremont, CA 94538, 
Inquiry 1285. 

The MousePenPortable, 
for use with IBM and 
compatible laptops, is Ap- 
points latest addition to its 
series of pointing devices. 
You can operate the 3.2- 
ounce MousePenPortable at 
any angle and on a variety of 

/ - / JH 

. / 5^ > ' 

m-i m 

L t — T^^l 


1 ^^X^ 1 

\ ! 


The MousePenPortable 

surfaces. The device re- 
quires a serial port or a PS/2 
mouse port, DOS 2.0, and 
256K bytes of RAM. The 
MousePenPortable uses a 
built-in dynamic gain reso- 
lution of 50 to 1000 counts 
per inch and includes Tele- 
Paint, a color paint program. 
Price: $149. 

Contact: Appoint, Inc., 
1332 Vendels Cir., Suite 
101, Paso Robles, CA 
93446, (800) 448-1184 or 
Inquiry 1286. 

For All Your 
Soldering Needs 

The Ungar Model 2 1 10 is 
a soldering station with an 
electrically controlled heat- 
ing element. The iron operates 
in a temperature range of 
550°F to 850°F. 

Features of the soldering 
station include a cool-grip han- 
dle, a burn-resistant cord, 
and a replaceable ceramic 
heater. The iron comes with 

a thermal-thrust soldering tip. 
The station also includes a 
static-dissipative power unit, 
an on/of f switch, a power-on 
LED indicator, a sponge, and 
an iron holder. An optional 
tip retainer is also available. 
Price: $132.50. 
Contact: Hub Material Co., 
33 Springdale Ave., Canton, 
MA 02021, (617) 821-1870. 
Inquiry 1288. 

From PC to 
Geiger Counter 

Aware Electronics is mar- 
keting version 2.0 of its 
RM-60 Micro Roentgen Ra- 
diation Monitor. When 
plugged into a PC's serial or 
parallel port, the RM-60 mon- 
itors and plots background 
radiation, the presence of ra- 
don gas, atmospheric radio- 
activity, and alpha, beta, 
gamma, and x-rays. 

Features of the RM-60 in- 
clude a high-speed scrolling 
bar chart that lets you scan 
stored data for surges or 
trends, and an alarm system 
that you can set to activate be- 
tween 1 and 30,000 micror- 
oentgens per hour. The com- 
pany provides a five-year 
warranty on parts and labor. 
Price: $149.50. 
Contact: Aware Electronics 
Corp., P.O. Box 4299, Wil- 
mington, DE 19807,(302) 
Inquiry 1289. 

50 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 

You Always Knew There Was Something Special About Your Thumb. 

T • 1 

I I I 

I " 




August 1990 

mm ou have a lot of power in your thumb. So we designed you command the cursor with exhilarating speed and 
TrackMan'" — the world's most popular stationary mouse— precision, even in the most confining workspace. PJnd 
to put that power to work. H rackMan's brilliant you get all this for only $139, including Logitech's"' life- 
ergonomic design includes a lightweight, thumb- 
driven ball, three buttons at your fingertips and 
room to rest your hand. It is far more comfortable 
than any other stationary mouse. Because the 
thumb is far more agile and powerful than any 
finger. fcYJith TrackMan's adjustable resolution, 

Circle 181 o n Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 182) Tools That lOWei" The Desktop. 

^^ | % Sales 

logiTegh ::: 

time hardware warranty. TrackMan works with 

any application on an IBM* PC (or compatible). 

or more information call Logitech's Customer 

\ Sales Center:(800)231-7717ext.347. In California: 

(800) 552-8885; in Canada: (800) 283-7717; 

rope: ++41-21-869-9656. 

®/tm: trademarks of registered owners 



cting a new computer system can be a real 
challenge. .That's where we come in. We have the 
knowledge, experience and the best value packed 
computer systems available. So, pick up the phone 
and check us out. Ask us about our quality. Our 
service. And especially our prices. You'll like what 
you hear. 

Let's Talk Features. 

Then ask us about our new 386/25 and 386/33 
systems. The list of standard features includes the 
latest that high technology has to offer. Like a 64 
KB memory cache for the 386/25, and 128 KB for 
the 386/33, both expandable to 256 KB. Then 
there's the integrated VGA controller supporting 
1024 x 768 resolution, with 256 vibrant colors and 
a 50% performance increase all made possible 
by 1 MB of 32-bit video memory. Plus support for 
interlaced and non-interlaced monitors. When it 
comes to features, we set the standard. 

Compare Our New 
High Performance 386 Cache Systems. 

□ 4MB of 32-bit high speed □ 105MB IDE hard drive with 
memory (Expandable to 16MB 

□ Cache memory expandable to 

□ High performance 1024 x 768 
VGA with 256 colors including 
1MB of video memory 

□ Super Hi-Res 14" VGA color 
monitor with tilt/swivel base 

386V 33 with 
128K Cache Memory 

Cache buffer 

□ 1.2MB 5.25" and 1.44MB 3.5" 
floppy drives 

□ 1 parallel and 2 serial ports 

□ 101-key enhanced keyboard 
D MS DOS 4.01 

□ Microsoft Windows 3-0 

□ Hi-Resolution mouse 

□ Free one year on-site service 

64K Cache Memory 

$2995 $2695 

How About Flexibility? 

No one can beat our flexibility either. An integrated 
floppy controller and hard disk interface that support up 
to three floppy drives and two hard drives. Up to 16 MB 
of RAM on board using the new industry standard 32-bit 
memory modules leave all six expansion slots available. 

Look At Our Other Value-Packed Systems. 

All of these fully-loaded systems include: 

□ 2MB of 32-bit high speed memory 
(Expandable to 8MB on-board) 

□ High performance 1024 x 768 VGA with 
256 colors including 1MB of video 

□ Super Hi-Res 14" VGA color monitor 
with tilt/swivel base 

□ 40MB IDE Hard Disk Drive 

□ 1.2MB 5.25" & 1.44MB 3.5" floppy drives 

□ 1 parallel and 2 serial ports 

□ 101-key enhanced keyboard 

□ MS DOS 4.01 

□ 386/SX includes Windows 3.0 and 

□ Free one year on-site service 

386VSX only $1895.00 

286^16 only $1595.00 

Our small footprint chassis includes both 5.25" and 

3.5" floppy drives and 1 parallel and 2 serial ports. 

And consider this feature, our new 386/25 and 

386/33 systems come standard with 5 drive bays to hold up to 

one additional floppy drive or tape backup and 2 hard drives. 

So, we can help you add on and update to 

your heart s content. 

We're Made In The U.S.A. 

Since 1984 our R&D center has been 
designing our products, and all system 
boards are manufactured right here in the 
U.S. The latest surface mount and VLSI 
technology is utilized for the ultimate in 
product reliability and space saving design. 
If it's performance and quality you seek, 
we're the standard to beat. 


Shown with optional tape drive. 386 is a trademark of Intel Corporation. 


We provide you with a complete system. Ready to use 
the minute you open the carton. Everything is loaded, 


We Stand Behind Our Systems 
And Our Customers. 

At Standard Computer, we manufacture 
everything from high performance 486™ and 
386™ systems to low cost 386/SX and 286 
systems. And our total customer satisfaction 
program begins with a 30 day money-back 
guarantee. If you're dissatisfied, simply return 
your system within 30 days for a full refund. 
No questions asked. 

You're also covered by our complete one-year 
parts and labor warranty. And when you have a 
question, just call our customer service hotline. 
Its available to you toll-free for as long as you 
own your system. If you need help, we'll see that 
you get it. If you need a part, we'll express ship it. 

We'll even include one year of on-site service 
at no extra charge. 

Value That's Easy To Afford. 

We make it easy to own and 
our products. Our Standard 
urchasing programs 
are designed to fit 
your needs. Qualified company 
purchase orders, personal checks 
and most major credit cards are accepted. 

tested, burned in, and ready to go. And, to help you easily 
handle the new multi-tasking, multi-screen programs, we 
preload MS DOS 4.01 and Microsoft Windows 3.0, and then 
throw in a high resolution mouse to boot. How's that for 

So, go ahead. Call 
so much pride in our 
Why our repeat 
customer rate is one 
of the highest in our 
industry. And why 
our product reliability 
is so good. For us, 
it's just the 
Standard thing. 

us. Right now. Find out why we take 
exceptional products and services. 



12803 Schabarum Avenue, Irwindale, CA 91706, 
phone: 818/337-7711, FAX 818/337-2626. 

Circle 299 on Reader Service Card 



Neat, Simple, 



If you're looking for a 
neater image at work, you 
might want to try GEC-Mar- 
coni's Verran AC DataLink. 
With this device, you can 
link your PC to a printer, plot- 
ter, modem, or other periph- 
eral without using the cables 
normally required. You con- 
figure the device using DIP 

DataLinks work in pairs, 
one at the sending unit and the 
other at the receiving unit. 
They hook up via standard 
electrical outlets, allowing 
data to be transmitted over 
your building's AC circuit. 
AC DataLinks connect serial 
or parallel communications, 
with the capability of convert- 
ing back and forth between 
the two. They have a 2K-byte 
data buffer and communicate 
at a rate of 840 cps. 

Software for the Data- 
Links is built in, eliminating 
the need for additional soft- 
ware. For secure transmis- 
sions, you can encrypt your 
data prior to transmitting it 
and decipher it at the receiv- 
ing end. 

An accessory device, the 
AC DataLink DPS (dedicated 
printer sharer), is also avail- 
able. When connected to a 
printer, it acts as a print 
spooler and can handle multi- 
ple print orders from as many 
as seven computers. 
Price: AC DataLink, $345; 
AC DataLink DPS, $395. 
Contact: GEC-Marconi Soft- 
ware Systems, 121 10 Sunset 
Hills Rd., Suite 450, Reston, 
VA 22090, (703)648-1551. 
Inquiry 1290. 

GEC-Marconi 's Verran AC DataLink, which works in pairs, uses 
standard AC circuits to transmit data. 

Package Available 

KXCom, a communica- 
tions package for OS/2, 
includes a full-fledged Pre- 
sentation Manager interface. It 
also features an integrated 
dialing directory that supports 
the Hayes Smartmodem (and 
compatibles), single and multi- 
ple file transfer using the 
Kermit or XMODEM protocol, 
and file transfer rates of 
up to 19,200 bps. 

KXCom simultaneously 
supports COM1 and COM2, 

supports both color and 
monochrome video, and has a 
windowed command shell to 
the operating system. Addition- 
ally, the package automati- 
cally renames files in case of 
a name clash and offers on- 
line help. It also features a 
windowed command shell to 
the operating system. 

The package includes com- 
plete source code in Stony 
Brook Professional Modula-2 
and a user's manual. 
Price: US$30. 

Contact: KXCom, 5105 Lor- 
raine Ave., Burnaby, British 
Columbia, Canada V5G 2S3, 
(604) 437-0893. 
Inquiry 1291. 

Network Program 

Invisible Software has in- 
troduced Invisible NET 
Control, a remote-control 
program that works with any 
NetBIOS-compatible net- 
work. Capabilities include 
group broadcasts, two-way 
talk, and remote control of 
other workstations. 

Invisible NET Control sup- 
ports remote diagnostics and 
CGA, EGA, and VGA 
modes. It also lets you monitor 
other users' screens. The 
DOS overhead is 30K bytes. 
Price: $279 per network site. 
Contact: Invisible Software, 
Inc., 1142 Chess Dr., Foster 
City, CA 94404, (415) 
Inquiry 1292. 

Able to double as a file server or a LAN station , the Super-386T 
works with OS/2 and Unix systems. 

A Versatile 
386 File Server 

The Super-386T 33-MHz 
desktop from Hyundai 
can be used as a network file 
server and as a LAN station. It 
is compatible with Novell 
NetWare and with OS/2 and 
Unix systems. 

The small-footprint com- 
puter (16.1 by 16.3 inches) 
has 4 MB of RAM (expand- 
able to 8 MB on the mother- 
board with single in-line 
memory modules), a 64K-byte 
memory cache (expandable 
to 256K bytes), and 64K bytes 
of ROM. The Super-386T in- 
cludes a 16-bit VGA card that 
supports Super VGA and has 
a built-in mouse port. Hyundai 
ships a mouse with the unit. 
The computer's configuration 
includes two serial ports and 
one parallel port. 
Price: $4995 to $8495, de- 
pending on configuration. 
Contact: Hyundai Electron- 
ics America, 166 Baypointe 
Pkwy., San Jose, CA 95134, 
(408) 473-9200. 
Inquiry 1293. 

54 BYTE • JANUARY 1991 

Instant Workstation. 
Just Add Open Desktop. 

Take a look at the vast majority of graphical workstations 
developed over the past decade and you'll see something 
they all have in common: 

An integrated UNIX® System environment. 

Now take a look at the vast majority of businesses that have put 
computing power directly onto their office desktops over the 
past decade, and you'll see something they all have in common: 

Industry-standard personal computers. 

It doesn't take a computer to forecast the platform that's going 
to put graphical workstations on the vast majority of business 
and engineering desktops in the next decade: 

An integrated UNIX System environment for industry-standard 
personal computers. 

And that's what Open Desktop™ is all about. 

Open Desktop is the complete graphical operating system 
that's built on the most popular UNIX System platform of 
all time— SCO". And it lets you create your own networked, 
icon-driven workstation environment using the industry- 
standard 386 or 486 computers and peripherals of your choice. 


n a single, easy-to-use, fully supported— and completely 
integrated— package, Open Desktop delivers: 

• the full 32-bit, multitasking computing power of SCO UNIX 
System V/386 

• compliance with POSIX™ and X/Open® standards 

• an OSF/Motif™-based, Presentation Manager-compatible, 
graphical user interface 

• distributed SQL database management services 

• compatibility with existing DOS, XENIX®, and UNIX System 
applications and data files 

• NFS™, TCP/IP, and LAN Manager networking facilities 
And all at an unbelievably affordable price. 

Discover the complete graphical operating system that 
leading companies worldwide are choosing as their devel- 
opment platform for the '90s— and using to turn their 386 and 
486 PCs into instant workstations today. 

Open Desktop from SCO. 


The Complete Graphical Operating System 



BOOTH # 1005! 


For more information, call SCO today and ask for ext. 8400 
(800) SCO-UNIX (726-8649) (408) 425-7222 FAX: (408) 458-4227 E-MAIL: ... !uunet!sco!info info@sco.COM 

SCO, tht SCO logo. Open Desktop, and the Optii Desktop logo are trademarks of TiicSanla Cruz Operation, Inc. UNIX is a registered iradi-markof AT&T in the USA and cither countries. t'OSIX is a trademarkof The Institute of electrical and blednmics Engineers (I F.K1L). X/Opcn is a 
registered trademark of X/Opcn Company lid. OSF/Motif is a trademark of The Open Software Foundation. Inc. XI- NIX is a registered trademark of ,\ ration. NFS is a trademark of Sun Microsystems. Inc. |tl/H ( ) 

OI'WMhe Santa Cru/. Operation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The Santa Cruz Operation. Inc., -*«<> Ischial Stri-cl. l'.O. liox l')(H), Santa Cruz, California WIM l!SA The Santa Cruz Operation. Ltd.. Croxlej- Centre. Halters Lane, Watford WIN KYN, (ireal Britain, +-H <0)92.S«IM-H, 
FAX: +-H <l)) l )2AKl77Kl,mKX: l )l7.S7>SU)I.ONi; 

Circle 285 on Reader Service Card 

To see all its advantages, 

NEC PowerMate S86/S3E 

Combining great power and speed with the enhanced compati- 

bility of EISA architecture, the PowerMate® 386/33E is just what 

i8 Po-crMaw 36a<33€ ft 

:> ea«J« and display) PowefMiie. NEC. and C&C nro <ogulorod Iradomarkt ot NEC Corpoialmn 

farsighted businesses need. For CAD/CAM. Financial modeling. 

PS# ii a fefltuermt Imternarli end OS/2 is a tudemarlt ot 


Computers and Communications 

you'll need powerful specs. 

Intel 386™ microprocessor 
33 MHz processing speed 

(zero wait states) 
8 MHz compatibility mode 

(1 wait state) 
Optional Weitek WTl 3167 

or Intel 387 math coprocessor 
Calendar/clock (with battery backup) 

4 MB or 8 MB (80 ns) 

memory standard 
Dedicated 32-bit high-speed 

Concurrent Memory Bus 

architecture (33 MHz) 
Total high-speed memory 

expandable to 32 MB 
64 KB (20 ns) SRAM cache 
Parallel printer port 
Two RS-232C serial ports 
PS/2*°-style mouse port 
PS/2-style keyboard port 
One 32-bit full-size memory slot 
Five 8/16/32-bit ISA/EISA 

full-size slots 
One 8/16-bit full-size ISA slot 
One 8/16-bit half-size ISA slot 


Five 5 Va" half-height 

Support for alternate two 
full-height 5 Va" and one 
half-height configuration 


101-key mechanical keyboard 

Separate numeric and cursor 
control pads 

Power-on password 
Keyboard password 
Network password 
System cover lock (optional) 

Windows™ 3.0 
NEC-enhanced OS/2™ (optional) 
SCO™ UNIX® System V (optional) 
NEC-enhanced EISA 
configuration utility 


Floppy disk drives 

-1.2 MB 5 Va" 

-1.44 MB 3 Vz" (5 Va" form factor) 

-100 MB 3 W ESDI 

-118 MB 3/2" SCSI 

( < 20ms, 5 Va" form factor) 
-140 MB 5 Va" ESDI ( < 18ms) 
-300 MB 5 Va" SCSI ( < 18ms) 
-300 MB 5 Va" ESDI ( < 18ms) 
-600 MB 5 Va" SCSI ( < 16ms) 
Tape drives 
-40 MB 5 M." 
-150 MB high-speed 5 Va" 
EISA SCSI host adaptor (optional) 
—EISA bus master capability 
—support for 7 SCSI devices 

—32-bit EISA bus interface 
—33 MB/second burst rate 
— scatter-gather transfer 
—SCSI command queuing 
—auto configuration 
ESDI controller (optional) 

— MultiSync 2A 

-MultiSync 4D 
—MultiSync 5D 

MultiSync® Graphics Engine™ 
-intelligent 50 MHz 

TMS34010 processor 
—VGA compatible (640x480, 

16 colors) 
-Super VGA (800x600, 16 colors) 
-1024x768 (interlaced) 
—1024x768 (non-interlaced) 
— 256-color version available 

Width: 21.2" (538 mm) 
Depth: 17.7" (450 mm) 
Height: 6.3" (160 mm) 
Weight: 51 lbs (23 kg) 


Temperature— 50° to 95° F 

Relative humidity 

—20% to 80% (non-condensing) 

Power supply 

-universal 115V/230V 

—auto sensing 

—325 watt maximum rated outpu 

Multi-media. Presentation graphics. In short, for virtually any com- 

MS-DOS «rnl Mcrototl (is refpileH 

plex application requiring the ultimate in 386 computing, it's a 

SCO <l • Midornitk ol The Sunn Ciui Opotidon UNIX ig a rog.ili 

perfect fit. For more details, call 1-800-NEC-INFO. 

Fechnoiagifli inc C19M NEC Technology!, t 

Circle 214 on Reader Service Card 




ChainLink Doesn't 
Fence You In 

Connect Works' Chain- 
Link uses standard tele- 
phone wire, a central switch- 
ing unit, and software to link 
as many as 16 PCs and lap- 
tops or up to 48 printers. With 
a transfer rate of 1 15,000 bps 
and average throughput of 
77,240 bps, the network re- 
quires DOS 3 . 1 , a hard disk 
drive, and a serial port on 
each PC. It is mouse 

Through its switching unit, 
ChainLink provides file trans- 
fer, peripheral sharing, E- 
mail, print spooling, and di- 
rectory management capa- 
bilities for each linked PC. 
Since ChainLink remains 
resident in RAM, you can use 
a hot key to access it while 
you're working in another 

Price: Four users, $395; 
eight users, $595; 16 users, 

Contact: ConnectWorks 
Co., 1 10 Causeway Dr., P.O. 
Box 497, Wrightsville Beach, 
NC 28480, (800) 992-5465 or 
(919) 256-2366. 
Inquiry 1294. 

Two for the Network 
from US Sage 

Two networking products 
are new from US Sage. 
MainLan 386 equips 386- 
compatible PCs as network file 
servers; MainLan for PS/1 is 
a 10-Mbps Ethernet adapter 
card for networking PS/1 

The MainLan 386 kit in- 
cludes NetBIOS-compatible 
system software, 10-Mbps 
Ethernet cards, and cabling. 
Designed for systems of up to 
255 users of cross-network 
transactions, the system re- 

ChainLink users can do such things as exchange files, send and 
receive E-mail, and share peripherals. 

quires a 386 or 386SX com- 
puter as a dedicated file 
server. MainLan 386 runs 
with Microsoft Windows 3.0 
and is Novell NetWare 

MainLan for PS/1 links a 
computer as a workstation or a 
file server. The card is avail- 
able as part of a kit or by itself. 
The kit includes two 10- 
Mbps Ethernet cards, Main- 
Lan NetBIOS-compatible 
software, and cabling. Cards 
are compatible with Main- 
Lan' s operating system as well 
as with Novell NetWare. 
MainLan for PS/1 also runs 
with Windows 3.0. 
Price: MainLan 386 kit: two 
to four users, $999; two to 
eight users, $1399. MainLan 
software only: two to four 
users, $599; two to eight 
users, $999; unlimited use, 
$1499; 8-bit Ethernet card 
with Novell drivers, $249. 
MainLan for PS/1 kit, $499; 
8-bit PS/1 Ethernet card with 
Novell drivers, $199; Main- 
Lan 3.12 peer-to-peer operat- 
ing system software, $199. 
Contact: US Sage, Inc., 
2005 Tree Fork Lane, Suite 
1 13, Longwood, FL 32750, 
Inquiry 1295. 

Color Graphics 
in a Fax Board 

The Communique 
Fax9600, a half-slot, 
9600-bps fax board, com- 
bines the convenience of a 
stand-alone fax machine with 
the power of a personal com- 
puter, according to its manu- 
facturer. Requiring a PC with 
640K bytes of RAM, a hard 
disk drive, DOS 3.0 or higher, 
a graphics display card, and a 
mouse, the board's key feature 
is its user interface. You op- 
erate the system using mouse- 
activated icons, buttons, and 
scroll bars. It is compatible 
with VGA, EGA, CGA, and 
Hercules graphics modes. 

To send a fax, you type in 
the text or load it from any 
ASCII text file; Communi- 
que automatically inserts a 
custom letterhead and per- 
sonal signature. The system 
uses typefaces with propor- 
tional spacing. Other features 
include a Phonebook, which 
allows you to store and group 
names; mail-merge com- 
mands that automatically 
merge Phonebook informa- 
tion into your text; and a clip- 
ping function, which lets you 
save portions of a received fax 
to use as graphics in other 
documents. A hot key to pop 
up Communique from any 
DOS program and a TSR pro- 
gram requiring less than 9K 

bytes of RAM round out the 
Price: $279. 

Contact: Grey Matter Re- 
sponse, Inc., P.O. Box 3147, 
Santa Cruz, CA 95063, (408) 
Inquiry 1296. 

High-Speed Modem 
for PCs and 

A 9600-bps V . 32 modem 
for IBM PCs and Macin- 
toshes is available from Intel. 
Providing error-free through- 
put of up to 38,400 bps, the 
9600EX conforms to interna- 
tional modem standards. A 
plug-and-play modem, it in- 
stalls without jumpers or 
switches. The modem operates 
in synchronous or asynchro- 
nous mode over dial-up or two- 
wire leased lines and carries 
a five-year warranty. 

The 9600EX supports the 
V.42 Link Access Procedure 
for Modems and MNP 
through level 5. Automatic 
speed selection allows you to 
use the 9600EX with 4800-, 
2400-, 1200-, and 300-bps 

comes with Communications 
by Crosstalk; the Macintosh 
version includes Quick Link II 
by Smith Micro Software. 
Price: IBM version, $799; 
Macintosh version, $819. 
Contact: Intel Personal 
Computer Enhancement Oper- 
ation, C03-7, 5200 North- 
east Elam Young Pkwy., Hills- 
boro, OR 97124, (800) 538- 
3373 or (503) 629-7354. 
Inquiry 1297. 

58 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 

Look for these products among the... 

Microsoft C 



System version 6.0 
is simply the fastest, most 
productive professional C 
environment for ^^ !r h mf\G*-'±f§ 

MS-DOS, Microsoft gWllCwUiHIiS, 
Windows, or Microsoft OS/2 Presentation 
Manager applications. 6.0 features include: The 
Programmer's Workbench, a new approach to 
development-integrating all tools into one 
environment; Source Browsing-interactively see 
any part of the project with the revolutionary 
project database, which can tell you where any- 
thing is located; CodeView 3. 0— third generation 
of the industry-leading debugger which allows 
developers to use as little as 15K from DOS's 
640K space. (£ q A (\ 

List: $495 Ours: $J*+7 

FAXcetera # 1269-0014 

that don't 

Get to the market quicker 
with graphics that don't 
compromise performance. 
The GSS® Graphics 
Development Toolkit (GDT) for DOS gives you 
access to more than 100 high-level graphics 
functions and supports over 300 graphics devices. 
Choose from C, FORTRAN, Pascal, BASIC 
Compiler or Macro Assembler. IBM has licensed 
the GDT for three PC operating systems: DOS, 
OS/2, and AIX. SPC's Harvard Graphics and 
Ashton-Tate's Draw APPLAUSE use GDT 
technology. So do hundreds of other PC packages 
for science, business and engineering. 

List: $595 Ours: 4>49'7 

FAXcetera # 1088-0001 

(800) 445-7899 

(201) 389-9228 

"The detail of CommLib 
is exceptional." 

- Telecomputing Magazine 

NEW! Greenleafs CommLib 3.1 now supports 
Intelligent Multiport boards and 16550 UARTS! 
Plus hundreds of C functions for communications: 
Hayes modem control. Free source. On-line help. 
196 example programs. All major 


compilers supported. (h^ A C\ 
List: $359 Ours: q>Z^f^7 

GREEN LEAF FAX«tera # 1035-0007 



Unleash 386 power 

on your Microsoft C code with WATCOM C8.0/ 

386, a 100% ANSI C optimizing compiler and 

run-time library generating applications for 32-bit 

386 protected mode. With 

C8.0/386, you can go 

beyond the 640K DOS 

limit. Library and source 

compatibility with 

Microsoft C simplifies 

porting 16-bit applications 

to the 386. Significant 

features include: full-screen 

source-level debugger; 

protected mode version of the WATCOM 

compiler; execution profiler; linker; 

graphics library. Run-time compatible with 

WATCOM F77/386. 

Standard (b/^QA 

List: $895 Ours: 4)0.3./ 


List: $1295 Ours: 

FAXcetera # 1683-0001 



Vitamin C Supercharge 

Supercharge your 

applications with 

windows, menus, forms, 

and a spectacular user 

interface. Vitamin C's 

powerful library of C 

functions includes 

overlapping virtual 

windows, data entry 

forms, dialog boxes, 

menus, context sensitive help, a pop-up text editor, 

mouse support, and more! Library source is 

included, and applications are royalty free. 

Available for DOS, OS/2, UNIX, XENIX and VAX. 



List: $225 Ours: 
FAXcetera # 1437-0001 


A Division of 
Voyager Software Corp 
1 163 Shrewsbury Avenue 
Shrewsbury. NJ 07702 

Programmer's Paradise 


• •• 

We'll Beat The Competition's Advertised Prices 



DESQview386w/QEMM 220 169 

Microsoft Windows 3.0 1 50 99 

VM/386 245 209 


VM/386 Multiuser 
VM/386 Multiuser Starter 

895 839 
395 339 








386 ASM/LinkLoc 1295 

386/DOS Extender 495 

C Windows Toolkit/386 200 

C-Te'p 386 239 

Lahey F77L-EM/32 (w/ OS/386) 1 290 

MetaWare High C 386 895 

Novell C Network Compi ler/386 995 

PC-lint 386 239 

WATCOM C 8.0/386 Prof. 1 295 

w/ 386/DOS Extender 1790 

WATCOM C 8.0/386 Standard 895 

WATCOM FORTRAN 77/386 1 095 

Zortech C++ 386 995 


Academic IntegrAda 249 

Ada Scope Debugger 495 

Ada Training Environment 895 

Adagraphics 695 

IntegrAda 795 

Meridian Ada Developer's Kit 1 1 95 1095 


Advantage Disassembler 295 279 

ASMFlow 99 89 

MS Macro Assembler 1 50 105 

OPTASM 150 129 

Resource 150 129 

Sourcer w/ Pre-Processor 170 149 

SpontaneousAssembly 395 189 

Turbo Debugger & Tools 150 1 05 

Visible Computer: 80286 1 00 89 


MS BASIC Prof. Devel. System 495 349 

Power Basic 1 29 89 

QuickBASIC 99 69 


GraphPak Professional 149 129 

P.D.Q. 129 115 

ProBas 159 149 

ProBas Toolkit 99 94 

QBase 149 125 

QuickComm 149 119 

QuickPak Professional 169 149 

QuickWindows Advanced 149 119 


Lattice C 6.0 
Microsoft C 6.0 
w/ Objective-C 
MS QuickC 2.5 

MS QuickC w/QuickAssembler 
Turbo C 2.0 

WATCOM C 8.0 Professional 495 419 

WATCOM C 8.0 Standard 395 335 














Intek C++ 

Rogue Wave Math.h++ 
Rogue Wave Tools. h++ 
Turbo C++ 

Turbo C++ Professional 
Competitive Upgrade 
Zinc Library 
Zortech C++ 
Zortech C++ Database 
Zortech C++ Debugger 
Zortech C++ Developer's Edition 
Zortech C++ Tools 
Zortech C++ Video Course 


Breakout II 

CAsynch Manager 3.0 
C Communications Toolkit 
Essential Communications 
Greenleaf CommLib 
Greenleaf ViewComm 
SilverComm "C" Async Library 


AccSys fordBASE or Paradox 

Btrieve Devel. System 

Codebase IV 


dBC III Plus 

db.FILE Bundle 

Essential B-Tree w/ source 

Paradox Engine 

The Toolbox - Prof. Edition 

The Toolbox - Special 


C Function Library 
C Utility Library 
Greenleaf Functions 
Greenleaf SuperFunctions 
Turbo C TOOLS/2.0 



Greenleaf DataWindows 
Vermont Views 
Vitamin C 
VC Screen 


BarCode Library 

Clear for C 

C Shroud 

Heap Expander 




PCYACC Professional 















































































































EasyCASE Plus 

Professional Pack 
Personal CASE 


Micro Focus: 

COBOL/2 w/Toolset 

Personal COBOL 
Realia COBOL 


Clarion 2. 1 

Clipper 5.0 

Data Junction Advanced 




Dr. Switch-ASE 




Force 2.1 


FUNCKy Library 

R&R Code Generator 

R&R Report Writer 

Say What'! 

SilverComm "C" Interface 

SilverComm Library 2.0 

The Documentor 

Tom Rettig's Library 

UI2 Version 2 


Periscope Debuggers 

w/ optional cable 
Turbo Debugger & Tools 



Clear for C or dBASE 


Flow Charting 3 

Interactive Easyflow 

Source Print 

Tree Diagrammer 


BRIEF 3.0 






PI Editor 

Sage Professional Editor 

SLICK Editor 

Speed Edit 






Link & Locate ++ 

Link & Locate ++ Extended 



Lahey F77L 

Lahey Personal FORTRAN 77 





Baby Driver 

Essential Graphics 


Graf/Drive Plus Developer's 

Graphic 5.0 

GSS Graphics Devel. Toolkit 

GX Graphics 


HALO Professional 

HALO Window Toolkit 




MetaWindow Plus 

PCX Effects 

PCX Programmer's Toolkit 

PCX Text 


Slate w/ graphics 

Turbo Geometry Library 


Overlay Toolkit 

























































































































































































Smalltalk/V 286 






MS OS/2 Pres. Manager Toolkit 

MultiScope for OS/2 


PI Editor 

Smalltalk/V PM 

Vitamin C (OS/2) 

Zortech C++ OS/2 Devel. Ed. 


Asynch PLUS 

B-tree Filer 


Object Professional 


Power Tools PLUS/5.0 


Topaz Multi-user 

Turbo Analyst 


Turbo Pascal 6.0 

Turbo Pascal 6.0 Professional 

Turbo-Plus 5.5 

Turbo Professional 5.0 


MKS Make 

MKS Software Mgmt. Team 
PVCS Professional 
5 Station LAN 


Actor 3.0 

Asymetrix Toolbook 

Bridge Toolkit 



dB Fast; Windows 


Drover's Toolbox for Windows 

w/ source 
More Power to You 
MS Windows Development Kit 
MultiScope for Windows 
Resource Workshop 
Spinnaker Plus 

WNDX GUI Toolbox 


























































































































More Power To You 

A Softelligence library that extends the 
Microsoft Windows SDK 3.0 to allow di- 
rect hardware access to video modes, 
memory and registers. Provides direct 
access to the DPMI (DOS Protected Mode 
Interface) services, bypassing the Windows 
3.0 GDI for instantaneous control of video, 
memory, keyboard, mouse, joystick, etc. 
Includes examples of animation, arcade- 
style games, and MIDI. Source available. 
Requires Windows SDK 3.0, MS C 6.0. 
List: $395 Ours: $339 

Zortech C++ Database Library 

A collection of C++ classes using OOP's 
techniques, to provide all that's needed to 
construct a single/multi-user b-tree data- 
base system. Comes with FULL SOURCE 
CODE and extensive documentation. 

List: $300 Ours: $255 

CASE:PM for C++ 

Caseworks CASEiPM for C++ Common 
View prototypes CUA compliant Presen- 
tation Manager interfaces, then generates 
the required Glockenspiel C++ and 
Common View Object Classes for the 
graphical user interface of Presentation 
Manager applications. 
List: $1995 Ours: $1799 

Guaranteed Best Prices! 



Want more product information 
on the items in the gold box to 
the right? Try FAXctf era !! 
Just pick up your FAX phone 

and dial 201-389-8173. 

Enter the FAXcetera product 

code listed below each product 

description-information will be 

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BLAST 495 395 

Epsilon 195 169 

Esix System V (2 user) 595 535 

Unlimited 825 745 

Informix Products CALL CALL 

Interactive Products CALL CALL 

LPI-COBOL 1495 1199 

LPI-FORTRAN 995 799 

MetaWare High C 895 849 

Microport Products CALL CALL 

MKS RCS 395 335 

MKS Trilogy 119 105 

Norton Utilities 295 235 

PI Editor 349 319 

RM/COBOL85 2250 1895 


SVS C 725 689 

SVS FORTRAN 825 795 

SVS Pascal 725 689 

VEDIT PLUS 285 249 

Vermont Views 1795 1489 

Zortech C++ Compiler 500 425 


APL*PLUS 695 549 

BalerXE 795 579 

Dan Bricklin's Demo II 199 159 

Dan Bricklin's Page Garden 100 69 

dBx/dBPort 600 459 

Guido 249 189 

lake Getter's Spell Checking Eng. 249 225 

Lattice RPG 1600 1285 

MKS AWK 99 79 

Opt-Tech Sort/Merge 149 119 

PC Scheme 95 79 

Personal Rexx 150 139 


BLAST II 250 225 

Carbon Copy Plus 199 129 

Laplink III 150 99 

PC Anywhere III 145 99 

Procomm Plus 99 63 

SideTalk 1 20 99 


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Corel Draw! 595 399 

HALO DPE 195 139 

PageMaker 795 509 

Ventura Publisher 895 589 


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200 179 
495 315 
695 625 

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errors in competitors' ads. 

• Subject to same terms and conditions. 


AutoCAD Release 10 





Design CAD 3-D 

Drafix Windows CAD 


Generic CADD Level 3 

LABTECH Acquire 

LABTECH Notebook 


Oread PCB 




Systat w/Sygraph 

Tango PCB Series II 




Lotus 1-2-3 3.1 
Microsoft Excel 
Quattro Professional 



above DISC 



Cache 86 

Central Point Backup 


HeadRoom 2.0 

Hi]aak v. 2.0 

Hold Everything 



MACE 1990 


MKS Toolkit 


Norton Commander 

Norton Utilities 5.0 


PC Tools Deluxe 6.0 

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Sidekick Plus 


Software Carousel 

SpinRite II 

Squish Plus 


Tree 86 

Turbo EMS 5.0 


XTreePro Gold 




Microsoft Word for Windows 

WordPerfect 5.1 

Programmer's Policies 

Phone Orders 

Hours Mon-Fri 8:30 AM-7 PM EST, 
Sat 9:30-2:30 EST. We accept 
MC,Visa, AMEX. Domestic shipments, 
please add $5 per item for shipping/ 
handling by UPS ground. For domestic 
COD shipments, please add $3. 
Rush service available. 

Mail or FAX Orders 

POs are welcome. Please include 
phone number. 

International Service 

Phone number required with order. 
Call or FAX for additional information. 

Dealers Welcome! 

Call for information. 

Corporate Accounts 

Call CORSOFT, our corporate sales 
division at (800) 422-6507. Ask about 
volume purchase agreements. 

Unbeatable Prices 

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An assembly language library that lets you produce the fastest, tightest 

possible programs with the same ease you'd 
expect from a high-level language. It 
includes an impressive collection of over 
700 functions and macros for high-speed 
text windowing, heap management, array 
searching and sorting, critical error 
management, 32/64 Dit integer math, and 
much more! Comprehensive 750+ page 
manual. Full source code. No royalties. 
Easy integration with C. 
"If you program in assembly language, 
you gotta have SpontaneousAssembly," 
- Michael Abrash 

DEVELOPMENT L ; st: $ 395 Qurs: 5189 FAXcetera #261 4-0001 


DialogCoder is a powerful "C" source code 
generator for MS Windows 3.0 application 
development. It provides a complete develop- 
ment environment for the creation, modification 
and maintenance of source code to support 
dialog boxes. With DialogCoder's simple point 
& click graphical interface, in just minutes 
source code is generated to support simple flat 
WYSIWYG dialogs to highly complex dialogs. DalogCoder Set-up Window 
Dialogs that useato take hours or days to program can now be programmed 
in minutes, eliminating endless hours of costly debugging and coding time. 
Supports custom code, automatic regeneration of source code, owner-drawn 
controls, optional generation of DLLs, edit field validation, and much more. 

List: $499 Ours: 5479 FAXcetem #2939-0001 

.RTLink®/Plus 4.10 
with VML™ 

(Virtual Memory Linking) 

Automatically execute large MS-DOS programs in 
as little as 100K, or execute in all available memory. 
No source code changes. 

Supports Microsoft C, QuickC, MASM, FORTRAN, 
Pascal, CodeView, Clipper S'87, and Clipper 5.0. 

List: $495 Ours: $359 

Pocket Soft, Inc. FAXcetem #1987-0002 


Hyper-Word is a multi-window hypertext word processor and develop- 
ment system. Instantly create interactive tutorials and reference systems. 
Hyper-Word provides you with the necessary navigation tools to create 
and explore vast amounts of information. Includes context sensitive help, 
multi-level undo, pull-down menus. For the 
programmer: create program mock-ups, automatically 
display subroutine from any reference, interrelate all 
program source files. Full WYSIWYG word processing 
features; 120,000 word main dictionary plus user 
dictionary, recent reference list, multiple printers and 
font control. Uses standard text files. Works with or 
without mouse. Network compatible. Not copy 

List: $149 Ours: $109 7hDC\k\ SOFTWARE 

Since 1978 

FAX^^ra #2868-0001 



International: 201-389-9228 
Customer Service: 201-389-9229 
Fax: 201-389-9227 

Corporate: 800-422-6507 
Canada: 800-445-7899 
FAXcetem: 201-389-81 73 

Call or Write for Latest Free Catalog! 


A Division of Voyager Software Corp 

1 1 63 Shrewsbury Ave., Shrewsbury, NJ 0770; 

Circle 265 on Reader Service Card 




Develop DSP 
on the Mac 

DSP Designer 1. 1, for de- 
veloping digital signal 
processing applications, now 
includes Z, a C-like interpre- 
tive language for modeling. 
Zola says you can use Z to 
create a model of your DSP 
algorithm to make sure it's 
correct before you use it in 
a program. Z also provides 
floating-point filter 

DSP Designer includes 
analysis and simulation capa- 
bilities for digital filters. You 
can use it to create, manipu- 
late, and display real and 
complex-value test signals, as 
well as for generating filter 
code for the Motorola 
DSP56001 24-bit processor. 

A DSP I/O Subsystem sup- 
ports real-time evaluation of 
DSP56001 programs running 
on Digidesign's Audiomedia or 
Sound Accelerator cards. 

DSP 1.1 works directly 
with MPW 3.0, letting you de- 
velop and test in a single 
Price: $895. 

Contact: Zola Technologies, 
Inc., 6195 Heards Creek Dr. 
NW, Suite 201, Atlanta, GA 
30328, (404) 843-2972. 
Inquiry 1298. 

C Function 
for AutoCAD 

A set of C function librar- 
ies that provides four 
components for CAD/CAM 
applications helps you write 
stand-alone applications or 
applications that can link into 
AutoCAD through release 
1 1 's new C-binding interface. 

The components include 
DXF input and output, 2-D and 
3-D geometry display and 
geometry operations, and list 
management. The CAD/ 

m,. Fdii Hint Murk lUlndom Project lllieitunj Build ^5^J Plot gfg 

Bantlrum hllei - flrhHruf if Slonlmrnt 

DandposH niter - Arbitrary Slnnliiind j 


Plot Signal... 




I nummi'f ilh't ... 
Pin I niter... 

r \£,«D,a <B« 

Play Signal.,. 


CCalc-uIate Selection 95« 
Set Numeric Formal... 

f . . ,t\ 

40 50 60 

From within the MPW shell, a menu provides access to all DSP 
Designer commands. 

CAM Developer's Kit supports 
a variety of C compilers. 
Price: $1295. 
Contact: Building Block 
Software, P.O. Box 1373, 
Somerville, MA 02144, 
Inquiry 1299. 

Screen Manager 
for C Programmers 

Screen Manager Profes- 
sional (SMP) 2.0, an in- 
terface design library that 
supports a variety of C pro- 
gramming environments, in- 

cludes functions for windows, 
menus, context-sensitive 
help, data entry, and keyboard 
and mouse support. 

SMP 2.0 includes event- 
driven mouse support, accord- 
ing to Magee Enterprises. 
The program supports Person- 
ics' Ultra Vision, so that ap- 
plications can display up to 120 
columns by 63 rows. 

A minimum configuration 
requires 1 3K bytes of RAM, 
with a maximum configura- 
tion using 34K bytes. SMP 2.0 
supports Microsoft C 5. 1 and 
6.0, Turbo C and C++, Zor- 
tech C and C++ 2.0, Wat- 
corn C 7.0, and Lattice C 6.0. 

-8. 5451 ,-8. 3266 

Comaikt: Mdlnodes 

Connand: 'redraw 

The CAD/CAM Developer's Kit makes it easy to write 
parametric applications for AutoCAD, such as this sailplane 
design program. 

Price: $349.95 (royalty 


Contact: Magee Enterprises, 

Inc., P.O. Box 1587, Nor- 

cross, GA 30091, (404) 


Inquiry 1300. 

Maintenance Tool 

When you're involved in 
software maintenance, 
trying to unravel the struc- 
ture and logic of someone 
else's program can be exas- 
perating. Hindsight, Advanced 
Software Automation's soft- 
ware maintenance tool for 
Unix workstations, helps you 
evaluate code performance and 
understand code structure. 

Hindsight generates graph- 
ical interactive structure charts 
and active logic diagrams 
from your existing C code. 
Functions and paths are color 
coded to clarify relationships. 
The program's assisted code 
tracing lets you follow function 
calls and references by point- 
ing to a reference and jumping 
to the referenced line. 

For software testing, 
Hindsight monitors the effec- 
tiveness of your quality-as- 
surance methods as you test 
program code, providing res- 
olution of test coverage results 
down to the procedural level, 
the company says. 

Hindsight tracks changes 
from one version of a program 
to the next and automatically 
updates documentation. 

Hindsight runs on Unix 
workstations (including Apol- 
lo, DEC, IBM, and Sun) run- 
ning Motif, Open Look, or 

Price: $12,000 to $23,000. 
Contact: Advanced Software 
Automation, Inc., 2880 Lake- 
side Dr., Suite 226, Santa 
Clara, CA 95054, (408) 
Inquiry 1301. 

62 BYTE • JANUARY 1991 

To become 

the hottest name 

in dot matrix printers 


one tenific 



PanaSOm'C BOfHPHUM Sa PIN Multi-Mode Printer 


The award-winning KX-P1124. 

after another, 

Panasonic 5K7<: ; ^" 

-i T r 

5 | 

Panasonic : ; '" :;'':; ;iJ "{J »A-M..*f 

Panasonic '; ■ sanNMuui-Modeprfnur 


f * 


Panasonic K -^ y-M M.«M**eF 



Panasonic •■■ : -^,i_; 24 p, N Mum-Mode prmtor 

I II ■ ■ ■wiw i 

after another. 

If you want 
the same 
features as 
the 1124, but 
with a wide 

If you want 
high speed, 
high volume 
for spread- 
sheets and 

If you want 
near laser 
quality at 
dot matrix 

A few years ago, we redefined what 
people expect from a dot matrix printer. 
By creating a 24-pin as sophisticated as it is 
simple. And as affordable to buy as it is 
economical to own. 

The KX-P1124 has won its share of 
awards. But it's not the only PanasonkfDot 
Matrix to receive rave reviews. Now there's 

a whole family to choose from. All with 
EZ Set™ operator panel, multiple paper paths, 
a variety of fonts, 2-year limited parts and labor 
warranty (see your dealer for details), and other 
features that typify our approach to price/per- 
formance for today's office environment 

There are feature-rich 9-pin models for 
every-day drafts. And supeib 24-pins for im- 
portant correspondence. In both regular and 
wide-carriage versions. 

And we've just introduced what may well be 
the quintessential office printer for the 90's, the 
KX-P1654. A wide-camage 24-pin that rockets 
along at up to 375 characters per second. With 
print quality approaching that of lasers. 

Chances are, your first Panasonic printer 
will lead to another, and another, and another. 

For further information on Panasonic Dot 
Matrix Printers, see your Panasonic dealer, or 
telephone toll-free 1-800-742-8086. 

Printers, Computers, Peripherals, 
Copiers, Typewriters and Facsimiles 


Office Automation/^^\^\ 

Engineered for the office. Designed for people. 


Circle 232 on Reader Service Card 



A-T Moves dBASE 
into the Sun 

For businesses that want 
to run DOS-based dBASE 
applications on Sun worksta- 
tions, Ashton-Tate developed 
dBASE IV for Sun. The pro- 
gram lets you port a DOS 
dBASE application to the Sun 
without reprogramming or re- 
compiling, except for occa- 
sional hardware differences, 
the company says. dBASE 
applications that need to run on 
ASCII terminals or non-PC- 
standard keyboards may re- 
quire slight modification, the 
company says. 

dBASE IV for Sun is an 
implementation of dBASE IV 
1.1, with enhancements to 
support multiuser and multi- 
tasking capabilities, virtual 
memory, and security. The 
program includes design 
tools that let you create 
screens, reports, menus, and 
other objects. The Automatic 
Code Generator can then pro- 
duce documented code for the 

dBASE IV for Sun runs on 
the Sun-3, Sun-4, Sun386i, 
Sparcstations, and Sparc- 
servers with at least 4 MB 
of RAM. 

Price: $995 for single-user 
license; multiuser package that 
adds up to four users, $2995. 
Contact: Ashton-Tate Corp., 
20101 Hamilton Ave., Tor- 
rance, CA 90509, (213) 
Inquiry 1302. 

dBASE IV for Sun includes the dBASE IV Control Center, from 
which you access the program 's design tools and code generator. 

Mac Mapping 
Program Has Its 

Descartes, a business 
mapping program for the 
Mac, includes its own rela- 
tional database, allowing you 
to combine your data with 
demographics and display it 
in maps and charts from one 

The program comes with a 
core set of data that includes 
state and county demograph- 
ics and boundaries, ZIP code 
and major city locations, and 
interstate highways. An im- 
porting tool lets you integrate 
data from other applications 
into the Descartes database. 

The company also pro- 
vides Snap-In Data geographic 
and statistics options such as 
Arbitron Areas of Dominant 
Influence, Nielsen Desig- 
nated Market Areas, and re- 

lated demographic data. The 
program requires a Mac SE 
or higher. 

Price: $795; Snap-In Data 
options, $100 to $3000. 
Contact: Intermap, Inc., 13 
Dartmouth College Hwy., 
Lyme, NH 03768, (603) 
Inquiry 1303. 

Accounting Entry 
Point for the Mac 

Accountant, Inc. Profes- 
sional uses a task ap- 
proach to accounting and fi- 
nance that shields users from 
having to learn accounting 
procedures they don't need to 
know, according to Softsync. 

The program integrates 
general ledger, accounts pay- 
able, accounts receivable, in- 
ventory, payroll, a project 
manager, and financial anal- 

ysis in one package. 

Price: $595. 

Contact: Softsync/BLOC, 

800 Southwest 37th Ave., Suite 

765, Coral Gables, FL 

33134, (800) 955-1888 or 


Inquiry 1304. 

by Objective 
with Key Results 

Key Results combines 
time and task manage- 
ment, planning, word pro- 
cessing, and information man- 
agement to help you control 
your time and accomplish 
goals, TMI says. By helping 
you manage your time, Key 
Results lets you set priorities, 
communicate, coordinate, and 
delegate tasks. 

The program provides an 
overview of goals, tasks, and 
activities, letting you know 
what's completed, what has to 
be done, and, perhaps more 
important, what can wait. 

The program integrates all 
of its sections (Diary, Key 
Area, and Key Results). As 
you make appointments, they 
are allocated time in daily, 
weekly, and monthly plans. 

Key Results works on the 
IBM PC with 512K bytes of 
Price: $595. 

Contact: TMI, Inc., 185 
Berry St., Suite 6504, San 
Francisco, CA 94107, (415) 
Inquiry 1305. 

FirstMark Seeks Out the Important Data 

For managers who want 
to analyze data to make 
decisions without having to 
rely on the interpretations of 
an intermediary statistical 
analyst, FirstMark has de- 
veloped KnowledgeSeeker. 
The program combines sta- 
tistics and AI to provide a 
snapshot of important trends 

and relationships in your 
business. It presents this in- 
formation in an interactive 
graphical decision tree or in 
the form of decision rules. 

KnowledgeSeeker can 
automatically derive these 
snapshots from data stored 
Lotus 1-2-3, or ASCII for- 

mat. By using AI and statis- 
tical analysis, the program 
lets you interact with your 
database or worksheet di- 
rectly to cull outcritical rela- 
tionships and patterns that 
fall along geographic or de- 
mographic lines. 

KnowledgeSeeker runs 
on the IBM PC with 640K 

bytes of RAM and a hard 
disk drive. 
Price: US$495. 
Contact: FirstMark Tech- 
nologies, Ltd., 14 Con- 
course Gate, Suite 600, Ot- 
tawa, Ontario, Canada K2E 
7S8, (800) 387-7335 or 
Inquiry 1306. 

66 BYTE • JANUARY 1991 

imnwi ccprocessor is 
chipoff the oldblock. 

That's Intel's. And our 
new family of Math 
Coprocessors is faster — 
up to 5096 for the 287XL. 
In fact, working side by side with the Intel 
microprocessor already inside your computer, 
an InteJ Math Coprocessor can increase the 
speed of your spreadsheet, graphics, CAD and 

database programs by as much as 50096. That's 
good to know. 

And the fact that it's made by Intel is also 
good to know. 

Because Intel developed the first Math 
Coprocessor in 1982, and we've shipped 
millions since then. Each one is manufactured 
by Intel in the world's most advanced logic 

facility, and then tested and retested against an 
exacting set of criteria. 

And we can guarantee that every Intel 
Math Coprocessor lives up to the industiy 
hardware standards we helped develop, 
delivering the same results regardless of what 
type of computer you're doing calculations on. 

So call Intel at (800) 538-3373. Ask for 

Literature Packet #F6 on Intel's new and im- 
proved Math Coprocessors. And put an Intel 
Math Coprocessor inside your computer. It's the 
only one with the Intel name to live up to. 


The Computer Inside: 

©1990 Intel Corporation. 386 and 387 are trademarks of Intel Corporation. 

Circle 151 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 152) 




Bring Your Data 
to Life 

EasyPlot 2.0, the interac- 
tive plotting and data- 
analysis package for the IBM 
PC, has a new windowing sys- 
tem for working with multi- 
ple graphs, expanded memory 
support, new editors, and im- 
proved analysis capabilities, 
its developer says. 

As you enter data or equa- 
tions, EasyPlot instantly gener- 
ates a plot, complete with tick 
marks and labels. You can then 
customize any aspect of the 
graph, changing axis ranges, 
including log scales, position 
of axes, tick mark locations, 
fill patterns, and other attri- 
butes. The program updates 
graphs immediately after 
every change. 

With EMS support, the 
program can now handle more 
than 100,000 points without 
having to do the disk shuffle. 
Text-based and graphical edi- 
tors let you add, delete, or 
adjust data points. 

The program's new curve- 
fitting algorithm works with 
any function of up to 20 un- 
knowns. The new version sup- 
ports dual axes, bar charts, 
and 3-D scatter plots that can 
rotate in real time. 

EasyPlot requires 400K 
bytes of RAM. 
Price: $349. 

Contact: Spiral Software, 6 
Perry St., Suite 2, Brookline, 
MA 02146, (800)333-1511 
or (617) 739-1511. 
Inquiry 1307. 

The Program 
of 10,000 Stars 

The new version of EZ- 
Cosmos includes a data- 
base of 10,000 stars and 
other celestial objects. Accord- 
ing to Future Trends Soft- 
ware, the program can display 
the sky as it would appear 
from any location on Earth be- 

EasyPlot *s pull-down menus let you access functions while 
graphs appear on the screen. You can annotate the graph directly 
and reposition objects by clicking and dragging. 

tween 4000 B.C. and 10,000 
A.D. You select a location by 
entering longitude or latitude 
or the name of a major city 
(more than 560 cities around 
the world are on file). Version 
3.0 also includes over 35 dig- 
itized photos of NGC (New 
General Catalog) objects and 
the solar system. 

You can search for celes- 
tial objects by common name, 
NGC designation, or constel- 
lation designation. You can 
also animate occurrences 
such as solar eclipses in inter- 
vals that you designate. 

The program requires 
512K bytes of RAM. 
Price: $69.95. 
Contact: Future Trends Soft- 

ware, P.O. Box 1418, DeSoto, 
TX 75115, (800)869-3279 
or (512) 443-6564. 
Inquiry 1308. 

CCD Image 
for the Mac 

For scientific imaging ap- 
plications in medicine, 
microscopy, and astronomy, 
the IPLab line of imaging pro- 
grams has been updated to 
work with the Photometries 
Series 200 charge-coupled- 
device camera. 

With IPLab-SU2, you can 
control the camera directly 

from the program. IPLab (for 
gray-scale) and IPLab/Spec- 
trum (for 24-bit color image 
processing) can both display 
and process image data with 
a dynamic range of more than 
8 bits per pixel while retain- 
ing data integrity, Signal 
Analytics says. 

The program provides 
image-processing operations 
such as fast Fourier trans- 
forms, linear and morphologi- 
cal filtering, and statistical 

IPLab-SU2 requires a Mac 
II with at least 4 MB of RAM, 
an 8-bit video card, and a 
hard disk drive. 
Price: $1099; with color sup- 
port, $1349. 

Contact: Signal Analytics 
Corp., 374 Maple Ave. E, 
Suite 200, Vienna, VA 
Inquiry 1309. 

This photo of the Trifid nebula, taken from the Kitt Peak 
Observatory, is one of many images included with EZCosmos. 

Easy Equilibrium 

For aquatic chemists, bio- 
chemists, and geologists 
who are tired of spending 
hours on complicated aqueous 
equilibrium solutions, Mi- 
croMath Scientific offers 
Equil. The program's built- 
in equilibrium compiler auto- 
matically constructs mass 
balance relationships. 

Equil 2.0 features an ex- 
panded database and now han- 
dles 300 reactions, over 100 
chemical reagents, and 400 
chemical species. You can 
now test reactions according to 
varying temperatures, and 
the program has several new 
methods for calculating the 
activity coefficient affecting 
equilibrium constant. 
Price: $249. 

Contact: MicroMath Scien- 
tific Software, P.O. Box 
21550, Salt Lake City, UT 
84121, (800) 942-6284 or 
(801) 943-0290. 
Inquiry 1310. 

70 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 



Take the Oops & Downs 
out of your next presentation. 

Fall Color Paint Company 



Tired of fumbling with slides? Fiddling with transparencies? 
Losing your audience? 

Well, it's time to use an LCD projection panel from In Focus 
Systems. It lets you project information just as it appears on your 
computer screen. Even bright, brilliant colors. 

So you make stronger presentations. And easily hold any audience. 
What's more, the 640x480 display works with IBM® compatibles, 
and the Macintosh® family, too. For more information or the name of 

the dealer nearest you, call 1-800-327-7231, 

Then take the oops and downs out of 
your next presentation. And put the audi- 
ence in the palm of your hand. 

See it. Believe it. 



!:i5ll "J:: ) 


"'■•'»„ ..^J 


Circle 157 on Reader Service Card 

7770 Southwest Mohawk Street, Tualatin, Oregon 97062. 
1-800-327-7231. Oregon, 503-692-4968. FAX, 503-692-4476. 

I KM and Macintosh arc registered trademarks of the 




Paint Landscapes 
on Your Monitor 

Going beyond the shoot- 
ing stars and flying ani- 
mals found in most screen- 
saver programs, Dawn paints 
landscapes on your IBM PC 
monitor. With thousands of 
variations on a dozen themes, 
the program puts art on your 
monitor when it's not in use. 
The program requires EGA 
graphics capability or higher. 
Price: $39.95. 

Contact: Iron Mtn Software, 
P.O. Box 1676, Mariposa, CA 
95338, (209) 742-5000. 
Inquiry 1311. 

No More Dirty 
Floppy Disk Drives 

Viruses are bad enough, 
but how do you know if 
dirt and dust in your floppy 
disk drive aren't causing you to 
lose data? A program called 
Trackmate Generation 3. tests 
your floppy disk drive's 
read/write heads and loading 
rail assembly to see if clean- 
ing is needed and recommends 
the length of the cleaning 

When you determine that 
there's too much dirt in your 
system, you insert a cleaning 
disk included with the soft- 
ware. The disk has 265,000 
absorbent filaments that fit the 
read/write heads and remove 
dirt. Additional brushes clean 
the loading rails. 

The program supports Vh- 
and 5 V£-inch floppy disk 
drives on the Mac and IBM 

Price: $34.95; $44.95 for the 
5 l A-/3 l/2-inch combination 
pack for PCs. 

Contact: Trackmate Ameri- 
ca Corp., 14577 South Bascom 
Ave., Los Gatos, CA 95032, 
Inquiry 1312. 

Even if your office doesn 't have a window, Dawn gives you a 
view of the great outdoors. 

Take Stock 
of Your Office 

In a large corporate envi- 
ronment, taking a PC census 
involves disrupting workers, 
pulling out boards, taking 
notes manually, and rekeying 
data into a database. PC Cen- 
sus makes it easier to tell 
who's got what and where it is. 

PC Census provides a cen- 
tralized inventory of the soft- 
ware and hardware in your 
installation, telling you what's 
on each system. 

When you run PC Census 
on a PC, it scans the machine's 
internals and recognizes 
hardware add-ins, applications 
such as WordPerfect, and 
other components, eliminating 
the need to take apart the PC 
and search through subdirec- 
tories. With a remote-access 
program, you can use PC Cen- 
sus on a LAN. 

Price: $745 for a combined 
hardware-software module for 
50 PCs. 

Contact: Tally Systems 
Corp., Buck Rd., P.O. Box 
70, Hanover, NH 03755, 
(800) 262-3877 or (603) 
Inquiry 1313. 

Central Point 
Unbundles Its 
Backup Program 

Central Point Backup is a 
stand-alone version of the 
backup program found in PC 
Tools Deluxe 6.0. The pro- 
gram lets you save options 
and selections for launching 
subsequent backups from the 
DOS command line. 

A character-based pro- 
gram, Central Point Backup 
includes a graphical user in- 
terface that makes it easy to 
select files and options to 

Electronic Directory of Toil-Free Numbers 

The Toll-Free Hotline 
contains more than 
1 15,000 listings drawn from 
AT&T's roster of 1-800 cus- 
tomers. Each listing in- 
cludes the company name, 
phone number, calling area, 
and demographic informa- 
tion. The program, which 
runs on the IBM PC, has a 

database manager and auto- 
dial capabilities. 
Price: $59.95. 
Contact: General Infor- 
mation, Inc., 11715 North 
Creek Pkwy. S, Suite 106, 
Bothell, WA 98011, (800) 
882-3900 or (206) 483- 
Inquiry 1317. 

perform regular backups. 
Price: $99. 

Contact: Central Point Soft- 
ware, Inc., 15220 Northwest 
Greenbrier Pkwy., Suite 
200, Beaverton, OR 97006, 
(503) 690-8090. 
Inquiry 1314. 

Get Up to Speed 
with Windows 

Microsoft developed its 
Productivity Pack for 
those who want to learn Win- 
dows 3.0 and get the most out 
of the operating environment. 
A Windows application, the 
Productivity Pack offers 
three tools. 

Learning Windows gets 
you up to speed while provid- 
ing on-line help. Working 
Smarter provides hints, tips, 
and strategies while you're in 
another Windows application. 
The Quick Troubleshooter 
helps you diagnose and answer 
Windows support questions. 
Price: $59.95. 
Contact: Microsoft Corp., 1 
Microsoft Way, Redmond, WA 
98052, (800) 426-9400 or 
(206) 882-8080. 
Inquiry 1315. 

Virus Protection 
Around the Clock 

This virus protection pro- 
gram works around the 
clock. Besides scanning for 
known viruses, HardDrive 
Overlord! seeks out activities 
often associated with viral at- 
tacks, such as a program's 
unauthorized attempt to stay 
resident in RAM. When it 
detects such activities, the pro- 
gram pops up a warning with 
options for stopping the func- 
tion or continuing. 
Price: $99.95. 
Contact: POP Computer 
Products, Inc., P.O. Box 
1389, Evergreen, CO 80439, 
(303) 674-0200. 
Inquiry 1316. 

72 BYTE • JANUARY 1991 

You Don't Have to be a Programmer to 
Develop Database Applications . . . 

Cottpany ABC Company 

Address 123 Ha in Street* - 


Citg/St/Zip Boston 

Ph. II 999-555-3333- 
Ph. 12 999-555-3334 
Fax I 999-555-4555 


U.P. Operations 

U.P. Sales/Marketing- 

Material Contact 

When You Use Nutshell Plus II! 

Programmers, dealers and end-users 
alike love the power of Nutshell Plus II. 
Imagine setting up a relational 
database ready to go in a matter of 
minutes! Don't worry if you change 
your mind; the database is modifiable 
instantly! Whether you wish to create 

a simple mailing list or sophisticated 
invoicing system that joins a master 
client file, the capability is all there — 
thanks to Nutshell's simplicity of 
setting up custom input screens, 
custom reports, form letters, labels. 
The list is endless! 


• Quick & easy design 

• Fast execution 

• Custom screen layouts 

• Sophisticated reports, form letters, 
labels, etc. 

• Relational lookups and information 

• Modifiable at any time 

New Features with Nutshell Plus II: 

• More import/export formats: dB ASE 
II, III and IV, FileMaker along with 

• More search/find capabilities 

• International symbol support 

• Runs up to 10 times faster than Ver.I. 

• Special upgrade pricing available to 
existing Nutshell users 

And also Nutshell Plus II 

• Nutplus II full development version 

• 4 run-time disks to distribute your 

• Designed specifically for corporate 
users, VARs, consultants and 

Don't Create Another Database Without Trying Nutshell Plus II. 

IRIS Software Products™ 

Visit your nearest retail dealer or call 1-800-582-IRIS to get the name of the 
dealer nearest you who sells Nutshell and Nutshell Plus II. 

P.O. Box 57, Stoughton, MA 02072 
Phone: 617-341-1990 FAX: 617-344-4640 

Circle 6 19 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 620) 



At last, low-cost, high performance PostScript® printing! This complete solution 
for PC publishers is yours for peanuts — from The Printer Works. 

For as little as $995* 

That's all it takes to command this powerful system consisting of a Canon 
CX™ printer for superb print quality. Plus a QMS JetScript™ controller which adds 
true Adobe PostScript, in 35 different fonts, for trouble-free compatibility with all your 
favorite applications. 

Now, for only $995, you can easily produce stunning type and graphics 
that will make you look like a desktop wizard. And you can do it faster than with 
PostScript cartridges because JetScript has its own high speed processor and 
3 megabytes of RAM. 

JetScript was developed jointly by Adobe Systems, QMS and Hewlett-Packard 
to bring the power of PostScript to the HP LaserJet™ Series II. If you already have 
an HP LaserJet II, or an original 

LaserJet, you can get the 
JetScript controller 
separately for as low 
as $495. That's a 
whopping 80% below 
the list price! 

Don't delay, call 
The Printer Works. 1-800-225-6116. 

And get PostScript for peanuts! 

* JetScript with refurbished Canon CX printer, $995 
JetScript with NEW Canon CX printer, $1295 
JetScript for original HP LaserJet or LaserJet Plus, $695 
JetScript for OEM CX (Cordata Etc.), $595 
JetScript for HP LaserJet II, $495 

Prices subject to change, quantities limited. Dealer Inquiries Welcome 


3481 Arden Road, Hay ward, CA 94545 

PostScript is a trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc. JetScript is a trademark of QMS. Inc. Canon CX 
is a trademark of Canon, Inc. Laserjet is a trademark of the Hewlett-Packard Company. 
01990 The Printer Works 

Circle 625 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 626) 



Chart Drawing 
Under Windows 3.0 
and the Mac 

Kidasa Software's newest 
release of Milestones, 
Etc., for creating Gantt 
charts, now supports up to 500 
task lines and up to 40 mile- 
stone symbols per task line. An 
auto-connect option automat- 
ically connects every two sym- 
bols on a line with a default 
connector type. It can import 
Comma Separated Variable 
files from Microsoft Project. 
Kidasa improved the pro- 
gram's metafile exchange to 
support Microsoft Power- 
Point, Windows Write, Word 
for Windows, Corel Draw, 
Ami Professional, Designer, 
and PageMaker. 
Price: $149. 

Contact: Kidasa Software, 
P.O. Box 1167, Manchaca, TX 
78652, (800) 666-3886 or 
Inquiry 1170. 

A program for those un- 
lucky ones who have to 
update company organiza- 
tional charts in these times of 
economic uncertainty, In- 
stant Orgcharting! takes ad- 
vantage of proportional fonts, 
multiple document interfaces, 
and other features of Win- 
dows 3.0. 

The program lets you 
choose from nine organization 
tree structures. As you enter 
new personnel information, 
the program automatically 
redraws the chart. By clicking 
on an employee box, you can 
access detailed information 
about each person. 
Price: $149. 
Contact: Roykore, Inc., 
2215 Filbert St., San Fran- 

Milestones, Etc. 2. 1 supports 300 more task lines and 30 more 
milestone symbols per task line than the previous version. 

cisco, CA 94123, (415) 


Inquiry 1171. 

The new version of Great 
Gantt! for the Mac in- 
cludes a dollar progress tool 
that lets you click on a bar to 
see how much money you've 
spent to date compared to how 
much you'd planned to 
spend. To allow for this new 
feature, Varcon Systems 
added two new fields, Planned 
Cost and Actual Cost, to the 
program. You can import cost 
data from a spreadsheet or 
other application or enter it di- 
rectly on the chart. 

A print preview function 
lets you view your Gantt chart 
before you print it by copying 
it to the Clipboard. New calen- 
dar options include day of 
year, day of schedule, week of 
year, week of schedule, and 
month of schedule. 

Great Gantt! 1.3 also has 
two new commands that bring 
a chart to the front or send it 
to the back of another task bar. 
The program's MacProject 
reader lets you easily create 
charts from Claris' s project 
management program, Varcon 
Price: $195. 

Contact: Varcon Systems, 
Inc., 10509 San Diego Mission 
Rd., Suite K, San Diego, CA 
Inquiry 1172. 

Bar Coding Design 
for Labels on the PC 

The Barney Ellis program 
integrates graphical de- 
sign, information manage- 
ment, and printing for the pro- 
duction of labels, forms, and 
signs. The program comes 
with 101 character fonts and 
several standard bar code 

Barney Ellis lets you work 
in WYSIWYG as you design 
the document or label. You 
can grow or shrink designs 
and rotate elements in 90- 
degree increments. 

You can queue and batch 
print jobs to achieve unat- 
tended printing on up to four 
printers. A report feature lets 
you keep track of printed ma- 
terial and who printed it. The 
program's data dictionary 
lets you access data in other 
spreadsheets, word proces- 
sors, and databases. 
Price: $1695. 

Contact: Integrated Software 
Design, Inc., 171 Forbes 
Blvd., Mansfield, MA 
02048, (508) 339-4928. 
Inquiry 1169. 

When Forms 
Meet a Database 

With the EZ-Forms' 
Database, you can man- 
age your business's informa- 
tion from one package, enter- 
ing new information through 
a form input screen that's 
linked to a dBASE-compat- 
ible database. Once you've en- 
tered the information into the 
form and transferred it to the 
database, you can perform 
relational operations (e.g., 
query, browse, seek, or 
record finds). 

EZ-Forms' Database loads 
a form that you've created with 
the included EZ-Forms Ex- 
ecutive as an input screen. You 
can also use one of the pro- 
gram's predesigned forms as 
an input screen. By giving a 
common name to the input 
screen field of the database 
and a cell within the form, you 
can transfer information be- 
tween forms and the database. 
In this way, information in 
the database is readily avail- 
able for insertion into any 
type of business form, the 
company says. 

The program can convert 
other file formats, such as 
fixed length, ASCII, or Fi- 
leExpress databases, into a 
dBASE EZ-Forms' Data- 
base. Because it generates 
dBASE files, any third-party 
product that uses the dBASE 
format will work with EZ- 
Forms' Database, the company 

Version 2. 1 of the program 
is available in single and LAN 
versions. Both versions come 
with 10 applications for inven- 
tory, time billing, phone- 
book, cities, and other busi- 
ness functions. 
Price: $239; LAN versions 
start at $795 for five users. 
Contact: EZX Corp., P.O. 
Box 58177, Webster, TX 
Inquiry 1168. 

72PC-4 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 

Microcom Computers 

A HRW Technologies Company 

All Systems with Free 4 Month On -Site Warranty 

Standard System Features: 

1MB RAM Standard 

(4 MB Standard on 486/25C Systems) 

* Teac 5.25' 1.2 MB or 3.5' 1 .44 MB Diskette Drive 

* 1:1 Interleaved Hard/Floppy Drive Controller 
Enhanced i 01 -key Keyboard 

* 2 Serial & 1 Parallel Port & Real Time Clock/Calendar w/Battery 

* High Capacity 200 Watt System Power Supply 

* Small Footprint Case(1 4.875' W x 16.25' D x 6.75' H) 

* Tower Case w/230 Watt Power Supply (386/25C, 386/33C & 486/25C) 

Our Commitment to Service and Quality 

* Free 4 Month On-Slte Servicing Nationwide 
1 Year Warranty on Parts & Labor 

* Toll-free Technical Service & Support 

* No Surcharge on Credit Card Purchases (VISA/MasterCard) 

* Comprehensive 72 Hour Burn-In Testing on All Systems 

* All Systems Made with pride In the USA 

* Guaranteed 100% IBM Compatible 

Microcom Holiday Mouse $29.99 

Hi-Resolution 3-Button Microsoft-compatible Mouse (up to 432 dpi) 

Microcom 286/12 Systems (1 MB RAM) 

Standard System, Hard Drive, Monitor & Video Card 

Hard Drives: 























286/12 Holiday Special (w/1 MB RAM) 

* 286/12 System w/42 MB 25 ms IDE Hard Disk 

* 5.25' 1.2 MB Drive & 3.5' 1.44 MB Drive 

* 14' Color Hires Monitor (1024 x 768) 

1 6-bit Hires 1024 x 768 Graphics Card 
Microsoft Windows 3.0 & DOS 3.30 or 4.01 

* Free Holiday Mouse with This Special 


Microcom 386SX/16 Systems (1 MB RAM) 

Standard System, Hard Drive, Monitor & Video Card 

Hard Drives; 

VGA- Mono 























386SX/16 Holiday Special (w/4 MB RAM) 

* 386SX/1 6 System w/42 MB 25 ms IDE Hard Disk 

* 5.25' 1.2 MB Drive & 3.5' 1.44 MB Drive 
14" Color Hires Monitor (1024 x 768) 

* 1 6-bit Hires 1 024 x 768 Graphics Card 

* Microsoft Windows 3.0 & DOS 3.30 or 4.01 

* Free Holiday Mouse with This Special 


Microcom 386/25 Systems (1 MB RAM) 

for 64 KB Cache (in Tower Case), add $250 
Standard System, Hard Drive, Monitor & Video Card 
' IDE 

Hard Drives: 



VGA- Mono 










$W9 $17924 $1,949 $2,349 







386/25 Holiday Special (w/4 MB RAM) 
386/25C Holiday Special (w/4 MB RAM) 

* 386/25 or 386/25C System w/1 05 MB 1 6 ms IDE Hard Disk 

* 5.25' 1.2 MB Drive & 3.5' 1.44 MB Drive 

* 14' Color Hires Monitor (1024 x 768) 

* 16-bit Hires 1024 x 768 Graphics Card 

* Microsoft Windows 3.0 & DOS 3.30 or 4.01 

* Free Holiday Mouse with This Special 


Microcom 386/33C Tower Systems (1 MB RAM/64 KB Cache) 

Standard System, Tower Case, Hard Drive, Monitor & Video Card 

Hard Drives; 





















■386/33C Holiday Tower Special (w/4 MB RAM) 

386/33C System w/205 MB 1 6 ms IDE Hard Disk 

* 5.25' 1.2 MB Drive & 3.5' 1.44 MB Drive 

* 14' Color Hires Monitor (1024 x 768) 
16-bit Hires 1024 x 768 Graphics Card 

* Microsoft Windows 3.0 & DOS 3.30 or 4.01 

* Free Holiday Mouse with This Special 


Microcom 486/25C Tower Systems (4 MB RAM/256 KB Cache) 

Standard System, Tower Case, Hard Drive, Monitor & Video > Card 

Hard Drives 























486/25C Holiday Tower Special (w/8 MB RAM) 

* 486/25C System w/205 MB 1 6 ms IDE Hard Disk 

* 5.25' 1.2 MB Drive & 3.5' 1.44 MB Drive 

* 14' Color Hires Monitor (1024 x 768) 
16-bit Hires 1 024 x 768 Graphics Card 

* Microsoft Windows 3.0 & DOS 3.30 or 4.01 

* Free Holiday Mouse with This Special 


Microcom Computers' Customers Include: 

Xerox, GTE, Motorola, Raychem, General Electric, Hewlett-Packard, Eastman Kodak, SEGA of America, Toshiba, Genetech, Bechtel, Siemens, Holiday Inn, Pacific Gas & Electric, 
Pacific Belt, Wells Fargo Bank, NASA, U.S. Court of Appeals, U.S. Food & Drug Administration, US. Dept of Energy, U.S. DepL of Agriculture, U.C. Berkeley, U C. San Francisco, 
Stanford University, Princeton University, University of Pittsburg, University of Vermont, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, John Muir Medical Center and many, many more. 

To Order - Call Toll Free 1-800-248-3398 

Open from 9:00 A.M. to 6:00 P.M. PST, Monday-Friday 
Microcom Computers 

48890 Milmont Drive, Fremont, CA 94537 - Tel: (415)623-3628 - Fax: (415)623-3620 
3650-18th Street, San Francisco, CA 94110 - Tel: (415)255-2288 - Fax: (415 255-8873 

Pricea are subje t to change without notice. Not responsible lor typographical errors. CA residents please add 7.25% sales tax. No surcharge on credit card purchases. Personal and company, 
checks require 2 weeks clearance, All trademarks acknowledged. Tower Is a registered trademark of NOR Corporation. Microcom Computers reserves the right to substitute any a/vd all (te L ms with 
equMslent ■ ©? better [parte. All benchmarks and specifications are for your Information only ana may vary from system to system. Price* do not Include shipping and handling. 

Circle 622 on Reader Service Card 



Object Databases 
for Sun and DOS 

Developers of applica- 
tions for managing data 
stored as text, sound, images, 
and graphics are starting to 
turn to object databases for 
their needs. 

Based on C + + , Object- 
Store for the Sun-3 and Sparc- 
station includes the run-time 
component, application inter- 
face, and C + + development 
tools. The application interface 
provides access from other 
programs to the run-time sys- 
tem using either a data- 
manipulation language (DML) 
preprocessor interface, a C 
library interface, or a C + + 
library interface. 

The DML preprocessor 
supports parameterized types 
for defining container classes 
and developing reusable code. 
You can store C and C + + 
data in native format, allowing 
an application to work un- 
modified with both transient 
and persistent data. 

Development tools include 
a debugger, a browser, and 
SchemaDesigner, a graphical 
tool for developing schemata 
and generating their associ- 
ated C + + code. 

ObjectStore supports col- 
laborative work among teams 
of design professionals. It 
supports the TCP/IP network- 
ing protocol. 

Price: $2000 to $9000 per 

Contact: Object Design, 
Inc., One New England Execu- 
tive Park, Burlington, MA 
Inquiry 1180. 

Persistent Data Systems 
says that its IDB Object 
Database runs on DOS-based 
PCs, HP/Apollo workstations, 
and Sparcstations. 
Through its Interface De- 

r f 

^— i 

n t 


>>>< (,« 









-•• ' i 



rmm ^ mmm 

m o 

, ■ Ot>]IXlStOIV 



ObjectStore, the object database management system for the 
Sun-3 and Sparcstation, is based on C+ + . 

scription Language, the pro- 
gram lets you write applica- 
tions using off-the-shelf C 
development tools. As you 
create an application, you use 
the IDL to describe the data. 
That information is mapped 
into C through the IDL trans- 
lator. The program supports 
most popular C development 
tools, and support for other 
languages is planned. 

The IDB Object Database 
supports dynamic binding, 
exceptions, and transactions 
for use in a workgroup 

Price: $2500 for one license; 
$6000 for workstations. 
Contact: Persistent Data 
Systems, Inc., 75 West Chapel 
Ridge Rd., Pittsburgh, PA 
15238, (412) 963-1843. 
Inquiry 1181. 

Added to askSam 

Relational capabilities 
have come to askSam, the 
free-form information tool 
that can function as a database, 
personal information man- 
ager, hypertext system, or text 
manager. However, unlike 
traditional relational data- 
bases, askSam doesn't re- 
quire you to establish links be- 
tween files through common 
fields, askSam Systems says. 
Instead, askSam lets you 

establish links through the 
common occurrence of let- 
ters, words, or groups of 
words. Version 5.0 of the 
program is also more flexible 
than a traditional relational 
DBMS, letting you repeat 
fields in the same file, ac- 
cording to the company. 

For developers who want 
to create stand-alone applica- 
tions that use askSam as a 
database engine, the company 
has also introduced a devel- 
oper's edition. 

Improvements to both pro- 
grams include the ability to 
sort as much data as your 
system will allow and support 
for nested subroutines. This 
lets you write communications 
like dialog box requests, al- 
lowing you to send messages to 
end users to guide them in 
their operation. 

Other new features include 
a controlled field editor, which 
lets you restrict data entry to 
specific fields and specify 
field length to control accu- 
racy, and a time and date gen- 
erator to stamp entries. 
Price: askSam 5.0, $395; de- 
veloper's edition, $695. 
Contact: askSam Systems, 
Inc., P.O. Box 1428, Perry, 
FL 32347, (800) 327-5726 or 
(904) 584-6590. 
Inquiry 1178. 

R:base Has dBASE 
Ad Hoes Without 

R:base 3. 1, the latest up- 
grade of Microrim's rela- 
tional DBMS, is now compat- 
ible with dBASE III and 
dBASE III Plus, letting you 
combine files from both pro- 
grams in one database. Once 
you import your dBASE files 
into R:base, you can use the 
program's pull-down menus to 
produce ad hoc queries and 
reports without programming, 
the company says. 

Microrim slimmed down 
version 3.1 from its previous 
version by 70K bytes. It now 
requires 450K bytes. 
Price: $795; five-user LAN 
pack, $995. 

Contact: Microrim, Inc., 
3925 159th Ave. NE, P.O. Box 
97022, Redmond, WA 
98073, (206) 885-2000. 
Inquiry 1179. 

Programs Very Fast 

Arago dBXL 2.0 and 
Arago Quicksilver 2.0 
combine dBASE IV compati- 
bility with a Common User Ac- 
cess-compliant interface to 
speed execution, according to 
Wordtech Systems. 

The Arago Quicksilver 2.0 
compiler lets you create appli- 
cations without run-time or 
licensing fees. Along with the 
compiler, screen painter/gen- 
erator, and debugger, the com- 
piler includes a Program Test 
Coverage Analyzer for reveal- 
ing which portions of your 
application haven't been exe- 
cuted during testing. 
Price: Quicksilver, $695; 
dBXL, $495. 

Contact: Wordtech Systems, 
Inc., 21 AltarindaRd., 
Orinda, CA 94563, (415) 
Inquiry 1182. 

72PC-6 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 

386 DX (not SX), true 32 bit, upto WOMB HDD 



■ CMOS 80C386 DX (not SX) 32-bit processor 
20/8 MHz, switchable. Socket for 

80C387 numeric coprocessors. 

■ 2MB RAM standard expandable to 
8MB support EMS 4.0. 


■ The internal 3.5" 1. 44MB floppy disk drive, 
and one 40MB orone 100MB HDD with average 
access time less than 29ms. 



■ A ©ouble-STN Black and White display with 
VGA resolution. Adjustable contrast and 
brightness. Backlight timeput feature. 

Display Graphics 

■ 640*480 high-resolution text and graphic; 
16 levels of gray scale. 


■ VGA/EGA/CGA/MDA utilizing the laptop 
LCD video controller, higher resolution 
possible through Desktop Expansion 



■ 90/250 VA (50/60 Hz) autosensing with 
charging indicator. 


■ 40.6 Watt-Hr NiCad battery pack; easy 
changeable recharge, orange low power 
LED indicator plus audible warning beeps, 
overcharge protection. 

Intelligent Power Management 

■ Power control of backlight, mass storage, 

internal modem and process speed. 



■ 13.7"W*8.5"D*4.3"H 


■ 14 lbs (6.4 Kg). 



Unit A&lB, 11901 Goldring Road, Arcadia, CA91006. 
Tel: (818)303-0613 Fax: (818)303-0626 


in CA Tech Power 714-9794330 Matrix Digital Products, Inc. 
in GA Computer & Control Solutions, Inc. 404-491-1131 


Where creativity thrives with ingenuity 


Circle 629 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 630) 




the Windows API 

The latest addition to the 
Caseworks family of ap- 
plication generators lets you 
develop and prototype the 
graphical-interface portion of 
a Windows 3.0 application. 
Case:W 3.0 has extended 
code support for dialog-box 
controls, generating shell di- 
alog message processors to 
program dialog-box func- 
tions, not just calls for the 
dialog boxes. 

You can specify applica- 
tion variables that are logically 
associated to each dialog 
control. Then you use the vari- 
able as the link to the control 
instead of writing to the Win- 
dows application program- 
ming interface. With extended 
code support, Case:W can 
prototype the action that oc- 
curs when someone edits a 
field or activates a control. 

The program includes a 
test view for animating the in- 
terface and testing its look 
and feel without compiling, 
Caseworks says. Case:W 
creates programs in a modular 
structure, taking full advan- 
tage of the Windows 3.0 mem- 
ory management facilities. 
Price: $795. 

Contact: Caseworks, Inc., 1 
Dun woody Park, Suite 130, 
Atlanta, GA 30338, (800) 
635-1577 or (404) 
Inquiry 1183. 

Two Generators 
for COBOL 

FlexGen 2.0 lets you gen- 
erate forms and windows 
for your COBOL program. 
The program includes Easy 
Query, which guides you in 
providing 4GL query- and 

FlexGen 2. lets you put a pretty face on your COBOL program. 

report-writing capabilities in 
your application. Once you 
build the query, you can run 
it interpretively or incorporate 
it into the program, Sine 

FlexGen 2.0 has options 
for color, field-entry charac- 
teristics, auto-lookup win- 
dows, auto-browse mode, and 

Price: $550 to $15,000. 
Contact: Sine, Inc., 1299 
LaVelleDr.,Xenia, OH 
45385, (800) 543-4035 or 
Inquiry 1186. 

Flexus International, 
maker of the COBOL 
CICS spll and COBOL spll 
generators, has released ver- 
sions of both tools for Sun 
workstations running Open 
Look. The company says the 
generators can reduce the time 
required to add menus, help 
screens, and I/O screens to 
mainframe communications 
and other applications. 

With COBOL spll, you 
can run an application simulta- 
neously on graphics- and 
character-based terminals, 
without having to run in 
character mode on the graphics 
terminal. The generator of- 
fers mouse support. As you de- 
bug a program, you can view 
the source code while monitor- 
ing screen interaction from 
multiple windows. 

The CICS version of the 

program was developed to help 
create cooperative processing 
applications on the Sun. In ad- 
dition to painting Basic Map- 
ping System maps, you can 
prototype the CICS applica- 
tion using spll's Dialog Defi- 
nition Facility. Once you 
paint the user interface and 
prototype the system, the 
program lets you generate 
BMS macros, as well as com- 
mand-level CICS procedural 

Price: COBOL spll, $495 to 
$795; CICS spll, $795 to 

Contact: Flexus Interna- 
tional Corp., P.O. Box 9199, 
Morristown, NJ 07963, (201) 
Inquiry 1187. 

Generator for dBASE 

A code generator called 
dB Intuition lets you add 
form views, menus, and se- 
curity levels to your dBASE, 
FoxBase, Quicksilver, or 
Clipper application. 

The program lets you add 
shadowed menus and multiple 
page views to your applica- 
tion. A library editor lets you 
create your own library files, 

while the linker is LAN-com- 
patible, according to Inte- 
grated Database Technology. 
Price: $119. 

Contact: Integrated Data- 
base Technology, 300 Maple 
Ave., South Plainf ield, NJ 
07080, (201) 756-8665. 
Inquiry 1185. 

New Multiplatform 
Jam Flavors 

With Jam 5, you can put 
features normally asso- 
ciated with a graphical user 
interface (e.g., virtual forms 
and viewports) into a charac- 
ter-based application. With 
the proper run-time libraries, 
the application can run on 
DOS, Unix/386, and OS/2. 

JYACC has also an- 
nounced a Motif -based tool 
that will let you construct 
Motif interfaces and access 
widgets. You'll also be able 
to compile applications down 
to character mode. JYACC 
says the program, the price of 
which was undetermined at 
press time, will permit seam- 
less integration to multiple 

In addition to full mouse 
support, Jam has sibling win- 
dows, shrink-to-fit text win- 
dows, screen entry and exit 
routines, and other widgets, 
like radio buttons. Through 8- 
bit internalization, the pro- 
gram lets you easily customize 
it for international use. 

Other JYACC tools include 
the Jam Graphics Interface, for 
integrating graphical images 
into the application; Jam/DBi 
ReportWriter; and the Jam 
DBi, for linking applications to 
relational databases. 
Price: Jam for DOS, $595; 
Jam for OS/2, $1350; Jam for 
Unix/386, $1950. 
Contact: JYACC, Inc., 116 
John St., New York, NY 
Inquiry 1184. 

72PC-8 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 


Now you can build more in a day. 

HyperPAD® 2.0, a powerful software 
construction set for MS-DOS® systems, 
dramatically increases your productivity. 
Applications that might take months to 
build with tools like Pascal, C, or BASIC 
now take only minutes. 

PC Week calls HyperPAD "the first 
PC program that can compare with 
HyperCard®." HyperPAD 2.0, now 
updated with over 100 new features 
and improvements, has almost limitless 
potential for creating and customizing 
tutorials, help systems, software proto- 
types, front ends to databases, networks, 
or CD-ROM devices, executive informa- 
tion systems, and dozens of other 

It's easy. HyperPAD's object-oriented 
environment gives you all the building 
blocks you need for maximum produc- 
tivity. Its English-like scripting language 
is easy to use and learn, with dozens of 
samples to get you started. 

It's flexible. HyperPAD will take you into 
the 90's with a full set of development 
tools. Its open architecture lets you easily 
use data stored in dBASE and ASCII files. 
If you need to, you can even write C or 
assembly language extensions. 

It works on your PC. HyperPAD 2.0 is 
compatible with almost all PCs. You don't 
need a high-performance processor, 
multiple megabytes of memory, a graphics 
card, or a mouse. You get the benefits of 
a graphical user interface without invest- 
ing in Microsoft® Windows™ or OS/2. 

And it's only $149.95. HyperPAD 2.0 
is available from software dealers, or 
directly from Brightbill-Roberts, for only 
$149.95. Runtime also available. 60-day 
money-back guarantee. VISA, Master- 
Card, American Express, or C.O.D. 

Call 1-800-444-3490 today. 

Try HyperPAD 2.0 on your next project. 
No one will ever know how much time 
you didn't spend. 

J' # £? § 

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120 E. Washington St., Syracuse, N.Y. 13202 

HyperPAD is a registered trademark of Brightbill-Roberls & Company, Ltd. All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective holders. Call for upgrade information. ©1990 Brightbill-Roberis & Company, ltd. 

Circle 609 on Reader Service Card 



Updates PC-Type 

The new version of PC- 
Type lets you process 
multiple files as one docu- 
ment. It supports a table of 
contents and index for large 
documents, where chapters 
and sections are automati- 
cally numbered. 

PC-Type 4.0 adds a print- 
preview function and a 
100,000-word customizable 
dictionary. The program 
requires 384K bytes of 
RAM on an IBM PC. 
Price: $99.95. 
Contact: ButtonWare, P.O. 
Box 96058, Bellevue, WA 
98009, (800) 528-8866 or 
(206) 454-0479. 
Inquiry 1188. 

Publish with 
Special Effects 

Power Up Software says 
that Express Publisher 
2.0 adds a module for creat- 
ing headlines and logos with 
advanced typesetting effects. 
The TextEffects module lets 
you manipulate text to fill a 
polygon, bend along a curve, 
grow or shrink in size from 
one character to the next, or 
run along an angled line. In 
addition to special effects, the 
program adds text-formatting 
commands for justification, 
kerning, and character 

The new version also adds 
five AGFA Compugraphic In- 
tellifont scalable typefaces, 
bringing the total number of 
fonts in the program to eight. 
Express Publisher generates 
fonts on the fly in sizes from 
6 to 144 points. 

Other new features include 
landscape printing and the 
ability to import CGM files. 
It previously supported PCX, 
GIF, ART, IMG, MacPaint, 
Microsoft Paint, Print Shop, 

PC-Type 4.0's split-screen capability lets you open two files at 
once or view different parts of the same file. 

EPS, and TIFF file formats. 
The program runs on the 
IBM PC with 640K bytes of 
RAM and a hard disk drive. 
It supports Hewlett-Packard 
LaserJet III, LaserJet, Desk- 
Jet, PostScript, and other laser 
and dot-matrix printers. 
Price: $159.95. 
Contact: Power U p Software 
Corp., 2929 Campus Dr., San 
Mateo, CA 94403, (415) 
345-5900; for upgrades, call 
Inquiry 1190. 

Screen Capture 
for Windows 

Pizazz Plus, a program 
for capturing black-and- 
white or color Microsoft 
Windows 3.0 screen images, 
can export TIFF gray, TIFF 
color, EPS, PCX, and other 
popular file formats. Once 
you've captured the whole 
screen or just a portion of it, 
you can adjust color and gray- 
scale brightness and contrast 
to obtain the best image in 
your document. 

Pizazz Plus is a TSR pro- 
gram that requires 32K bytes 
of RAM. 
Price: $149. 

Contact: Application Tech- 
niques, Inc., 10 Lomar Park 
(800) 433-5201 or (508) 
Inquiry 1192. 

A Bridge Between 
CAD and Publishing 

The new preview function 
in CADleaf, an engine for 
converting CAD files into 
several desktop publishing for- 
mats, lets you monitor the 
translation process as it oc- 
curs. It lets you view the file 
as it translates so you can en- 
sure that you selected the cor- 
rect file, which is helpful 
when you have to deal with 
thousands of CAD files, Car- 
berry Technology says. 

In addition to the preview 
function, CADleaf 2.0 lets you 
convert any CAD or drawing 
program that exports IGES, 
Hewlett-Packard Graphics 
Language, CalComp960, 
AutoCAD, or CGM format 
into CGM, EPSI, Sun Raster, 
Interleaf, or FrameMaker 
format. By supporting these 
formats and conforming to 
the Department of Defense 
MIL-D-2800 specification, 
the program is CALS- 

CADleaf 2.0 runs on Sun, 
386i, and Apollo workstations, 
and the AT&T 3B2. 
Price: $4995. 

Contact: Carberry Technol- 
ogy, Inc., 600 Suffolk St., 
Lowell, MA 01854, (508) 
Inquiry 1191. 

Ease the Text- 
Import Blues 

Sooner or later, most 
people using a word pro- 
cessor have to incorporate 
data from another application 
into a document. This often 
means converting to ASCII, 
stripping out hard carriage 
returns, and reformatting the 
text. A program designed to 
ease that process is now avail- 
able from Systems Compati- 

Outside In instantly recog- 
nizes 57 file formats, letting 
you view, select, and import 
data stored in a host of applica- 
tions and import it on the fly 
into your word processor. 
Once you install Outside In 
as a TSR program, you can call 
it up from within your word 
processor and browse through 
spreadsheets, databases, and 
other word processor files and 
import the data in its native 
file format. 

In addition to preserving 
boldface, underlining, tabs, 
and other attributes of the 
other application's data, the 
program lets you search for a 
word or phrase. You can scroll 
up and down or right to left 
through a file and mark that 
text for importing. 

Outside In supports the 
marking of more than just a 
screen's worth of data. It 
also lets you select noncontigu- 
ous data that's stored in a 
spreadsheet or database. 

The program runs on the 
IBM PC and uses 70K bytes of 
RAM. A version expected to 
ship later this year will require 
just 40K bytes. The program 
runs on any DOS-based net- 
work, the company says. 
Price: $99; network versions 
start at $299. 

Contact: Systems Compati- 
bility Corp., 401 North Wa- 
bash, Suite 600, Chicago, IL 
Inquiry 1189. 

72PC-10 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 



Flexibility of a Laptop with the true power and 
expandability of a high-performance Desktop 
computer. MYODA has designed & built these 
machines with the needs of today's demanding 
users in mind. Just look at our features & then 
compare them with other machines costing 
twice as much and you will see why we are the 
clear choice for professional users. We offer true 
expandability with TWO FULL SIXTEEN BIT 
DRIVE PORT. There's 
even a true 386 - 25 
running at WAIT STATE 
available with 32 KB 
they all come with a 
AMI or Award BIOS. 


Laptop Accessories 

• External 5.25/1 .2MB 
floppy drive 

• Expansion chaste 2x8 bit, 
2x16 bit (For LT-3500 only) 

• Power inverter 

• External battery pack with 
12V inverter 
Numeric keypad 
Fax-modem card 
12V inverter 













386ex- 16 


2x16 Bit 
2x16 Bit 
2x16 Bit 

VGA ,GAS plasma 
VGA GAS plasma 
VGA GAS plasma 

3.5 1.44 






Dealer Sales: 



Here is your chance to pick up on the biggest 
bargain in Laptops anywhere. The LT-3500 is 
packed with features. The 80286-1 2 MHz CPU 
runs at wait state, ready to blaze hrough those 
tough applications. There is also a 40 MB fast 
HDD & an internal 3.5 /1 .44MB diskette drive 

• Intel 80286 CPU wait state 

• 6/12 MHz clock speed 

• EGA GAS plasma display 
#1 MB installed 4MB max 

• 3.5/1.44MB floppy drive 

• 40MB(28ms) hard drive 

• 2 serial/1 parallel/CRT port 

• Free carrying case 


• Intel 80286-12 p 


• Baby AT case 

• Up to 4 MB RAM 



12" MONO 

14" MONO 

14" VGA 

14" SVGA 





MYODA --a ^ 


Intel 80386SX-16 Microprocessor 

Baby AT case 

Up to 8 MB RAM 

Fully compatible: EMS, LIM 4.0, 



12" MONO 

14" MONO 

14" VGA 

14" SVGA 





Units Include: 

• True Intel CPUs 

• 1MB RAM 

• 1 year warranty 

• 101 enhanced 

• 2 seria!,1 parallel, 
&1 game port 

• Quality desktop 
cases & power e 

• Dual FDD/ HDD AT 
BUS controllers 

Installed Hard Drives: 

installation with system 


40 Meg. $249 

65 Meg. $339 

100 Meg. $599 

Case Upgrades 

Mini tower, Mid tower 
and Large tower 
Call for special pricing 


Intel 80386-25 
64KB cache memory 
Full size case 
AMI designed mother- 
board up to 16MB RAM 

Fully compatible: EMS, LIM 4.0 

12" MONO 

14" MONO 

14" VGA 

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Circle 623 on Reader Service Card 


• Intel 80386-33 microprocessor 

• 32KB cache memory 

• 4MB RAM 

• up to 16MB RAM 

• Fully compatible: EMS, LIM 4.0 





1 053 Shore Road. Naperville Illinois 60563 
Td:(708) 369-5199 Fax: (708) 36*4068 

Mail Order Sales 


Dealers/Vars Inquires: OEM Inquire: 

1053 Shore Road Naperviile lllinios 60563 /Jex Chen Taipei Office 3 F No. 191 Sec. 3 Roosevelt Rd 
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Slate Now Available 
on DECstation 

Slate, BBN Software 
Products' multimedia 
document communications 
program, lets workgroups 
create and share documents 
that contain text, spreadsheets, 
images, and voice annota- 
tions, while providing E-mail 
and real-time conferencing. 
Recently released for the 
DECstation, the program is 
also available on the IBM 
RISC System/6000 and Sun 
Microsystems workstations 
running under SunView 

Price: $995 per license. 
Contact: BBN Software 
Products Corp., 10 Fawcett 
St., Cambridge, MA 02138, 
(617) 873-5000. 
Inquiry 1198. 

DATs the Ticket for 
Data Management 

Datalmage's latest elec- 
tronic data management 
program works with Sony 
magnetic digital data storage 
tape drives to let you convert 
sheets of microfiche into files 
that you can index, program, 
and search. 

When you download in- 
formation from the main- 
frame, DATwriter lets you 
designate identifiers that you 
use to search for certain doc- 
uments. You can assign up to 
16 identifiers per document. 

Once indexed, the com- 
pany says you can find records 
from a 1.3-gigabyte tape 
within an average of 25 sec- 
onds. After you've down- 
loaded the data, DATwriter 
installs the index and a run- 
time version, so that the tape 

Slate lets workgroups create and share multimedia information 
on networked Unix workstations. 

is its own self-contained 

Price: $5000 (includes Sony 

Contact: Datalmage, Inc., 
628 Hebron Ave., Glaston- 
bury, CT 06033, (203) 
Inquiry 1195. 

10900 Northeast Eighth St. , 
Suite 7, 1515 Plaza Center 
Building, Bellevue, WA 
Inquiry 1196. 

Manage Documents 
Under Word 
for Windows 

The Viewz document pro- 
gram for Microsoft Win- 
dows combines the Saros 
Mezzanine network application 
platform with Microsoft's 
Word for Windows to let you 
manage all your documents 
without leaving Word. 

Viewz supports network- 
wide retrieval and management 
of files, automated tracking 
of pages printed, file-revision 
tracking, audit facilities, se- 
curity, and a template facility 
for creating standard forms 
and documents. 
Price: $345 per client; $2950 
per server. 
Contact: Saros Software, 

A Document 
Administrator for 
PC Applications 

The Document Adminis- 
trator, a program that pro- 
vides document administra- 
tion on PC-based networks, 
integrates a variety of appli- 
cations (e.g., Microsoft Word, 
WordPerfect, DisplayWrite, 
and Lotus 1-2-3). 

Version 2.0 supports auto- 
matic document numbering, 
configurable revision track- 
ing, checkout protection to 
prevent simultaneous editing, 
and the ability to maintain 
forms and boilerplate items. 

When searching for docu- 
ments, the program supports 
Boolean conductors, proxim- 
ity searches, word stems, and 
wild cards. You can use pro- 

files to track graphical- and 
paper-based information. 

The program runs on any 
DOS 3. 1 -based network. 
Price: $2495 for 10-user in- 
stallation; $150 for each addi- 
tional workstation. 
Contact: Interpreter, Inc., 
11455 West 48th Ave., Wheat 
Ridge, CO 80033, (303) 
Inquiry 1194. 

Turn Your PC 
into an Electronic 
Filing Cabinet 

The PaperLess Filer lets 
you scan single and multi- 
ple documents and compress 
them to reduce storage require- 
ments without having to buy 
image-compression hardware. 

Version 2 . 1 of the program 
lets you predefine a series of 
documents to be scanned into 
its database in a batch process 
and lets you fax documents in 
or out of the program using a 
PC fax board. Files stored in 
a batch process can be incre- 
mentally numbered as they 
print. You can also define 
queues for unattended 

The PaperLess Filer lets 
you search for a particular 
document by several criteria. 
Version 2. 1 adds multiple fil- 
ing cabinets for filing differ- 
ent types of documents using 
user-definable key fields. 

The program is LAN-com- 
patible and supports several 
levels of security. Version 
2.1 can import and export files 
in the TIFF, PCX, or DCX 

PaperLess Filer 2. 1 runs 
on a 286 computer with a hard 
disk drive. 

Price: $495; LAN version, 

Contact: PaperLess Corp., 
1750 North Collins, Suite 200, 
Richardson, TX 75080, (214) 
Inquiry 1193. 

72PC-12 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 

iuiMwaiHa w » 


Better Features, Better Quality, Better Price 




Wodd Center lor Office. 

ond lelecommunici 

MARCH 13-20, 1991 

See us on Stand No. 036/1, Hall 8 









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Auto Switch 

Your customers require nothing less than crisp-clear displays. 
For their DTP, CAD, CAM, etc., they need monitors that 
are up to video standards such as VGA 8514A or MAGI. 
If you require a reliable, reasonably-priced supply of high- 
class 100% compatible monitors, we should talk. 


351, Szu Yuan Road, Hsin Chuang, Taipei Hsien, Taiwan, R.O.C. 
Tel: 886-2-991-8480, 992-6363 Fax: 886-2-991-8483 

Hsin Chuan Factory: No. 49-51 Szu Yuan Rd., Hsin Chuang City, 

Taipei Hsien, Taiwan, R.O.C. 
Tao Yuan Factory: No. 32, Shin Bond Rd., Kwei-Shan Hsiang, 
Tao Yuan Hsien, Taiwan, R.O.C. 
Circle 612 on Reader Service Card 



CHECKBOOK: SflHPLE-SftHCHK-lWa-fll DATE: Bl/13/98 

PC Accounting 
and Customer 
Database Program 

AXS Accounting release 
2 includes new modules, 
reporting capabilities, and 
enhancements that make the 
program suitable for large 
businesses, client write-up, 
and nonprofit organizations, 
its developer reports. 

In addition to general led- 
ger, checkwriter, accounts 
payable, and accounts receiv- 
able, the new version has mod- 
ules for inventory, job cost- 
ing and time billing, and 
payroll. Release 2 adds sup- 
port for ratios, budgets, com- 
parative statements, and cash 
flow reports. 

Throughout the program, 
you can look up vendors, cus- 

S<*nj)le Cowpany 

Order Of J l"lin -n 

fV*nu Jam 
Sttlb ' I lie I 

Crow lire l.i 


Print V'N: v Rp 


f-flccuiint No 






CJik No : 

61- 13/90 

[ALU-LI for looku 

Sdle* Revemui^ 
Sales Discounts 

( i iig HuwenutJs 
Twining Reus hubs 
Interest Revenues 
Hisc Revenues 

I Goods 
Purchases Discounts 
Offlcfe Rent 

Btisiiujas Entertainment 

Maintenance fi Repairs 


Data entry in AXS Accounting release 2 is done in familiar 
business forms, such as checks and invoices. 

tomers, inventory, and other 
items by vendor, due date, dis- 
count date, amount, refer- 
ence, or a combination of 
these. The mail manager lets 
you maintain a database of cus- 
tomers for generating mail- 

ing labels and rotary cards. 
Price: $99. 

Contact: Computer Trends, 
Inc., 116 East Washington St., 
Ann Arbor, MI 48104, (800) 
544-2597 or (313) 662-4430. 
Inquiry 1173. 

Job Tracking 
for Advertising 
and Design 

Working Computer has 
released a slimmed- 
down version of its Clients & 
Profits agency management 
program for the Mac. Clients 
& Profits ez is designed for the 
advertising agency or design 
studio with less than $1 million 
in billings. You can use the 
program for job tracking, cost- 
ing, and billing of established 

Clients & Profits ez runs 
on the Mac Plus. 
Price: $1195. 
Contact: Working Com- 
puter, P. O. Box 87, San Luis 
Rey, CA 92068, (619) 
Inquiry 1175. 

Attention U.S. BYTE Subscribers 

Watch for the next BYTE DECK mailing that 
will be arriving in your mailbox soon! 

Use this as a fast, convenient tool to purchase 
computer products and services. It's loaded with 
essential hardware and software products that you 
should be aware of when making your buying 
decisions. . .and it's absolutely FREE! 

If you have a computer product or service, and 
would like to reach 275,000 influential BYTE 
magazine subscribers, please give Ed Ware a call 
today at (603) 924-2596. 


Here's what a BYTE Deck advertiser has to say: 

"Ten years ago we advertised in the very first BYTE Deck— the number of sales 
leads we received was enormous! The BYTE Deck was so successful for us, that we 
have continued to use it over the past ten years!" 

Lisa Tarpoff, Marketing Manager, Heath Company, Benton Harbor, MI 

72PC-14 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 



The BSI 386SX was the 

Fastest Machine 
in PC Magazine Review 

See Aug. 1990 P. 109, 120 

386SX 40MB SYSTEM Desk Top 

• 386SX-1 6 MHz CPU, 1 MB Memory (To 4MB) 

■101 Enhanced Keyboard 
■1:1 Interleave Cont. Card 

■ 1.2 MB or 1.44MB FDD 

■ 40MB, 23ms, SCSI IDE Hard Drive 

■ 2 Serial/1 Parallel/1 Game Port 

■ Mono Graphic Card w/Printer Port 

• 1 2" Amber Monitor (720x348 Res.) 

on** 6 

386-33 200MB SYSTEM (Desk Top) 

• 386-33 MHz CPU. w/64KCache Memory 
■ 1 MB Memory on board (To 8MB) 

• 200MB, 19ms, IDE Hard Drive 

• 128K Cache Memory Optional 

• 32MB Memory on Board Optional 

• Other features the same as 386SX 


















































• Upgrade to VGA (640 x 480 Res) + $300 

• Upgrade to VGA (1024 x 768 Res) +$380 
» Mini Vertical Case + $50 

■ Regular Vertical Case ♦ $100 










Prices subject to change without notice. 
Call for return policy. 


9440 Tetstar Ave., #4, Et Monte, CA 91731 

1024x768 RES, 256 COLOR 




• Built-in SONY 8.5 n Color VGA Monitor 

• 0.26mm Dot Pitch, 

• Speed Digital Display. 3 Drive Bays 

• 220W P/S 1 10/220V. 4 Exp. Slots 

■ 86-Key Detachable Keyboard 

• 386-33 MHz CPU, w/64 K Cache Memory 

• 1 MB Memory on Board (To 8MB) 

• 128K Cache Memory Optional 

■ 32MB Memory on Board Optional 

• VGA Graphic Card (512K, 1024x768 Res.) 
External Monitor Adaptor nQ 

• 1 .2MB or 1 .44MB FDD $3,1™ 

• 200MB 1 9ms HDD (To 500MB) * oC \aV) 

• Serial/Parallel/Game Ports (^SP e 

• Carrying Bag. Weight 27 Lbs. 

• Dimensions: 17.5(W) x 14.1(D) x 6.8(H) 

• Bigger Case with 7 Exp. Slots Optional 

Vgap UsmT 


• 640x480 VGA Plasma Display 

• Detachable 101 -key Keyboard 

• 200W P/S, 1 1 0/220V. 3 Drive Bays 

■ 386-33 MHz CPU, w/ 64 K Cache Memory 

• 1 MB Memory on Board (To 8MB) 

• 128K Cache Memory Optional 

• 32MB Memory on Board Optional 

• 1.2MB or 1.44MB FDD 

• 200MB 19ms HDD (To 500MB) 

• Serial and Parallel Ports 

• External Monitor Adaptor 

• Carrying Bag. Weight: 26 Lbs. 

On Sa\ e 





































• Dimer 

isions: 1 6 

H (W) x 9." 

[5"(H) x 8 













































• 640X400 CGA Plasma Display Q 

• Detachable 86-Key Keyboard ^<\ fc9" 

• External RGB Monitor Adaptor ^ ' 

• Built-in 9" Amber VGA Monitor 

• Speed Digital Display. 3 Drive Bays 

• 205W P/S 110/220V. 4 Exp. Slots 

• 86 Keyboard, Detachable Keyboard + $30 

• AT 12 MHz System, 1MB Memory (To 4MB) 

• VGAGraphicCard (256K, 800x600 Res.) 

• Run 48 Grey Scales VGA Internally 

• Run Color VGA Externally n0k 

• 1 .2MB or 1 .44MB FDD *.-\ "?0^ 

• 1 00MB 25ms HDD (To 500MB) * 

• Serial/Parallel/Game Ports 

• Carrying Bag. Weight 26 Lbs 

• Dimensions: 17.5 (W) x 14.1 (D) x 6.8 (H) 






















































































• Built-in 9" Amber Monitor 

• Speed Digital Display. 3 Drive Bays 

• 2Q5W P/S 1 10/220V. 4 Exp. Slots 

• 86 Keyboard, Detachable Keyboard + $30 

• AT 12 MHz System, 1 MB Memory (To 4MB) 

■ Mono or Color Graphic Card 

• Amber EGA Display (option) ^ $100 

■ 1 .2 MB or 1 .44 MB Floppy Drive ^g 

• 1 00MB 25ms Hard Drive *\J* 1 

• Serial/Parallel/Game Ports 

• Carrying Bag Weight 26 lbs. 

■ Dimensions 17.5(W) x 14.1(D) x 6.8(H) 


■ 640x480 Res, Backlit LCD VGA Display 

with External Color Monitor Adaptor £19 

• 200W 1 1 0/220V P/S , 5 Exp. Slots %2p * 

• Detachable 89-Key Keyboard &8St 

• 386-33 MHz CPU with 64K Cache Memory 

• 1MB Memory on Board (To 8MB} 

■ 1 28K Cache Memory Optional 

• 32MB Memory on Board Optional 

• 1.2MB or 1.44MB FDD 

• 100MB 25ms HDD (To 500MB) 

• Serial/Parallel/Game Ports 

■ 9.45"(H) x 7.9"(D) x 15.7"(W), 23LBS 



For Order Only Call Toll Free 
1-818-442-0020 Information 
Customer Support: (818) 442-7038 
Fax: (818) 442-4527 

All order FOB Et Monle and will be shipped by UPS COD cashier's check. Company check on approval IBM PC XT/AT are registered trade marks of IBM Inc. 






























' 3619 






; 4629 















































•LT-5300 PLASMA W BATTERY $2600 
•LT-5400 PLASMA AC POWER $2300 
•LT-5600 LCD W. BATTERY $2350 

1 00MB Hard Drive Model add $400 

Circle 610 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 611) 





Client Write-Up 
in OS/2 

Financial Software Asso- 
ciates has released two 
OS/2 packages designed for 
CPAs and accounting busi- 
nesses. The Client Account- 
ing Gold Series, for client 
write-up, includes modules 
for general ledger, after-the- 
fact payroll and form 1099 
preparation, and custom re- 
porting. As its name sug- 
gests, the second package, 
Practice Management Gold 
Series, is for managing time 
and billing for multiple 

Both packages take advan- 
tage of OS/2's multitasking ca- 
pabilities, letting you per- 
form several activities for one 
or more clients at once, the 

company says. Although not 
Presentation Manager appli- 
cations, the packages support 
overlapping windows and 
pull-down menus. TaxLink, 
which integrates Gold Series 
General Ledger data to tax- 
preparation programs, is also 

The packages require at 
least a 286 running OS/2 1.0 
or higher with 4 MB of 
RAM. A 386 with OS/2 1.1 or 
higher is recommended. 
Price: Client Accounting: 
single-user, $1995; multiuser, 
$2495 to $3995. Practice 
Management, $1395 and 
$1695 to $2559, respec- 

Contact: Financial Software 
Associates Corp., 5150 South- 
west Griffith Dr., Suite 200, 
Beaverton, OR 97005, (503) 
Inquiry 1174. 

for the PC 

Contact! Professional 2.3 
has a word processor, cal- 
culator, telephone dialer, and 
support for multiple databases 
in which you can define up to 
100 fields. You can use the 
program to sort contacts by 
name, company, ZIP code, or 
any other criteria and attach 
up to 16 pages of comments or 
historical information. 

The program requires 
640K bytes of RAM. 
Price: $195; LAN version, 

Contact: Pyramid Solutions, 
Inc., P.O. Box 395, Stough- 
ton, MA 02072, (800) 343- 
4677 or (617) 821-4673. 
Inquiry 1176. 

Emis I is an integrated 
sales, marketing, and tele- 
marketing program. It com- 
bines client management, 
prospect tracking, and tele- 
marketing functions. 

Features include unlimited 
databases, custom forms, cus- 
tom reports and letters, auto- 
matic follow-ups, unlimited 
call and contact history, 
word processing, mail merge, 
auto-dialing, form letter gen- 
eration, and telescripting. 

Emis II allows for un- 
limited databases. 
Price: Emis I: $695; three- 
user license, $995; Emis II: 
$1995 and $2995, respec- 
tively; each additional user, 

Contact: Emis Software, 
Inc., 901 Northeast Loop 410, 
Suite 526, San Antonio, TX 
Inquiry 1177. 

' -i-v VIDEOS m-Hsr; ;v!."l 



Cute ... but Powerful, Expandable, and Economical 
personal computer for business or home use. 


1 MB ram on board, up to 2.5 MB 
1.44 MB FDD drive 
20/40/80 MB HDD option 
External floppy interface 

• CGA/MGA dual display 
NTSC-TV port 
VGA optional 

2 S, 1 P, 1 G ports 
84 keyboard 

1 standard 1 6 bit expansion slot 
5.5"(W) X 12.2" (D) X 3.6" 

- 9 lbs. , 

MlqjjAiMVqAvV«w*QMi In \ 

10" Mini Multisync Color Monitor ■ 


QT-1 w/12" TTL monochrome monitor. 
QT-1 w/14" VGA color monitor 


QT-1 w/14" VGA color monitor $895.00 TRANS PC Systems, Inc. 

1 1 849 E. Firestone Blvd., Norwalk, CA 90650 

ITS YOUR CHOICE - YOUR PRICE -OUR RELIABILITY Pnone: 213-868-6930, Fax. 213-864-2249 

Servicing your computer needs since 1984 1" (8 OO) 876 -9 161 (order only) 

Tech-support (213) 868-6970 

72PC-16 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 

Circle 627 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 628) 

H. Co. Computer Products 

Your #1 Source For All P.C. Memory Upgrades 
Call Toll Free 1-800-RAM-CHPS Ext. 200 



30F5348 (512K) 
6450375 (1MB) 
6450379 (2MB) 
6451060 (4MB) 
6450603(1 MB) 

6450604 (2MB) 

6450608 (2MB) 
78X8955 (128K) 
34F2933 (4MB) 

6450605 (2-8MB) 

6450609 (2-16MB) 

1039136 (1MB) 

1039137 (2MB) 
1038675 (3.5MB) 

Works With PRICE 

30-286 $ 49.00 

30-286 $ 165.00 

80-041 $ 129.00 

80-111.311 $ 219.00 

80-A21.A31, 111,311 $559.00 

502, 55SX, 70-E61, 70-121. P-70 $ 79.00 

502. 55SX, 70-E61, 70-121, P-70 $ 150.00 

70-A21, A61, B-21, B61 $ 155.00 

25 $ 26.00 

55SX.65SX $ 525.00 

All 70's and 80's (Board) $ 525.00 

50, 502, 55SX, 60, 65SX (Board) $ 599.00 

Laser Printer 4019, 40l9e $169.00 

Laser Printer 4019, 40l9e $299.00 

Laser Printer 4019, 4019e $ 429.00 

Call for Other IBM Upgrades 


MACII, Ik; Ilex 

Ilex & SE/30 











Part # EQ 













$ 80.00 
$ 115.00 
$ 225.00 
$ 1199.00 

$ 225.00 
$ 1 1 99.00 
$ 80.00 
$ 115.00 
$ 225.00 
$ 249.00 
$ 729.00 
$ 999.00 
$ 279.00 
$ 85.00 
$ 289.00 


Math Co-Processor 

Up to 200% Faster Than 

Intel Math Co-Processor 

100% Compatible — 5 Year Warranty 



$ 309.00 

$ 369.00 





$ 469.00 
$ 259.00 




Memory Added 











$ 89.00 
$ 149.00 
S 249.00 
$ 89.00 
$ 149.00 
$ 199.00 
$ 249.00 

We Accept Purchase Orders 

from Qualified Firms, Universities 

and Government Agencies. 

Trademarks are registered 
with their respective companies. 

We will match or beat 
any advertised price. 






















Memory Added 

128K KIT 
512K KIT 




Part It EQ 







256 X 8-80 
256 X 9-10 
256 X 9-80 
256 X 9-70 
256 X 9-60 
1 X 8-10 
1 X8-80 
1 X 8 70 
1 X9-10 
1 X9-70 

$ 17.00 


$ 19.00 

$ 17.00 

$ 17.00 

$ 18.00 

$ 21.00 

$ 26.00 

$ 50.00 

$ 51.00 

$ 60.00 

$ 55.00 

$ 56.00 

$ 57.00 

$ 299.00 

$ 329.00 




1 X 1-80 









256 X 4-80 







$ 40.00 
$ 60.00 
$ 150.00 
$ 300.00 
$ 60.00 
$ 120.00 
$ 150.00 
$ 300.00 
$ 120.00 
$ 300.00 
$ 60.00 
$ 150.00 
$ 60.00 
$ 120.00 
$ 150.00 
$ 300.00 
$ 120.00 
$ 300.00 
$ 160.00 
$ 380.00 
$ 120.00 
$ 300.00 
$ 79.00 
















Memory Added 


512K KIT 

Ask About Other Compaq Upgrades 

Part if EQ 













1 08069-001 









$ 229.00 

$ 139.00 

$ 339.00 

$ 189.00 

$ 479.00 

$ 139.00 

S 339.00 

$ 189.00 

$ 479.00 

$ 139.00 

$ 339.00 

$ 70.00 

$ 165.00 

$ 299.00 

S 399.00 

$ 659.00 

$ 999.00 

$ 245.00 

$ 799.00 

$ 209.00 

$ 159.00 

$ 249.00 



Portable T1000SE 


Portable T1200XE 

Portable T1600 

Portable T3100C 

Portable T3100SX 

Portable T3200sx 
Portable T3200 
Portable T5100 
Portable T5200 

Memory Added 


Part # EQ 






PC-PA8341 U 







PC-PA8301 U 


$ 319.00 
$ 444.00 
$ 199.00 
$ 199.00 
$ 135.00 
$ 199.00 
$ 199.00 
$ 599.00 
$ 199.00 
$ 359.00 
$ 199.00 
$ 199.00 
$ 199.00 

Ask About Other Toshiba Upgrades 

fV|T£ Ask for other NEC upgrades 

Power Mate SX Plus 1MB Board 
2MB Board 
4MB Board 
8MB Board 

Part If EQ 






$ 295.00 
$ 495.00 
$ 725.00 


jii IIT Math 



Part # EQ 



$ 80.00 


$ 175.00 


$ 117.00 


$ 185.00 


$ 155.00 


$ 215.00 




$ 255.00 









80287XL (12.5 MHz) 

$ 229.00 


$ 325.00 

80287XLT (12 

5 MHz] 



$ 385.00 


$ 305.00 


S 485.00 


$ 290.00 


$ 315.00 


$ 350.00 


$ 450.00 


$ 550.00 

We also carry memory upgrades for 

• EVEREX • HP Vectra • SAMSUNG • SUN • Canon Printer 

• SILICON GRAPHICS • WYSE • and other AT & XT clones 

1228 Village Way, Unit D • Santa Ana, CA 92714 • (714) 542-8292 • FAX (714) 542-8648 • Hours 8:00 AM-5:00 PM PST 


Prices are subject to change 

Circle 617 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 618) 



Faster Pizza 
Delivery Through 

You've probably heard of 
Query by Example, but a 
company in St. Louis has de- 
veloped a system for determin- 
ing the fastest pizza delivery 
route by example. Thanks to 
Fast Map, a trainable stand- 
alone system developed by 
Mid-America Technologies 
(Maryland Heights, MO), 
pizza lovers may soon get 
their pizza orders delivered to 
the home or office without 
delay, helping both customer 
and company. 

The St. Louis Users Group 
for the Personal Computer saw 
a demo of the product, minus 
the actual pizza, at its Novem- 
ber general meeting held in 

Washington University's Si- 
mon Hall auditorium. The 
system is about to be released 
after a year and a half of de- 
velopment and testing. 

Robert Covington, direc- 
tor of research and develop- 
ment at Mid-America, said 
the company developed Fast 
Map because geographical 
mapping products, although 
fine for demographic analy- 
sis, can't produce route maps 
in under 10 seconds. 

Fast Map ($5775) is a pro- 
prietary system that uses a 
touchscreen or mouse com- 
bined with a high-speed ther- 
mal printer. "After the call 
comes in— let's say it's 1524 
Main St.— the clerk feeds in 
1524 and the letter M," he 
said. "All the streets with the 
letter M with that street num- 
ber potential show up on- 
screen. After another mouse or 

touchscreen entry, the ad- 
dress is pinned down and the 
map is printed." 

Fast Map actually prints 
out two 200-dpi maps, one of 
the district and another of the 
delivery locale, along with text 
instructions. The map can 
tell in feet how far down the 
block the target address is 

Mid-America uses a vari- 
ety of sources for its district 
maps, including the U.S. 
Census Bureau and the U.S. 
Postal Service. Changes to 
routes are updated monthly, 
and users of the system can 
make changes to a map them- 
selves by tracing a new route 
with their finger on the screen. 
Although the system was ini- 
tially targeted for pizza deliv- 
ery, you can use it for fire 
departments, police, florists, 
and any other type of routing. 

One of the benefits of the 
program is that you can train it 
by example to adapt to a 
manager's preference for 
routes. The expert-system 
portion of Fast Map can learn 
from a manager that it should 
avoid roads that have potholes 
or construction. Fast Map 
can also be trained to use the 
banzai delivery method of 
taking full advantage of short- 
cuts. After all, Covington 
says, "Some people like to go 
through the alleys." 

—Howard de Mere 
and Dave Andrews 

What's the Scoop? 

BYTE is interested in 
who said what at your 
latest users group meeting. 
Call (603) 924-2630. 


^y Calcomp 
^/ All Models, 

CALL for Swings 

Sketch II 12x12, 

4-But 340 

Sketch II 12x12, 

16-But 427 

Sketch Pro 1112x18, 

16-But 585 

Large Formats Call 


Kurt a 

12 x 12, 4 Puck Stylus 345 

12x12, 12-But Corded 435 

12x17, Corded Puck 585 

30 x 36, 16-But .2015 

36 x 48, 16-But 2394 


Sketch Master 12 x 12 319 

SL 24 x 36 Super Pricing 

SL 36 x 48 Super Pricing 


Puma 12x12, 4 or 12-But ...375 

Tiger 12x12, 12-But 648 

Complete CAD Workstations 

Each system fully configured including 2 Serial Ports, 1 Parallel Port, corresponding Math 
Coprocessor. Enhanced "AT" 101 Keyboard, 1.2MB Floppy, DOS 3.3, GW-Basic, 
thoroughly tested prior to shipment and supplied with a Full One Year On-Site Warrantylll 

System Cache 

Configuration Memory 

Everex Step 486/33 w/8MB 1 28Kb 

Everex Step 486/25 w/8MB 1 28Kb 

Everex Step 386/33 w/4MB 64Kb 

Everex Step 386/25 W/4MB 64Kb 

Everex Step 386/20 W/4MB 64Kb 



BOMB 92MB 150MB 




$7895 $8095 

6895 7095 

6395 6595 

5595 5795 

5195 5395 

Monitor & Card Combos 

Graphics Only 

Metheus1228 $1690 

Metheus1224 1260 

#9 GX Level 2 785 

#9 GX Level 4 1295 

Rendition 11/1 6VG A 1130 

Rendition II/256VGA 1505 

VMI Cobra 16HS 1350 

Video 7 VRAM 512 380 
Monitor Only 

w/ Mltsu 19" Hitachi 21" Hitachi 20" 

HL6905 4320-21 AP CU208SM 

3689 4300 3585 

3259 3870 3155 

2784 3395 2680 

3294 3905 3190 

3129 3740 3025 

3504 4115 3400 

3349 3960 3080 

2379 3039 2275 

1999 2610 1895 

Nanao16" Nanao 
9070S 9070U 













We Carry a Complete Line of Modems, 

Network Boards & Accessories, Math & 

Memory Chips, Surge Protection 


5% Discount on All 

Plotters-All Models 



Houston tnstuments 



The above Is a partial listing of our product line. Please Inquire 
If you're interested in a product not listed. Al names are trade- 
marks and registered trademarks of their respective companies. 

> Quoted prices reflect a 2% cash discount. • Rated companies call for terms. 

• Prices subject to change without notice. • C.O.D., VISA, Mastercard & Am ex. 

• All manufacturers' warranties apply. • Member Better Business Bureau. 

CAD Buster 

EVEREX STEP 386/33 W/8MB* 
SIMM, 150MB ESDlHardDrive 

Includes Renaissance Rendition II 
16' Color with VGA Module, Hitachi 
CM-2085M or Mitsubishi HL-6905 
19" Color Monitor. A thru D 8-Pen 
Plotter, 12 x12 DigKlzeryourcholce 
of three. '5MB minimum require- 
ment for AutoCAD/386. Delivery 
limited to continental U.S.A. 


6760 Miller Road ■ Brecksville, Ohio 44141 



(C) This ad copyright November 1990, ESI Automated Office Systems 

72PC-18 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 

Circle 615 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 616) 

MetaWare Delivers 
The Essential Tool For 


Way back in 1986, MetaWare delivered the first 32-bit protected- 
mode DOS compiler for the 386. Our High C compiler set the 
standard for professional software developers. High C DOS 386/486, 
Version 2.3, brings important features to extended DOS that 
our UN IX C customers have come to rely on for creating 
lightning-fast executable code: 

True Globally Optimizing Technology 



Global Optimizations that increase speed of 
code execution include: constant and copy 
propagation, constant expression folding, local 
and global common subexpression elimination, 
removal of invariant expressions from loops, live/ fl 

dead analysis, dead code elimination, global register 
allocation, and tail merging. We've also included 
faster libraries with ANSI conformance and greater Micro- 
soft compatibility. These optimizations make Version 2.3 
generate46% better Whetstone code and 15% better Dhrystone 
code than our previous version. But one piece was still missing: 

True 32-Bit Source-Level Debugging 

Our customers really needed a MetaWare-quality 32-bit, source- 
level debugger. It had to offer a friendly user interface with color or 
monochrome windows, featuring pull-down and pop-up menus. They 
needed to watch or edit data, registers, and breakpoints through 
windows that displayed: flags, memory in any format, variables, stack 
data, 387 registers, locals, globals, structs, pointers, modules, and 
more! We've delivered! MetaWare's 386 protected-mode debugger 
features source-level symbolic debug capabilities. High C users can 
tackle even the largest DOS C programs and debug code on the host 
or a remote DOS machine, via a standard serial port. 





In an ever-changing, puzzling, multi-platform world, it's reassur- 
ing to know that: 

Your Code is Portable to Other Platforms 

Many professional programmers are delighted to 
discover that their existing High C programs may 
be easily ported to many other popular platforms, 
including MS-DOS, FlexOS, OS/2, UNIX Sys- 
tem V 386/486, Sun 386/, Sun-3, Sun-4, SPARC, 
and IBM AIX on PS/2, RT, i860, and 370, IBM 
AOS 4.3 on RT and 370, Am29K, Motorola 
680x0, and Intel i860. And we're already talk- 
ing with several of our OEMs about porting the 
debugger to these and other new platforms. 




Our customers who are already using the combi- 
nation of High C and the new debugger all agree that the 
new, 32-bit source-level debugger is the essential tool for the 
only compiler you need. 



Compiler Products for 
Professional Software Developers 

High C® • Professional Pascal® 

2161 Delaware Ave. • Santa Cruz, CA • 95060-5706 • 408/429-6382 • Fax 408/429-9273 

MetaWare, High C, and Professional Pascal are registered trademarks of MetaWare Incorporated. Other names are trademarks of their respective companies. 

• Copyright 1990 MetaWare Incorporated 

Circle 621 on Reader Service Card 




386/33*200 FRO PLUS 

■ 80586-33, 32-bit 

■ 8M RAM, 64k Cache 4 

■ 200M Hard Drive 15ms 
Microsoft Windows 3 . 6 __ 
Microsoft Mouse 
PLUS by Spinnaker 

$3, 995 \ 


1.2M 5.2.5" and 1.44M 3.5" 
2 SeriaVParallel/Game Ports 
KEYS feature desktop cases 

286/12-40 KEY 

. Intel 80286, 2M RAM 
40 M Hard Drive, 28ms 
Eight-In-One by Spinnaker 

Dexxa Mouse w/ Paint 


Add $100 for 65M Hard Drive 

16-bit VGA 1024X768 w/512K 
VGA 1024X768 Color Monitor 
101 Key Ironies Keyboard 
i PROS feature mid-size lowers 


Intel 80386SX,2M RAM 
40M Hard Drive, 28ms 

■ Eight-In-One by Spinnaker 

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A sextet of CD-ROMs 

on-line makes 

for lively computing 

It has been quite a month. First, we 
hosted two meetings of the Citi- 
zens Advisory Council on National 
Space Policy: we're supposed to 
provide some input to the Stafford and 
Augustine Commissions on Technol- 
ogies for the Space Exploration Initiative 
and the general future of the U.S. in 
space. Council meetings are normally 
held at Larry Niven's home, but for a 
number of reasons they ended up here in 
Chaos Manor, which is almost large 
enough. The meetings were productive, 
but they generated a lot of material that 
has to be reported. 

Then I was asked to be the dinner 
speaker at the annual meeting of the 
American Astronautical Association. 

So, this weekend I have to write my 
part of the two Council reports; get this 
column in; turn in another journalism as- 
signment; write my American Astronau- 
tical Association speech; and look up 
some data for the IRS. If that weren't 
enough, Niven and I have been going like 
gangbusters on two books, Fallen An- 
gels, which is our gift to science fiction 
fandom, and The Moat Around Murche- 
son 's Eye, a sequel to The Mote in God's 
Eye. We expect to have finished and 
turned in both books by the time you 
read this. So, provided that I survive it, 
this may be the most productive month of 
my life. 

The Jukebox 

We recently got, courtesy of the Bureau 
of Electronic Publishing, a Pioneer Elec- 
tronic DRM-600 CD-ROM drive and 
changer. This is a box about the size of an 
external WORM (write once, read many 
times) drive (similar in shape to a some- 
what long shoe box), which holds a six- 

pack of compact discs in a neat little re- 
movable holder. It is fairly easy to install 
the drive interface card in your machine 
and install the software in your CON- 
our case, I installed the DRM-600 in the 
Arche Legacy 386/33. One way I test 
new stuff is to install it in new machines. 

Pioneer's instructions are complete, if 
a bit dense; you may have to read them 
over a few times, but there shouldn't be 
any difficulty. You can also hook up the 
DRM-600 to your Macintosh; it hangs 
directly on the SCSI port (no internal 
card is needed). I haven't tried that, but I 
have no reason to doubt it will work. 

The DRM-600 is a dual-purpose af- 
fair; that is, you can hook the output into 
your stereo system and have a CD player 
whose audio quality I can't tell from the 
CD player in my Technics system, and, 
of course, you can use it as a CD-ROM 
drive. The software has provision for 
doing both. You specify how many CD- 
ROM drives you want, and the remainder 
will be audio drives. Each CD-ROM is 
configured as its own virtual drive. They 
don't get mixed up, because the audio 
drives will start at the bottom, while the 
CD-ROM drives start with the top of the 

Pioneer bundled in a neat software 
package called Jukebox (JUKE. EXE) 
that will control the audio drives. It's 
quite intuitive: no instructions are re- 
quired, although I probably should have 
read the instruction book. There are sev- 
eral button-like options, enough to make 
me wish for mouse support, but there's 
n o real need; i t can b e controlled just fine 
with the arrow keys. Of course, it makes 
little sense to tie up your computer as a 
CD player. . . . 

We usually leave the stereo amplifier 
turned off, but we flip it on when the 
DRM-600 is plugged into the stereo. 
Actually, all I've used the DRM-600 
audio system for is to play a CD called 
The CD-ROM Chronicles, which is a 
"talking book" about the history and fu- 

ture of the CD-ROM. It's well worth lis- 
tening to for an overview of the subject. 

There are quirks, though. For one 
thing, it's very difficult to get the DRM- 
600 to work with QEMM-386. It can be 
done, but finding out how took a few 
days. In fact, the procedure I followed 
was odd, and perhaps instructive. 

I first got the DRM-600 running prop- 
erly without Desqview. That done, I let 
the Desqview installer do its thing. This 
triggered an installer bug: the QEMM 
installation program tried to insert 
QEXT.SYS into my CONFIG.SYS file. 
That's all well and good if you have a 286 
system, but for a 386 with 8 megabytes of 
memory, it's about as useful as a choco- 
late-covered wristwatch. I understand 
this happens more often than Quarter- 
deck Office Systems likes to admit. In 
any event, if the Desqview installation 
tells you it wants QEXT.SYS, eliminate 
the line. 

When the installation was done, I had 
a system that appeared to run, but any at- 
tempt to access the DRM-600 CD-ROM 
drives locked up the machine and re- 
quired hard reset. But as long as I ignored 
the DRM-600, the system worked. Sigh. 

The next step was to run the Desqview 
Optimizer program. This diddled around 
and loaded various things in high mem- 
ory. When it was done, I could get a di- 
rectory off one of the CD-ROM drives— 
but invoking retrieval software locked up 
the machine. 

About then I got disgusted and called 
Quarterdeck's technical support. Every- 
one was busy: not surprising. Eventually 
I got someone, and we went through 
some tests. I was advised to edit CON- 
FIG.SYS to put the DRM-600 driver 
first, before QEMM. SYS. That eats up 
memory, and I didn't like doing it much; 
but it did work. 

Then I took another look at the DRM- 
600 driver and realized that the DRM- 
600 installation had put an /E: switch in 
the configuration line. The DRM-600 
can make use of expanded memory if it 

JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 73 


finds any. Alas, it can't make use of it if 
that memory is managed by QEMM386. 
SYS. Eliminating the /E: parameter let 
me put the DRM-600 device after the 
DEVICE = QEMM386.SYS statement, 
which lets the Optimizer program load it 
high, freeing more memory. 

The upshot is that I have the DRM-600 
running not only with QEMM386.SYS, 
but inside Desqview windows, which has 
the amusing result that I can actually 
have several CD-ROM windows open at 
once. Now clearly there's only one physi- 
cal drive for the six CD-ROMs, so you 
can't run them simultaneously; but it's 
surprising how fast you can switch back 
and forth among them. 

Of course, there's a sense in which 
it doesn't matter: the DRM-600 works 
fine, and I intend to set it up on a net- 
work, as described in last fall's column 
in the IBM Special Edition, and I won't 
be running Desqview on the network 
server anyway. Until we get the network 
set up though, it's fun to have the DRM- 
600 running under Desqview. Naturally, 
I've told it that all six drives are CD- 
ROM drives. 

The Pioneer DRM-600 isn't cheap, 

but it works, and it's very convenient to 
have a bunch of CD-ROMs available 
without swapping. Recommended. 

It's History 

The Pioneer DRM-600 was interesting in 
its own right, but there was another, 
more urgent, reason for me to get it fired 
up: after five years, the Amdek Laserdek 
CD-ROM drive seems to have died, and 
I've just got a whole bunch of new CD- 
ROMs from the Bureau of Electronic 

The Bureau is a private firm, original- 
ly given a pretentious name in hopes that 
people wouldn't figure out that it was 
two guys in a garage; now, it's a fair-size 
outfit, and my chief source of informa- 
tion about CD-ROM events. If you don't 
have their catalog, send for it: even if you 
don't want to buy any CD-ROMs or 
drives, you'll be fascinated by the wide 
variety of stuff offered for sale in CD- 
ROM format. 

The newest CD-ROM I got from the 
Bureau is their United States History. 
What they have done is take a hefty col- 
lection of books and documents on U.S. 
history, mostly in public domain, and 

run them through the DiscPassage CD- 
ROM retrieval software. The result is un- 
even, but it's still pretty good, including 
an official history of the U.S. Army, 
with excerpts from speeches, maps, and 

Most of the material was chosen be- 
cause- it was available, and it includes 
public documents, history books pub- 
lished around the turn of the century, and 
so forth. That's no great defect: many of 
the high school history texts written back 
then are more detailed, and much more 
readable, than the pap they sacrifice 
trees for today. It includes some Revolu- 
tionary War histories that are plain fasci- 
nating; maybe it was just me, but I found 
myself reading about the Battle of Cow- 
pens and much enjoying the experience. 

Much of the material was obviously 
keyed in, and, alas, not well proofread. 
In some documents, hardly a paragraph 
escapes egregious errors, misspellings, 
missing words, and even missing sen- 
tences; even Patrick Henry's most fam- 
ous speech doesn't escape its share of ty- 
pographical errors. 

It's still a good effort, something that 
all high schools and colleges ought to 

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have. That implies that high school and 
college libraries ought to have CD-ROM 
drives, and most don't, which is a real 
pity, because there is a great deal of ma- 
terial available on CD-ROM. 

When CD-ROMs first came out, I 
thought this might become a way to put 
rare and original materials in the hands 
of scholars and students at smaller and 
less wealthy institutions; for instance, 
the Dead Sea Scrolls might be repro- 
duced on a CD-ROM along with a good 
proportion of the material that has been 
published about them. Now that VGA is 
widely affordable, this becomes even 
more feasible, and I see the beginnings of 
it happening. The United States History 
CD-ROM is a long way from what I'd 
like it to have been, but it's a good start 
on where we ought to be going with this 

More CD-ROMs 

When I began this column, I had the 
foolish conceit that I could keep up with 
the entire microcomputer world, hard- 
ware and software. I long ago lost that il- 
lusion. For a while, though, I thought I 
might be able to keep up with the CD- 


owl can't 

even keep up with the 

CD-ROM explosion. 

Every month I get up to 

a dozen CD-ROMs, and 

I am not getting all that 

are published. 

ROM explosion. Now I can't even do 
that. Every month I get up to a dozen CD- 
ROMs, and I am not getting all that are 
published. I can't even keep up with the 
CD-ROM drives now available. On that 
score, the Denon drives installed on the 
Zenith Z-386/25 continue to work fine. 

Some recent (within the past six 
months) CD-ROMs in no particular 
order: Software Toolworks World Atlas, 

Oxford English Dictionary (older edi- 
tion; no supplements), Grolier Encyclo- 
pedia Americana (illustrated), USA 
Factbook, CIA World Factbook, Agrico- 
la (the national database of agriculture), 
Multi-Media Birds of America, Quick 
Art (300-dot-per-inch TIFF images), Li- 
brary of the Future, An Unabashed His- 
tory of Photographic Erotica, Micro- 
Medex Medical Technology, Microsoft 
Programmer's Library (the new edition), 
and Word Cruncher. 

I could list' a lot more; but as I was 
making the list, I noticed a curious thing. 
I made the list by grabbing a bunch of 
CD-ROMs off the shelf where I keep 
them, plus looking about at some of the 
others I have been testing; and I discov- 
ered that of the above, after the first few, 
just about every one of them is worth a 
comment; most, alas, inspire negative 

The Software Toolworks World Atlas 
is pretty good. It doesn't go into enough 
detail, and you'd be better off with the 
Times World Atlas, but for quick scans of 
geography it's neat, and the retrieval 
software is fairly easy to use. The only 
negative comment I have is that I wish it 



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gave more information; for what it does, 
it's all right. One comment, though: you 
must run the installation program. At- 
tempting to invoke the program direct 
from the CD-ROM will lock up your sys- 
tem and require a hardware reset. The in- 
stallation program works fine. 

The Oxford English Dictionary is well 
worth having in any library, and most 
wordsmiths will like it. The retrieval 
software is fast, but best described as ob- 
scure, and there are no words past 1937 
or so since it doesn't have the supple- 
ments; but this one gets a permanent 


he best 
thing about Textware is 

that it comes on the 

CD-ROM so you don 't 

lose it. It's slow enough 

to amuse you while you 

grow a beard. 

place in my primary six-pack, if only for 
snob appeal. 

The Grolier Encyclopedia Americana 
is another in my permanent six-pack. In- 
deed, its retrieval software is some of the 
best, and as I use it more, I have come to 
be reasonably fond of the encyclopedia. 
On the other hand, Grolier 's paranoia 
about that software is a continued irri- 
tant: the network version apparently will 
not work except over a network (and will 
not work with my network in any event), 
while the usual version deliberately com- 
mits suicide if you have a network card in 
the machine even if you don't use it over 
a network. 

Incidentally, the way you use it with 
multiple CD-ROM drives is weird: first 
you must put the Grolier CD-ROM as the 
first one in the six-pack. Then you must 
log onto the Grolier CD-ROM and get a 
directory; now, before you do anything 
else, go to the subdirectory on the hard 
disk where you have the Grolier retrieval 
software and invoke it. That— and noth- 
ing else— works fine. 

Of course, the Grolier retrieval soft- 
ware comes on a separate floppy disk, 
and it must be installed from a floppy 
disk. The same Grolier CD-ROM works 

with both Macs and PCs, but unlike what 
Quanta Press publishes, Grolier doesn't 
furnish both: you have to buy one or the 
other. Oh, well. They tell me they're re- 
doing some of their software and will 
distribute updates for free. 

The USA Factbook and the CIA World 
Factbook from Quanta use Textware re- 
trieval software. The best thing you can 
say about this program is that it comes on 
the CD-ROM so you don't lose it. This 
stuff is slow enough to amuse you while 
you grow a beard. The installation pro- 
gram is truly horrible. First, it wants you 
to tell it precisely where you want every- 
thing. Next, it will not create a subdirec- 
tory: you must create that subdirectory 
and log onto it before going over to log 
onto the CD-ROM preparatory to run- 
ning the installation. You also have to 
figure that out from the error messages 
you get when the system fails to install 

Once you install and run Textware, 
you get few clues as to what is on the CD- 
ROM, and invoking the index gets you a 
long wait, after which it solemnly in- 
forms you of how many entries there are 
for each of hundreds of numbers, like 
$1,234,563,888 (1 entry). Doing page- 
down gets more lists of numbers, a very 
long wait again, and then more numbers. 
At this point, I wasn't even to the "A's" 
and gave up. Apparently, you must al- 
ready know what's in the database to 
search for it; a curious concept indeed. 

If you want the material that's in the 
database, you can try the Factbook CD- 
ROMs, which do have good information 
on them; but even on a 33-MHz 386 it's 
slow. Textware also leaves some mem- 
ory-resident stuff in your machine, so 
you need to reset after using it. Trying 
to run a different Textware CD-ROM 
without resetting will get you memory 
errors, so you have to reset anyway. On 
the other hand, these CD-ROMs come 
with a separate disk to run the same CD- 
ROM on the Mac, where there are far 
fewer problems. 

Agricola, the national database of ag- 
riculture, is also from Quanta, but the re- 
trieval software is Romware, which 
works much smoother than Textware and 
is actually usable. There are some decent 
help screens and a general introduction 
to what you're doing. I wish the other 
databases Quanta publishes had used this 
instead of Textware. 

The Multi-Media Birds of America 
CD-ROM uses DiscPassage retrieval 
software. I have many other CD-ROMs 
that use this system, including United 
States History and Sherlock Holmes on 
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Circle 235 on Reader Service Card 


of DiscPassage, also publishes a line of 
medical literature CD-ROMs, which I 
believe is their major business. DiscPas- 
sage isn't elegant, but it is good enough. 
It needs better introductory screens, and 
I could improve the help screens. Even 
on the Arche Legacy 386/33, it's very 
slow in building VGA images, and, alas, 
many DiscPassage CD-ROMs begin with 
a VGA picture. 

The DiscPassage system badly needs a 
quick way to find out from the CD-ROM 

what data resources are on it, although 
that partly depends on the way in which 
the CD-ROM database developer ar- 
ranged things. However, DiscPassage is 
able to handle illustrations (unlike 
Textware, which is as likely to have half 
the image off-screen as not, as I found 
when trying to examine the Great Seal of 
the State of Iowa). The DiscPassage 
search-and-retrieval indexing is good 
enough, and while it's not blindingly 
fast, it's not real slow either. 


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When you install DiscPassage, it 
creates a batch file. You need to edit that 
to tell it which drive the CD-ROM will be 
on, and you will have to change that if 
you move that CD-ROM. However, once 
DiscPassage has logged onto a DiscPas- 
sage CD-ROM, you can, from within 
DiscPassage,. change to another CD- 
ROM drive or, alternatively, swap CD- 
ROMs in the present drive and log onto 
that. Again, it doesn't do this elegantly, 
but it does do it. 

The Quick Art CD-ROM has 2200 
images on it, but if there's any retrieval 
software for it, I've been unable to find 
it. Since the images are in TIFF, you can 
go looking for them with one of the Mace 
Grasp tools or one of the little public do- 
main image-viewer programs, but find- 
ing an index to the images is a problem. 

I have the same difficulty with the Li- 
brary of the Future: it apparently has a 
lot of really nifty stuff, but what there 
isn't is retrieval software. I suppose I got 
a copy of that on some kind of floppy 
disk, but, if so, it has submerged itself in 
the chaos stream. Doubtless it will wash 
ashore one day, as may the Quick Art re- 
trieval software. 

The moral of this story is easy to see: it 
doesn't hurt to put the retrieval software 
on the CD-ROM itself. It doesn't take up 
much room, and it won't get lost. Disc- 
Passage comes that way; each new CD- 
ROM seems to have a later version, but 
they're all backward-compatible with all 
the earlier CD-ROMs, and if one ever 
weren't, you'd still be able to read all the 
earlier CD-ROMs with the programs that 
came with them. 

The contents of An Unabashed History 
of Photographic Erotica weren't particu- 
larly noteworthy— I'd call them puerile 
rather than erotic— but the retrieval soft- 
ware is remarkable. It doesn't work very 
well, alas, but it's elegant, with VGA 
images as part of the control software. 
They come up surprisingly fast. The 
software attempts to show a series of 
slide shows. It also shows details of pho- 
tographs. You use the plus and minus 
keys to move back and forth within a 
slide-show sequence. 

After a while that gets pretty boring, 
or did for me, but part of that is the pic- 
tures shown: gross anatomy has never 
been one of my stronger interests. I really 
would like to see this software used to 
produce a CD-ROM of, say, the paint- 
ings in the Florentine Uffizi. 

MicroMedex Medical Technology is 
interesting because it uses Reference 
Technology retrieval software. That's 
pretty good stuff. Alas, the latest Refer- 
ence software I have is several years old, 

80 B YTE • JANUARY 1991 

Circle 236 on Reader Service Card 

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comprehensive introductions to each procedure and examples ■ 
Integrated Stats Advisor expert system ■ Extensive data management 
facilities (powerful spreadsheet with formulas; relational merge; data 
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of 3D graphs ■ Extensive selection of tools for graphical exploration 
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Facilities to custom-design new graphs and add them permanently to 
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keystrokes: all graphs on this page can be produced from raw data in 
less than 20 minutes ■ Macros, batcli/commands also supported ■ 
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Operate your own BBS 

with the world's most popular, expandable, flexible 

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The Major BBS® 
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A complete BBS software package for your 
PC, PS/2, XT, AT, 386, 486, or compatible. 
Includes electronic mail with binary and 
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fast access to new messages, message and file 
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without system shutdown, "SIG-Op" privi- 
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to 2 simultaneous users (from a database of 
thousands) on a single CPU. Works with stan- 
dard Hayes-compatible COM 1/2/3/4 internal 
or external modems, or with serial ports up to 
38,400 bps. Minimum RAM requirement 
5 12K. Minimum disk requirement20MB. Re- 
quires PC-DOS or MS-DOS 3.1 or later. 
The Major BBS Standard Edition $ 59 

When you're ready to expand: 

NoLANormulti-taskingOS necessary! Dou- 
ble the number of simultaneous users that 
your system can support, from 2 to 4, or 4 to 
8, or any number up to 64 simultaneous users 
on a single CPU, for a flat $300 software 
license fee per doubling. The upgrade process 
is quick, automatic, and fully upward-compat- 
ible— i.e. you can install an update or upgrade 
onto your existing system without disrupting 
any of your user account files, E-Mail mes- 
sages, configuration variables, or any other 
aspect of your system. For up to 16 users, 
640K RAM is sufficient; above 16 users, more 
than 640K may be necessary. Prerequisite: 
The Major BBS (any edition). 
Users, per doubling (up to 64) $ 300 

If you need multi-modem hardware: 

Our Model 2408 consists of up to 8 Hayes- 
compatible modems on a single circuit card, 
for the PC/XT/AT/386/486 family. Each 
modem operates independently at 
300/1200/2400 bps (automatically switching 
to match the caller's bps rate). Built-in serial 
ports are not COM-port based, so this card can 
co-exist with other COM port hardware in the 
same machine (drivers for software other than 
The Major BBS are not included but may be 
written). RJ-11 telephone cables are included. 
MNP Class 4 (error correction) modems are 
available as an option. 

non-MNP Class 4 

2408 w/2 modems $ 1536 $ 1696 

2408 w/4 modems $ 2090 $ 2388 

2408 w/6 modems $ 2644 $ 3080 

2408 w/8 modems $ 3198 $ 3772 

utility object libraries, linker control files, and 
DOS "batch" files you will need, along with a 
detailed Programmer's Guide. Works with 
Turbo C 1.5, 2.0, or 2.01, Turbo C++, or 
Microsoft C 4.0, 5.1, or 6.0. Prerequisite: The 
Major BBS Standard Edition. 
Standard Edition C source code $ 285 

For the ultimate in 
file transfer flexibility: 

When you're ready for source code: 

With the C source code to The Major BBS, you 
can add 3rd-party software, such as The Major 
Database (a general-purpose, configurable 
database manager), various multi-player real- 
time adventure games, dial-out utilities, global 
command utilities, accounting enhancements, 
and much more. Also, you can maintain your 
own copy of the BBS, or you can modify it to 
suit your own unique requirements. The Major 
BBS C source code package is fully docu- 
mented, and it includes the Galacticomm Soft- 
ware Breakthrough Library, plus all of the 

The File Library Edition of The Major BBS 
has everything that the starter system does, 
plus built-in ZMODEM, KERM1T, Super- 
(batch) file transfer protocols. Also, it offers 
super-fast pre-indexed keyword file searches, 
library-wide searches as well as constrained 
searches, special file upload/download ac- 
counting options, alternate DOS "paths" per 
sub-library, split paths for CD-ROM support, 
a transparent "DOS-only" sub-library option, 
and much more. This package is for you if the 
focus of your system will be the upload and 
download of large amounts of files. You can 
easily upgrade from the starter system to the 
File Library Edition, without losing any of 
your data files or configuration work you have 
already done. Prerequisite: The Major BBS 
Standard Edition. 

File Library extensions $ 199 

File Library C source extensions* ... $ 159 

If you decide to offer 

online games and amusements: 

The Entertainment Edition of The Major BBS 
has everything that the starter system does, 
plus Quest for Magic (a multi-player interac- 
tive text adventure game), Androids! (a multi- 
player arcade-style ANSI-graphics game), 
Flash Attack (a futuristic tank and laser battle 
for multiple players with IBM PC's), and the 
Action Teleconference Link-Up, which in- 
cludes private "chambers", action verbs (grin, 
wink, nudge, etc.), the ability to link to other 
systems for huge multi-system tele- 
conferences, custom entry /exit strings, user- 
configurable profiles, and much more. This 
Edition supports the Flash™ Protocol (where 
most of the game functionality is on the user's 

end of the phone line), for which dozens of 
incredible new multi-user games are now 
being developed. Upgrading from the starter 
system to the Entertainment Edition is quick 

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and easy and involves no loss of data or func- 
tion. Prerequisite: The Major BBS Standard 

Entertainment extensions $ 149 

Entertainment C source extensions* . . $ 1 29 

If your requirements include 
order entry and catalog sales: 

The Shopping Mall Edition of The Major BBS 
has everything that the starter system does, 
plus online shopping. Your online mall can 
have multiple "stores", each run by its own 
separate "merchant", if desired. Each mer- 
chant has control over his or her own product 
line, pricing, discount structure, store wel- 
come message, sales tax handling, etc. Also, 
each merchant may create up to 6 different 
payment methods (e.g. VISA, MC, AMEX, 
C.O.D., "bill me", etc.), and up to 6 different 
shipping methods (e.g. UPS, FedEx, US Mail, 
etc.), each with its own rates (flat rate, percent 
of sale, lst-ounce/add'1-ounce, or lst-pound/ 
add' 1-pound). Users may browse product cat- 
alogs at no obligation, or order products and 
services directly online! Orders generate in- 
voices that are posted to the individual mer- 
chant as attachments to E-Mail. To upgrade 
from the starter system to the Shopping Mall 
Edition takes only a few minutes. Prerequisite: 
The Major BBS Standard Edition. 

Shopping Mall extensions $ 249 

Shopping Mall C source extensions*. . $ 1 89 

For super-flexibility of 

menu trees and ANSI screens: 

The MenuMan Edition of The Major BBS can 
do everything that the starter system does, and 
in addition you as Sysop can create your own 
menu trees, with menus leading to menus lead- 
ing to menus, as deeply "nested" as you like. 
The "leaves" of your menu trees can be ordi- 
nary ASCII or ANSI files, which are simply 
dumped to the user's display (with or without 
automatic screen breaks), or they can be any 
of the built-in functions of the BBS such as 
scanning the user's incoming E-Mail or firing 
up a SIG quickscan. Includes commands like 
GO <pagename>, FIND <topic>, USERS, 
and for the Sysop, the equivalent of the DOS 
commands DIR, RENAME, COPY, DEL, 
MKDIR, and RMDIR, as well as a set of priv- 
ileged commands for editing and extending 
the menu trees, remotely, while the BBS re- 
mains fully online. Upgrading from the starter 
system to the MenuMan Edition takes only 
minutes. Prerequisite: The Major BBS Stan- 
dard Edition. 

MenuMan extensions $ 149 

MenuMan C source extensions* .... $ 129 

...and that's not all! For advanced applica- 
tions, we also offer an X.25 direct-connect 
software option, a protected-mode develop- 
ment toolkit, and special licensing arrange- 
ments for up to 256 simultaneous users! And 
don't forget the smorgasbord of 3rd-party 
add-ons available, such as The Major Data- 
base from Galactic Innovations. Custom pro- 
gramming and integration services are also 
available. Your system can grow in power and 
sophistication, far into the future, with The 
Major BBS. 

Here's How To Order: 

Just dial (305) 583-5990 and say, "I'd like 
to place an order!" We can generally ship your 
order within 48 hours. We accept major credit 
cards, or we can ship C.O.D. Prices shown do 
not include shipping or insurance. 

For more information, you may either call 
the main order number and ask for a sales 
engineer, or dial (305) 583-7808 with your 
modem (8-N-l ) for a free demo of most of our 
products. This demo system also contains an 
online Shopping Mall with many of the 3rd- 
party add-ons available for The Major BBS, 
operated by the 3rd-party vendors themselves. 

Give us a call today! 


As your system grows larger... 

The GalactiBox™ is our 16-slot "expansion 
chassis", for large-scale systems. It has the 
unique ability to address individual modems 
by slot number rather than just COM port 
address, so you can use up to 16 standard 
internal modems in it, side by side, without 
conflict. Includes built-in 150W power sup- 
ply, interface card for your XT/AT/386/486, 
cables, and full documentation. Up to 4 boxes 
may be attached to one CPU, for a total of up 
to 64-channel expansion capacity. Prices 
shown below are for standard 300/1200/2400 
bps Hayes-compatible internal modems. We 
also have 9600 bps V.32/V.42 MNP Class 5 
modems available, call for prices. 

GalactiBox (unpopulated) $ 1992 

GalactiBox w/4 modems $ 2416 

GalactiBox w/8 modems $ 2840 

GalactiBox w/16 modems $ 3688 the corresponding extended Edition. 

The Major BBS, Flash Protocol, and GalactiBox arc trademarks of 
Galacticomm, Inc. PC, PS/2, XX AT, and PC-DOS arc trademarks of 
International Business Machines Corp. Hayes is a trademark of Hayes 
Microcomputer Products, Inc. The Major Database is a trademark of 
Galactic Innovations, Inc. Turbo C and Ibrbo C++ are trademarks of 
Borland International, Inc. MS-DOS and Microsoft C are trademarks of 
Microsoft Corp. UPS is a trademark of United Parcel Service. FedEx is a 
trademark of Federal Express Corp. MNP is a trademark of Microcom, Inc. 

*The C source code extensions are necessary, if 
you wish to combine multiple extended Editions 
together, or add 3rd-party software, or develop 
your own modifications. Prerequisites, in each 
case, are the Standard Edition C source code, and 


Galacticomm, Inc. 4101 S.W. 47 Ave. 
Suite 101, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314 

Modem: (305) 583-7808 

Fax: (305) 583-7846 

Voice: (305) 583-5990 

Circle 115 on Reader Service Card 


and it doesn't have drivers for either the 
Denon or the Pioneer CD-ROM drives, 
and thus I can't install either MicroMe- 
dex or the McGraw-Hill Science Ency- 
clopedia, which also uses Reference. Mi- 
croMedex digests medical journals and 
has such things as the Poison Index. I 
gather it's considered indispensable in 
some emergency rooms. Our last update 
was about 1987, and there are no updates 
to the software, so you can't use these 
CD-ROMs on the newer drives. Pity. 

Microsoft Programmer's Library is 
important to programmers. Microsoft 
now puts out their C development kits, 
programs and documents, on CD-ROM: 
if you're a serious programmer develop- 
ing applications for OS/2 or Windows, or 
if you're a heavy user of any Microsoft 
compiler, get yourself at least one CD- 
ROM reader and the Microsoft CD- 
ROMs. You'll be more than glad you did. 
Microsoft Bookshelf is a permanent one 
on my basic six-pack; if I did more pro- 

gramming, Programmer's Library 
would be another. 

Finally, there is Word Cruncher Disc 
Volume One, subtitled "A meledy of sig- 
nificant documents, literature, and in- 
formation on CD-ROM." (I don't know 
if "meledy" is a kind of pun on medley 
and melody; it's what they printed on the 
face of the CD-ROM.) A few issues ago, 
I was rather unkind to this retrieval soft- 
ware. After trying to work with some of 
the other stuff that's out there, particu- 
larly Textware, I revise my opinion. 

Word Cruncher isn't elegant, but you 
can learn it, and at least it's not slow. 
Changing colors and manipulating the 
text is often awkward, and the text is gen- 
erally presented on-screen in a less-than- 
aesthetic manner, but for all that, it 
works, and it doesn't drive you nuts to in- 
stall it. I really would hate to have to read 
very much from it, though. I understand 
they are coming out with a new version 
shortly. If they can keep the speed and 
make the formatting more elegant, they 
will have something. 

Anyway, that's a tiny sample of the 
CD-ROMs available now. This technol- 
ogy is coming of age. 

Decisions, Decisions 

When microcomputers first came out, 
there was a spate of decision-aid soft- 
ware. Most of it was pretty crude. Some 
simply forced you to make a number of 
preferences and then took a weighted 
average; nothing you couldn't have done 
with pencil and paper. Some was more 
sophisticated but was harder to use. 

Expert87 is sophisticated and also rel- 
atively easy to use. Mind you, it's not a 
toy, but a professional tool, and you 
won't learn it in 5 minutes. On the other 
hand, you can learn it by working with 
examples, not by reading a large boring 

The program bills itself as "Artificial 
Intelligence." What it will do is make 
explicit the decision factors you use and 
form them into a rule-based system. I 
wouldn't call that AI, but then I've been 
reading Roger Penrose's The Emperor's 
New Mind: Concerning Computers, 
Minds, and the Laws of Physics, and I 
tend to agree that most of what is called 
AI isn't. 

Anyway, Expert87 has provision for 
bringing in other experts and encoding 
their views, and then combining them 
into a consensus system. It has ways of 
examining a series of decisions to deter- 
mine bias or inconsistency. As far as I 
know, these capabilities are unique to 

When, donkey's years ago, I learned 

84 BYTE • JANUARY 1991 

Circle 228 on Reader Service Card 

Pocket Power 


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operations research and systems analy- 
sis, I was taught that the major value of 
these disciplines was to make decision 
factors explicit: not just which airplane 
to send on what mission, but why this one 
was better than that one, or at least why 
we thought so. That led to some hairy 
fights in evaluation board meetings. I'd 
have much liked to have had this program 
available to help get out in the open pre- 
cisely what each member thought was 
important and why. 

It's a little hard to say just who needs 
this program. In a sense, no one does. 
On theotherhand, anyone who's curious 
about the decision process, or who has to 
make a lot of decisions and doesn't al- 
ways know why some are made the way 
they are, or who wants to try to build an 
expert system and hasn't the foggiest no- 
tion of how it's done, probably does need 

Expert87 is unlike any other program 
that I've seen. Provided that you invest 
enough time in it to see what it's doing, 
and how, the payoff in your increased un- 
derstanding of the decision process is 
likely to be worth the time and money; 
and you may use it to build a useful ex- 
pert system to help make decisions. 

Carpenter's Dream 

Every so often I get a program that isn't 
fancy. Often the packaging is downright 

hokey. Most such programs are worth- 
less, but I do try to look at them, because 
once in a while I find one that is so good, 
and so useful, that I can't quite believe it. 

This is one of them. It sure isn't fancy; 
but it sure does do what it says it will, and 
there's no trick to learning it, either. 

Carpenter's Dream— for classroom 
use, there is also an expanded version 
called Remodeler's Dream— simply and 
efficiently makes all those pesky calcu- 
lations that drive you nuts when you're 
trying to cut wood to fit a complex space. 
Want to put in stairs? Add a roof? Hip 
roof? Gables? Get this program, spend a 
few minutes thinking about it, and start 
plugging in numbers. The result will be 
a table of materials to buy (e.g., 21.5 
sheets of plywood or 80 rafters at 16 feet 
each). Another part of the program cal- 
culates the sizes to cut to, exact sizes, to 
Vie inch. 

Remodeler's Dream also estimates 
how much paint you need for a room of a 
given size and a bunch of other stuff. 

Either of these programs will save a 
great deal of time and energy, not to 
mention wasted materials. If you're go- 
ing to do construction or remodeling, get 
one. You won't be sorry. Recommended. 


For some reason, this seems to be the 
month for hardware. The odd thing is 

that a whole bunch of machines arrived 
in a series of decreasing sizes. 

First was the Arche Legacy 386/33, 
very much a high-endmachine. Ours has 
an 80387 math chip, 8 MB of fast mem- 
ory, a 300-MB hard disk drive, both 5^- 
and 3 1 /2-inch floppy disk drives, a 100- 
MB tape cartridge drive for backup, 
hardware disk caching, and a partridge 
in a pear tree. We set it up with the Pio- 
neer DRM-600 and the Sound Blaster 
audio board. 

When it came time to add a mouse— I 
confess that we always install a mouse 
now— I found we were out of mice, but 
there was a large trackball affair called a 
RollerMouse on the table, so Alex used 

I'm not precisely sure why, but I didn't 
expect to like it; and I was wrong. I like it 
quite a bit. Indeed, if it would fit on my 
under-desk typing shelf, I'd consider in- 
stalling it on my main machine. 

The RollerMouse is Microsoft-com- 
patible, meaning that it's a two-button 
mouse. In fact, it has four buttons: two 
big ones, which correspond to the usual 
mouse buttons, and two smaller ones, 
which activate click and drag mode, so 
you don't have to hold down a button to 
do drag operations. It takes just a bit of 
getting used to, but it's surprising how 
fast you not only learn to use this, but 
find it becoming natural; or at least both 
Alex and I found this to be true. 

Naturally, Alex decided to do some 
extensive testing of RollerMouse com- 
patibility, meaning that he put up Rail- 
road Tycoon and built a big Western 
U.S. railroad empire. Actually, games 
are no bad test of mouse compatibilities; 
anyway, we've had this in use for a few 
weeks now and haven't found any prob- 
lems, and we both still like it. If you're 
weary of rodents but need a pointing de- 
vice, look into RollerMouse. 

Anyway, the Arche Legacy 386/33 
was the first and largest of the machines 
we've set up recently. Except for the 
Cheetah Gold 486, the Legacy is the fast- 
est machine in the house; it's a lot faster 
than the Cheetah 386/25. This is a well- 
made, tough, sturdy, and powerful ma- 
chine. You will definitely be hearing 
more about the Arche Legacy. 

The Arche Legacy is a big machine, 
big enough to cover a desk. I gather it can 
be had in a tower configuration, and that 
might well be preferable for a machine of 
this size. 

It's a Brick 

The Ergo Brick is a computer you have to 
see to believe— indeed, some of the Citi- 
zens Advisory Council people didn't be- 

86 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 

Circle 56 on Reader Service Card 


lieve it when they saw it. The Brick mea- 
sures just 8 by 1 1 by 3 inches high; it 
will literally sit on a piece of letter-size 

Inside it is a full 386SX computer, 
with 1 to 8 MB of memory in standard 
single in-line packages (Ergo sells them 
for $200 per megabyte, or you can shop 
around for a better price), a 44-MB hard 
disk drive (you can get larger ones, up to 
212 MB), an optional math chip, a 2400- 
bps modem, an EGA /VGA port, two 
serial ports, an external bus port, an ex- 
ternal power supply , and a whole mess of 
software all tuned up to run with the sys- 
tem. Ergo Computing believes in Desq- 
view, and they have that all set up when 
you buy the machine: just turn it on. 

The result is a machine you can carry 
around in a briefcase, which is what this 
was designed to do. Tom Spalding, Er- 
go's president, has a study that shows 
that most people use a laptop in only two 
or three places, and hardly ever use one 
while traveling. The Brick is intended to 
go home with you from work; to save car- 
rying weight, you can keep a keyboard, 
monitor, and power supply in each loca- 
tion. In addition, by the time you read 
this, they'll have an LCD screen about 
the size of the computer. 

The Brick looks like a toy, but it's a 
powerful machine, not quite the equal of 
the Arche Legacy or the Cheetah 386/25 
I'm writing this on, but more than a 
match for any 286 and most 386SX ma- 
chines. At 8 pounds, it's a lot less weight 
to carry than my Zenith SupersPort SX 
laptop, although that 8 pounds doesn't 
include keyboard and monitor. 

You can buy a stripped-down Brick, 
but if you buy a fully loaded machine, 
Ergo will bundle it with a lot of software: 
QEMM-386 and Desqview, askSam, 
Borland's Sprint word processor, and the 
Quattro spreadsheet. It also comes with a 
mouse. I'm not fond of the keyboard, 
which has the Caps Lock next to the A, 
but we had no trouble installing a North- 
gate OmniKey keyboard on it. 

I have had the Brick for only a few 
weeks, but everyone who sees it falls in 
love with it. We've got it set up with a 
Princeton Graphic Systems Ultra-14 
monitor, and it fascinates visitors. The 
Brick isn't cheap, but if you have a kid 
going off to college, you might contem- 
plate getting one of these; the 386SX will 
be current for another few years. Ergo 
has tuned up the Brick and its bundled 
software to be easy to use and understand 
(askSam will actually talk to you for a tu- 
torial); and because the Brick is small 
and easily carried, it won't be any prob- 
lem to move from place to place, and it 

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can even be carried home for the holi- 
days. Recommended. 


I don't have space to do this program jus- 
tice, but I wanted to mention it as a com- 
plement to the Brick: if you have a stu- 
dent going off to engineering school, 
run, don't walk, to your software dealer, 
get a copy of this program, and get that 
future engineer accustomed to using it. 
Engineering school math is tough, and 
while MathCAD can't do everything, it's 
amazing what it can do: not just in solv- 
ing problems, but in helping you under- 
stand what you're doing. 

There's a sense, though, in which lib- 
eral arts students need MathCAD even 
more than science majors: playing with 
this program is a sure cure for innumer- 
acy, and the program is easy enough to 
use that if you get in the MathCAD habit, 
you may well find yourself playing with 
numbers. The program takes all the sting 
out of that. 

Mathematica is more sophisticated 
and has better graphics capabilities, but 
for all-around usefulness, you simply 
cannot beat MathCAD. Highly recom- 

Winding Down 

I'm coming to the end of this column, 
and I haven't got started on the piles of 

stuff lying around here. 

While we had the Arche Legacy open 
to receive the DRM-600 interface board, 
we put in a Sound Blaster board as well. 
This bills itself as the ultimate sound 
board for your PC, and for once that's 
not all hype. 

This interface board not only plays 
stereo sounds such as are increasingly 
provided with games, but it comes with 
highly sophisticated software that will let 
you program in sound. You can make the 
program read ASCII files to you, for in- 
stance, and while you may have to fiddle 
with the spelling on complicated words, 
it's surprising how good you can make 
that text sound. 

The Sound Blaster normally plays 
through a Radio Shack speaker pair— the 
ones we use are their $29.95 amplified 
speakers (Radio Shack part 40-1267) 
that run off four C batteries. I presume I 
could take the audio output of the DRM- 
600 and feed it into the Sound Blaster, 
and let that board run the speakers, but I 
haven't done that yet. 

You can also play sounds into the 
board. It will digitize them. Then you 
can call those sounds back up. Have your 
computer talk to people in your own 

There's a lot more, and I hope to get to 
it next month; meanwhile, if you're look- 
ing at high-end sound boards for your 

JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 87 



Arche Legacy 386/33 





Arche Technologies, Inc. 

Magic 7 Software 

IBM XT, AT,andPS/2s.. 


48881 Kato Rd. 
Fremont, CA 94539 

101 First St., Suite 237 
Los Altos, C A 94022 



Apple II and Mac 


(800) 422-4674 

(415) 941-2616 

CH Products 

(415) 623-8100 

Inquiry 1155. 

970 Park Center Dr. 

Inquiry 1151. 


Vista, CA 92083 

Mass-Store Copy 



Carpenter's Dream 3.0 


Informative Technologies 
1718 M St. NW, Suite 292 

Inquiry 1159. 

Remodeler's Dream 


Workhorses, Inc. 

Washington, DC 20036 

Sound Blaster 



(202) 675-4528 

MIDI Connector Box 


Golden, CO 80401 

Inquiry 1156. 

Voyetra Sequencer MIDI 

(800) 777-2477 



Inquiry 1152. 



Brown- Wagh Publishing 

Applications Packs 


130-D Knowles Dr. 

The CD-ROM Chronicles . . . 


MathSof t, Inc. 

Los Gatos, CA 95030 

Meridian Data, Inc. 

One Kendall Sq. 


5615 Scotts Valley Dr. 

Cambridge, MA 02139 

(408) 378-3838 

Scotts Valley, C A 95066 

(800) 628-4223 

Inquiry 1160. 


(617) 577-1017 

Inquiry 1161. 

Inquiry 1157. 

United States History 






Bureau of Electronic Publishing 

Pioneer Electronic Corp. 

Traveling Software, Inc. 

141 New Rd. 

1058 East 230th St. 

18702 North Creek Pkwy. 


Carson, CA 90745 

Bothell,WA 98011 

(201) 808-2700 


(800) 343-8080 

Inquiry 1162. 

Inquiry 1153. 

(206) 483-8088 
Inquiry 1158. 

Ergo Brick 


Ergo Computing, Inc. 

One Intercontinental Way 

Peabody, MA 01960 

(508) 535-7510 

Inquiry 1154. 

PC, think hard about Sound Blaster. 

There's Office Star, the small-office 
connectivity system from Traveling Soft- 
ware: it's a means for connecting Lap- 
Link or DeskLink to several computers at 
once, giving file transfer and printer- 
sharing capability up to 100 feet between 
machines. It works through serial ports, 
it's easy to set up, and, like everything 
else Traveling puts out, it works about 
the way you expect without your having 
to dig through manuals. More on this one 
next month. 

Finally, there's Mass-Store Copy, a 
program to make copies of WORM and 
other optical cartridges even though you 
have only one WORM drive. You'll wear 
your arm out swapping disks to copy a 
really big one, of course. 

This program desperately needs an 
EXCLUDE command; that is, copy all 
EXCEPT *.BAK AND FOO. *, as an ex- 
ample, because backup WORM drives 
tend to be cluttered up with files you 
don't really want to copy onto the new 

WORM. We have two WORMs, on two 
separate machines, and use LapLink or 
Office Star to link them and copy from 
one to the other. If you don't have two 
WORM drives, you likely need to have 
this program. 

The game of the Month is Centurion 
from Electronic Arts: you won't play it 
as long as you play Railroad Tycoon, but 
it's still fun and the graphics are great. 
The sound is awful, but so what. 

I won't call it the book of the month, 
but Falkenberg 's Legion by Jerry Pour- 
nelle is now out in paperback from Baen 
Books; this includes my CoDominium 
stories, the ones about the unlikely end of 
the Cold War and an uneasy alliance be- 
tween the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. ... The 
real book of the month is George Gilder ' s 
Microscosm: The Quantum Revolution in 
Economics and Technology (Simon & 
Schuster, 1989). Gilder was a bit late dis- 
covering the electronic revolution, and 
much of what he says won't be at all new 
to BYTE readers, but he does put it all 

down in one place, and some of his argu- 
ments are interesting. (For a review of 
Microcosm, see the February 1990 Print 

Now it's 3:00 a.m., and Niven is due 
here at 11:00; we'll take a hike in the 
Hollywood Hills and talk over what 
we're doing, and we should have 4000 
words done by dinnertime. The Moat 
Around Murcheson 's Eye is moving . And 
I'm dancing as fast as I can. . . . ■ 

Jerry Pournelle holds a doctorate in psy- 
chology and is a science fiction writer 
who also earns a comfortable living writ- 
ing about computers present and future. 
Jerry welcomes readers' comments and 
opinions. Send a self-addressed, stamped 
envelope to Jerry Pournelle, do BYTE, 
One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, 
NH 03458. Please put your address on 
the letter as well as on the envelope. Due 
to the high volume of letters, Jerry cannot 
guarantee a personal reply. You can also 
contact him on BIX as "jerry p. " 

88 BYTE • JANUARY 1991 

It Has Been 

Brought To 

Our Attention 

That Not Everyone 


Portable PCs 

Can Be As 
Functional As 
Desktop PCs. 

This Should 



This may be hard f^" 
,. to believe, but f 



there really is such a thing 
as a portable PC that can 
do everything a conven- jSJJ 
tional desktop can. 

In fact, there's not just one, but an entire line of them. 
They're called Toshiba Portable Desktops^' and they'll forever 
change the way your company looks at power and productivity. 

Some people can't imagine squeezing a 40,100 or even a 200MB hard disk into a portable PC. But when 
they take advantage of all that storage capacity they find it hard to imagine life without it. 

To get more 

information or a free 

Portable Desktop 

productivity survey 


True, some business people may have trouble grasping the notion of 
desktop power in a portable, but when you give it some thought, it's the 

next logical step in computers. 

With 386™ and 386™SX mi- 
croprocessors, our Portable Desk- 

There once was a day 
when microprocessors 
this powerful were 
unheard of in a port- 
able. Luckily for 
people who crave raw 
power and computing 
speed, that day is over: 

For those who think a PC just isn't fully functional without 
a color display we developed our second-generation LCD 
color screen. For those who think basic is better, our VGA 
gas plasma systems have the perfect displays. 

Remove All Doubt. 

To anybody who doesn't 
expect a portable PC to 
have IBM'-compatible 
expansion slots, we have 
just one thing to say 
Raise your expectations. 

tops run all of the same 
applications as your com- 
pany's conventional PCs. 
With hard disk 

drives from 40 to 200MB, you have all the flex- 
ibility to configure a system the way you want it. %£*" insis,s po,table rc users are d00med ,0 

With the connectivity of our multiple ex- 

undersized keyboards hasn't gotten their hands on 
a Toshiba. We use standard-size keys and standardized key 
spacing so your hands will feel right at home. 

pansion slots and ports, our Portable Desktops fit right in 
with your existing system and grow as your company grows. 
And to remove the last possible barrier between your 
needs and our portables, we've 

With an expansion slot for a LAN card, you get 
complete networking freedom without giving 
up all your other expansion slots. 

<l «i .. i i . i Theysayyoucan'tsqueeze much memory 

eVeil designed One With a high- into a portable PC. But considering that our 

dedicated memory expansion slots let you 
~ add up to 12MB of RAM as your need for power 

resolution VGA color screen. 9 rows > jt looks |ike " the v" were wron 9 ^^- 
In other words, it really is possible to have all 

the capabilities of a conventional desktop in a portable. 
All you have to do is try one. And believe. 





'L m 


; «■— 






— : mi- 

T5200. 386 microprocessor; 40, 100 or 200MB 
HDD, 2 to 14MB RAM, 2 IBM-compatible expansion 
slots (in addition to dedicated memory slots),VGA 
plasma display. 


T5200C. 386 microprocessor, 200MB HDD, 2 to 
14MB RAM, 2 IBM-compatible expansion slots (in 
addition to dedicated memory slots), VGA passive 
matrix color LCD display. 


T3200SX. 386SX microprocessor; 40 or 120MB 
HDD, 1 to 13MB RAM, 2 IBM-compatible expansion 
slots (in addition to dedicated modem and memory 
slots), VGA plasma display. 

Now That You're Convinced, 




Okay, let's suppose you 
,. suddenly discover your 

company filled with powerful 
Toshiba Portable Desktops. 
Now what? 

First of all, your people 
can do everything around the 
office they've been doing with 
their desktop computers. 

Then your key employ- 
ees can turn after-hours time 
into productive time, since their 
dining room tables and break- 
fast nooks can serve as off- 
I site workstations. 
m Your top people 

Giving your people instant access to vital information can keep them doing what they do best. 
Working smart. 

can add impact to their 

. Employees can even improve their productivity in the familiar surroundings of their own office. Only 

pr6S6ntatl0nS With a now they'll have more desk space to work with. 

To get more 

information or a free 

Portable Desktop 

productivity survey, 


wealth of information and computing power at their 

fingertips. And the story can repeat itself— with 

equally impressive results— everywhere from an office 3,000 miles 

away to a conference room that's a mere 30 feet down the hall 

1 1 1 1 I 

>Miiiiiiii llmi 


Where Do You Go From Here? 

Giving your key employeesa Portable Desktop means they'll have the flexibility to work when they 
need to, where they want to. 

And yes, all that pro- 
ductivity can even take place 

within the confines of your own 
office desk (while using up con- 
siderably less of your desk 
space, we might add) 
All of which 
leads us to one 
very powerful 

Now all of 

your best people can be doing a better job than they ever 

could when they were chained to conventional desktop PCs. 

Better yet, they can do it without sacrificing power, func- 

tionability or expandability. Or anything else, for that matter. 

When people have access to computing power outsidetheir office, presentations are more powerful 
and groups are more productive. 

Three Powerful Arguments Why Your Next 



. PCs 

People said it was just a matter of time before someone built a line of port- 
,. able PCs this powerful. They just didn't know it would happen so soon. 

With our Portable Desktops, we've successfully combined the power and 

functionality of desktop PCs into slim, 


18.7 pounds, 20MHz 80386 with 80387-20 coprocessor socket, 
2 internal IBM-compatible expansion slots, 40MB hard disk with 
25msec access or 100MB hard disk with 25msec access or 
200MB hard disk with 16msec access, 2MB RAM expandable 
to 14MB, gas plasma VGA display with 1 6 gray scales, 1.44MB 
3!4>" diskette drive. 

portable packages that give you every- 
thing you need to get ahead in business. 


18.9 pounds, 20MHz, 80386 with 80387-20 coprocessor 
socket 2 internal IBM-compatible expansion slots, 200MB hard 
disk with 16msec access, 2MB RAM expandable to 14MB, 
passive matrix VGA full-colorscreen, 1.44MB 3te" diskette drive. 

Desktop PC Shouldn't Be A Desktop PC. 

So you get the same power. The same functionality. And the same 
expandability it takes to keep pace with your company's needs. 
The big difference is that with a Toshiba Portable Desktop, you can easily 

turn all that power into 
increased productivity. 
All thanks to something 
no desktop PC could ever hope to offer. 
The freedom to take it with 

To get more 

information or a free 

Portable Desktop 

productivity survey, 



17.0 pounds, 16MHz 80386SX with 80387SX-16 coprocessor 
socket 2 internal IBM-compatible expansion slots, 1 dedicated 
modem slot, 5 built-in ports, 40MB hard disk with 25msec 
access or 120MB hard disk with 19msec access, 1MB RAM 
expandable to 13MB, gas plasma VGA display with 16 gray 
scales, 1 .44MB 3W diskette drive. 

DontTake Our Word For It. 
Get A Second Opinion. 



yr_ — i 

What do other companies know about our Portable Desktop PCs 
... that you don't? If you had a copy of our free productivity survey, 

youd know. For example, you'd know that 93 percent of 
portable users said that they'd never go back to using a 
conventional desktop. You'd know they've reported sub- 
stantial increases in productivity. 
And you'd know why they place 
so much value on the flex- 
ibility and freedom their 
portables have to offer. 
Toshiba Portable Desktops. 
They're no longer a matter 

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of convenience, they're 
a matter of survival. 



St "-Vo 


-^5 ' 

In Touch with Tomorrow 


Toshiba America Information Systems Inc., Computer Systems Division. 


Wayne Rash Jr. 


The Power Man 

Do you need an 
on-line or off-line UPS 
to protect your LAN? 

There's no question that Virginia 
Power knows when I ' m on dead- 
line. Once before, the electric 
utility that serves Northern Vir- 
ginia had frustrated delivery of Down to 
Business by parking down the street and 
killing the power each time I got about 
two-thirds of the way through my col- 
umn. That was the day I discovered tape 
backup units. This time, though, I was 
ready for it. 

Once again, I was well along in a proj- 
ect when the familiar orange truck drove 
up, the same crews opened access covers 
in the street, and the power went off. 
This time, though, I kept right on work- 
ing. The Samsung/Novell 386AE file 
server kept right on running. The Gate- 
way 2000 386/25 and the Zenith Z- 
386/33 kept on running, as well. Even 
the Telebit T2500 modem stayed con- 
nected to BIX. When the power returned 
20 minutes later, I was still working, my 
productivity and my data unaffected. 

In my office, I have the file server and 
the Gateway 2000 attached to a Para Sys- 
tems Minuteman 1200SS uninterruptible 
power supply. The Zenith and the mo- 
dem receive their power from a Viteq 
386/LAN on-line UPS. During the time 
I've looked at these devices, both UPSes 
have supported the file server, as well as 
my other office equipment. This collec- 
tion of devices has included the tele- 
phones, the fax machine, and (inadver- 
tently) a laser printer. 

Once upon a time, a UPS was consid- 
ered an exotic piece of equipment. Main- 
frames used them, often in the form of a 
diesel generator out back, with a motor 
generator that used stored mechanical 
energy to smooth out any brief power 

losses. Smaller installations used batter- 
ies and inverters, but all these devices 
were considered too expensive to be used 
with personal computers. That concept 
was fine, of course, until businesses dis- 
covered that they depended on personal 
computers as much as, or more than, 
they did on their mainframes. 

Now, some (but not most) businesses 
are using UPSes to protect some of their 
personal computers. Now that many of 
these same businesses are installing 
LANs, the need has become greater, and 
the risk that businesses run by not using 
UPSes has likewise become greater. A 
network file server is more vulnerable to 
power loss than is an individual work- 

Server Vulnerability 

Most network file servers are simply per- 
sonal computers that have been loaded 
with file server software and modified 
by the addition of large hard disks and 

some extra memory. It's not their design 
that makes them more vulnerable to 
power loss, but rather their use. 

Because they support many users, file 
servers access their hard disks much 
more often than do individual personal 
computers. Thus, when the power goes 
out, there is a greater likelihood that the 
file server will be involved with writing 
information to the hard disk, or that the 
disk cache will contain information that 
needs to be written to disk. 

There are times when a power loss 
during a disk write can trash the file 
server fairly effectively. Depending on 
the design details of the computer being 
used as the server, a very brief interrup- 
tion may or may not be serious. Some 
computers can tolerate a brief flicker in 
the power supply; others are sensitive to 
any irregularity. Peripheral equipment, 
such as modems, are much more affected 
by power fluctuations. It's not unusual to 
see a modem go off-line due to a power 


JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 89 



Minuteman 1200SS $ 1 500 

Para Systems, Inc. 
1455 LeMay Dr. 
Carrollton, TX 75007 
Fax (214) 446-901 1 
Inquiry 1221. 


Viteq Corp. 
10000 Aerospace Rd. 
Lanham, MD 20706 
(301) 731-0400 
Fax (301) 731-5995 
Inquiry 1222. 


change— a situation that a computer will 
ignore completely. 

Of f-Line? On-Line? 

An intense and ongoing controversy con- 
cerns whether engineers should design 
off-line or on-line UPSes. They design 
an off-line UPS for times when the power 
is interrupted and the switch to batteries 
needs to take place very quickly. The 

idea is that if the changeover is fast 
enough, the equipment attached to it will 
never balk at the interruption. 

Engineers design an on-line UPS for 
situations in which the battery will al- 
ways supply the power. The power from 
the electric company simply charges the 
battery. When the power goes out, the 
battery charging stops, but you don't 
have to switch power supplies. 

In theory, if your equipment is very 
sensitive to power fluctuations, then an 
on-line UPS is more likely to keep you 
operating smoothly. Most personal com- 
puters seem to be able to tolerate the brief 
fluctuations caused by the changeover to 
off-line battery power. Other devices 
with less hefty power supplies might 
have a problem, though. 

In practice, however, I haven't noticed 
any difference between the way equip- 
ment functions on the off-line Para Sys- 
tems Minuteman and the way it functions 
on the on-line Viteq. Despite the best that 
Virginia Power could do, both UPSes 
kept all the equipment attached to them 
up and running without a glitch. This 
might be partly due to the Minuteman's 
1 -millisecond switchover time. Most 

equipment can't spot a power interrup- 
tion that brief. 

Incidentally, I was able to sustain a 
connection to BIX during the times when 
the power was off. This is a good indica- 
tion that the transfer was a smooth one, 
because, in the past, I've found that even 
the smallest problem with power was suf- 
ficient to abort a modem connection. 

Amazing Grace 

Of course, in a network environment, 

there's more to a UPS than good batteries 

and a smooth transfer of power. A UPS 

just provides power for a relatively brief 

time during an interruption of electricity 

from the utility company. Eventually, 

the batteries run down and the file server 

is still left without power. You can extend 

the time that the UPS provides power by 

buying a larger one, but you must also 

spend a lot more money. 

Fortunately, most network operating 

systems support monitoring the state of 

the UPS. Thus, when the power company 

disconnects you, the UPS will signal the 

network operating system, which will 

then signal the users and the network 



ABC Flowcharter for Windows 

"Simply the easiest way to document procedures!' 

ABC Flowcharter™ makes drawing and editing 
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features that help you make and edit charts in 
a fraction of the time needed with other 
flowcharting or drawing programs. 

ABC Flowcharter's advanced link feature lets 
you break complicated procedures into smaller, 
more manageable steps. Just click on a shape to 
display a sub-chart or procedure. It's that easy. 

Ask your dealer for a demonstration or call 
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yourself why ABC Flowcharter is quickly 
becoming the standard flowcharting tool for 
the Fortune 1000. Retail price $295. 


2215 Filbert St. 

San Francisco, CA 94123 


90 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 

Circle 281 o n Reader Service Card 

One Word About Your 
Hard Disk Controller 


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Normally, this signal from the UPS 
also tells the network server to begin 
shutting itself down as gracefully as pos- 
sible. The disk cache will be written to 
disk, open files will be closed, and pro- 
cessing will stop. You can then turn off 
the file server safely, or let it run down 
when the UPS batteries finally fade. 

Monitoring is usually performed by a 
special card that you can install in the 
file server. Some Novell NetWare serv- 
ers, however, can monitor the UPS 

through a plug in their disk coprocessor 
board. In the case of the Minuteman, 
Para Systems provides special software 
that lets you connect the UPS to a serial 
port on the file server. The server and 
the UPS can communicate through the 
serial connection. In other words, once 
the file server has been shut down, the 
UPS can also shut itself down. Thus, it 
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Getting Charged 

Most people who have LANs know that 
UPSes exist. Why, then, do so few pro- 
tect their LANs properly? The reason, of 
course, is that many LAN users haven't 
figured out the true value of their net- 
work and the information it contains. In 
fact, the true value of your LAN may 
total almost as much as the entire value 
of your business. 

When you figure the value of your 
LAN, you have to consider more than 
just the utility it provides. While the 
communications support is important, 
remember that after the LAN has been in 
use for a while, it begins to be the reposi- 
tory for the information your company 
needs to operate. Think where you'd be 
without your accounts receivable, your 
customer list, or your employee records. 
Spending less than two grand to protect 
these assets is cheap insurance. 

So Long, but Not Goodbye 

This is the next-to-last installment of 
Down to Business, which I've been writ- 
ing for nearly three years. Don't get too 
excited; you're not getting rid of me that 
easily. Starting in March, Down to Busi- 
ness will be replaced by a new column 
called The Business Connection. I'll also 
be writing the new column. 

This change is due to the interest you 
have shown in the business-related cover- 
age in Down to Business. My new col- 
umn will continue this tradition, but it 
will do so with an expanded format, giv- 
ing you more information, more depth of 
coverage, and more business computing 
news, as well as opinions about what's 
happening in this environment. 

One of the most exciting changes will 
be an expanded emphasis on the use of 
networks in business, especially in the 
rapidly growing field of enterprise com- 
puting. I hope that you will find these 
changes as exciting as I do. The years till 
now have been wonderful, and I'm look- 
ing forward to bringing you even more 
valuable information as BYTE's business 
coverage continues. ■ 

Wayne Rash Jr. is a contributing editor 
for BYTE and technical director of the 
Network Integration Group of American 
Management Systems, Inc. (Arlington, 
VA). He consults with the federal govern- 
ment on microcomputers and communi- 
cations. You can contact him on BIX as 
"waynerash, " or in the to.wayne con- 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 

< * — Circle 203 on Reader Service Card 


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AU trademarks arc registered to their respective owners. 



Mark J. Minasi 

of Riches 

Living with 
Windows 3.0 and 
OS/2 2.0 

This is a report from the future. 
By the middle of this year, peo- 
ple will be using both OS/2 2.0 
and Windows 3.0. Since Win- 
dows 3. on a 3 86 and OS/2 2. both pro- 
vide fairly stable platforms for DOS 
multitasking, as well as sporting a graph- 
ical user interface (GUI), there will be an 
obvious question of which to use. The PC 
trade magazines will all have cover sto- 
ries about which is better. 

You don't see this happening now be- 
cause OS/2 2.0 is still in beta testing; 99 
percent of the current (September 1990) 
version 2.0 users are programmers. 

I'm not sure why Microsoft is being so 
reticent about releasing OS/2 2.0— it's as 
stable as, if not more stable than, a good 
number of commercial products. In fact, 
I use it every day as my DOS launching 
pad. It's neat in that it not only lets me 
run my day-to-day OS/2 applications 
(WingZ and PageMaker, which is better 
under OS/2 than it is under Windows), 
but I can also run my DOS applications 
(e.g., the Q editor), either in a Presenta- 
tion Manager (PM) window or a fully 
concurrent full screen. 

721K-byte Free Space in DOS 

But that's not all, not by a long shot. lean 
actually tell version 2.0 to emulate CGA 
video, giving my Q editor DOS session 
72 IK bytes of memory. That means that 
once the Q editor is loaded, it shows me 
647K bytes of free space— and recall, 
this is a simple DOS application that is 
not aware of OS/2. 

Yes, yes, I know that any native OS/2 
application could easily address mega- 
bytes and megabytes. But native OS/2 
applications are still a mite scarce, and 


besides, I already own my DOS applica- 
tions. If OS/2 2.0 can let me stretch their 
useful lives out a bit, that's fine; it gives 
me a little more time while I'm waiting 
for the flood of OS/2 programs. 

OS/2 2.0 lets you do more than tag on 
more conventional memory. It will limu- 
late, attaching as much expanded mem- 
ory to your session as you'd like. (I've 
seen an Extended Memory Specification 
emulator demonstrated, but it's not in- 
cluded in the beta version yet.) You can 
optionally copy ROMs to RAM for more 
speed. You can control idle detection, a 
feature whereby OS/2 puts inactive pro- 
grams to sleep, saving CPU cycles. 
These are just a few of the options, and 
it's not finished yet. 

The most amazing thing I have seen 
under version 2.0 is how it handles video 
games. Really. One sure way to find the 
soft parts in most multitaskers is to run 
highly graphical games or communica- 
tions; they can stop the system dead. 

J'm looking at a game called Star Con- 
trol running in CGA mode as a window 
of about 3 by 4 inches. I can see the entire 
game screen, albeit reduced in size, in 
the window. When windowed, a graphi- 
cal program does not run. But flip the 
program to a background full screen, 
and while I write this, computer-con- 
trolled armies wipe each other out. Try 
this with just about any other multi- 
tasker: instant lockup. 

So Why Do I Still Run Windows? 

Like many of you, I hated Windows 1.0 
and 2.0. I rely heavily on Micrografx 
Designer, however, and Designer does 
not run without Windows, so up to now I 
just grinned and bore it. But Windows 
3.0, well, that's another story. You know 
something's different when it first comes 
up. Heck, I didn't even know my VGA 
could make that shade of blue! It's more 
than just silliness, however— the thing 
really is easy to look at. 

JANUARY 1991 'BYTE 95 


The ease of changing and storing color 
schemes is convenient. I use it all the 
time when I change to monochrome to 
capture Windows screens. In contrast, 
OS/2 just makes things harder than ever. 
Once you find a color scheme, you back 
it up by making a copy of OS2.INI, the 
configuration file that stores that kind of 
information. The OS2.INI file is kept 
open, however, and the file system won't 
even let you back it up: You've got to re- 
boot under DOS to copy the file. 

That's my first reason for still using 
Windows: better aesthetics than OS/2 
has. Again, the final version of 2.0 
hasn't appeared yet, so I can hope that it 
will look as pretty as Windows. 

Boy, would I be annoyed if I were an 
OS/2 developer! Pay all that money to 
develop for OS/2 and then have Micro- 
soft drop a nicer-looking, cheaper GUI 
on the market. "Just trust us," Microsoft 
said to developers. 

I still use Designer under Windows be- 


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cause, sadly, Designer's OS/2 version 
stinks. It's slow and lacks features such 
as auto-trace— an ideal application for 
memory-rich OS/2. The Windows ver- 
sion, on the other hand, is quick (as long 
as you avoid outline fonts and don't mind 
the bugs in the LaserJet font handling) 
and makes full use of the Windows 3.0 
DOS extender. It can import 500K bytes 
of AutoCAD DXF files, although large 
imports are time-consuming. 

Here's a case where it's a real shame 
that I've got to stay in Windows. Once 
the "importing ..." box comes up, De- 
signer is useless until the import is over. 
A hypothetical Designer under OS/2 
could be designed to be multithreaded- 
one thread could handle the import while 
another could continue to accept and pro- 
cess user commands. 

That's the big difference between the 
versions of PageMaker for Windows and 
OS/2. When they're run on the same ma- 
chine, you end up spending more time 
looking at the hourglass when running 
the Windows version than you do under 
the OS/2 version. OS/2's multithreading 
capabilities in tandem with good OS/2 
programming on Aldus's part makes the 
OS/2 PageMaker preferable. Sadly, the 
vast majority of OS/2 programs don't ex- 
ploit this feature yet. 

Discussion of PageMaker brings up 
the main sticking point for both Win- 
dows and OS/2: printing. Print a simple 
LaserJet graphic, and the print manager 
goes out to lunch. I dread printing large 
documents under either system, and I 
can't afford to outfit all my laser printers 
with PostScript to speed up the process. 

The other reason I run Windows is 
memory. One of the machines on my 
desk has 4 MB of RAM, not enough to 
run the OS/2 2.0 beta version (it needs 6 
MB— fear not, it's only temporary in the 
beta version). Under Windows, 4 MB 
gives me enough cushion for a 1.5-MB 
cache and plenty of memory left over for 
applications. This isn't as much of an ob- 
stacle as some writers make it out to be, 
however. With memory at about $80 per 
megabyte, it's only laziness that keeps 
me from putting in another 4MB. 

Perhaps the most compelling current 
reason for Windows over OS/2 is its rela- 
tive richness of applications. Again, both 
Windows 3.0 on a 386 and OS/2 2.0 will 
multitask normal DOS programs, but 
what about programs that exploit the 
GUI environment itself? 

I end up using Crosstalk for Windows, 
because it's easy and I have used Cross- 
talk for years. It lets me do downloads 
while drawing with Designer, and when 
minimized, the Crosstalk icon even 

96 BYTE • JANUARY 1991 

Circle 250 on Reader Service Card 

Times Change. 

The Need To Protect Doesn't. 


How To Manage 
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Circle 274 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 275) 

M Color is Just One 
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reports on download status. 

I can scan an image into PC Paint- 
brush, Scanning Gallery, or a host of 
other programs under Windows, while 
there still isn't an OS/2 driver for my 
ScanJet Plus yet. And, yes, it seems a 
minor point, but when I'm waiting for 
something to finish under Windows, I'm 
now able to pull up Reversi and get shel- 
lacked again. I'm now putting some of 
my seminar presentations in ToolBook, 
and I plan to show them as VGA screens 
projected from a laptop. I sure wish there 
were a ToolBook for OS/2. 

OS/2 should come with as many good- 
ies as Windows does. Windows Write 
hasn't cost Microsoft one single Word for 
Windows sale— why not port Write to 
OS/2 and give it away with PM? Ditto 
Paint, Cardfile, Calculator, Terminal, 
and, yes, the games, too. Remember, 
OS/2 costs almost 10 times as much as 
Windows. If Microsoft is not going broke 
selling Windows, it certainly can bundle 
a few accessories with PM. Giving away 
a BASIC interpreter with DOS 1 .0 didn't 
eliminate the market for compiler prod- 
ucts—it created one by giving people a 
taste of what they could do on their PC. 

Thus, I'm still between worlds. Ulti- 
mately, I'll spend more and more time in 
OS/2 2.0 rather than Windows. The 32- 
bit flat-memory structure (not available 
to Windows programmers) will swing 
the balance of program speed in its favor. 

Programmers will finally figure out 
how to write multithreaded OS/2 code 
("stamp out hourglasses in our time!"), 
and we will read about developers jeal- 
ously speculating about the possibilities 
of threads for Windows 11.0. OS/2's na- 
tive support of Bezier curves will mean a 
simpler life for those of us who are tired 
of having to generate (and store) mega- 
bytes of downloadable fonts. You get 
used to being able to name files BYTE. 
september.column. version. 2, instead of 
BT0990V2.TXT; the High Performance 
File System is nice. 

It looks more and more likely that ver- 
sion 2.0 will directly execute Windows 
3.0 programs; that would be the best of 
both worlds. But for now, either Win- 
dows 3.0 or OS/2 2.0 is a whole lot better 
than what I had last year. ■ 

Mark J. Minasi is a managing partner at 
Moulton, Minasi & Company, a Colum- 
bia, Maryland, firm specializing in tech- 
nical seminars. He can be reached on 
BIX as "mjminasi." 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 

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System V ^Release 4.0 



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Circle 344 on Reader Service Card 


THE UNIX /bin ■ David Fiedler 


Using PCs as 

X terminals, and the 

latest from SCO 

Last month's prediction about in- 
expensive PC-based worksta- 
tions is already starting to come 
true, and you probably have 
most of the hardware right on your desk. 
This month I'll also take a brief hands-on 
look at the new and much-improved SCO 
Unix and a somewhat longer look at how 
VP/ix can keep DOS on your desk when 
you take the plunge into Unix. 

SCO Unix Update 

Last January, I recommended SCO 
Xenix as a good platform for 386-based 
systems that didn't need true AT&T Unix 
compatibility because it was "extremely 
fast and stable." I still think that Xenix is 
a good, mature product that has benefit- 
ed from numerous refinements over the 
years. But I didn't wax enthusiastic about 
SCO's Unix 386 product, because my ex- 
periences with it have been less than 

However, virtually all the problems I 
had had with it, and some I hadn't even 
found yet, were solved last week when I 
received the latest update for SCO Unix. 
Officially called SCO Unix System V/ 
386 3.2.2, it took a full year for SCO to 
write and test. 

It was worth the wait. The new version 
is not only quite a bit faster than the pre- 
vious version, it is almost as fast as 
Xenix, which is a much smaller operat- 
ing system. 

The kinds of improvements I found 
show that someone has been doing a lot 
of work on speeding up the internals of 
the kernel, since things like system calls, 
memory access, and disk throughput 
have improved markedly. The new ver- 
sion even supports SCSI CD-ROMs in 

both High Sierra and ISO 9660 formats. 
They also give you more of an opportuni- 
ty to relax some of the C2 security re- 
strictions than before. (For more infor- 
mation on C2 security, see "Safe and 
Secure?" in the May 1989 BYTE.) Fi- 
nally, release 3.2.2 comes with the Korn 
shell, a significant improvement over the 
regular Unix shell, which I am starting 
to really appreciate. 

While I obviously haven't had the new 
Unix long enough to see whether it will 
stay up for a solid month without crash- 
ing, as Xenix does, it appears to be quite 
stable. I've been working with it careful- 
ly in an attempt to find unfixed or new 
bugs. What I've found instead are many 
small, subtle (and unheralded) improve- 

For example, there are more identical 
files that are delivered as links to each 
other, rather than copies. Also, shared 
libraries were used to rebuild the sys- 
tem's executable commands. Both of 

these factors indicate a high degree of 
care in building the system for distribu- 
tion (and, incidentally, save a great deal 
of disk space). It's the equivalent of a me- 
chanic looking inside a car engine and 
finding stainless-steel Allen bolts in- 
stead of cadmium-plated hardware. 

The only problem I have now is trying 
to figure out why I can no longer talk to 
my Telebit modem at 19,200 bps. 

DOS Good, Too 

Some DOS and even Unix users might 
not realize it, but there is a way to move 
up to Unix and keep all your investments 
in DOS training, programs, and proce- 
dures. VP/ix, from Interactive Systems, 
runs on the company's 386/ix, as well as 
SCO Unix and Xenix. It uses the 386's 
built-in "virtual 8086" facility to emu- 
late the complete IBM PC environment, 
including DOS 3.3. 

You can simply type vpix at the Unix 
prompt to get the familiar DOS C> 


JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 101 

THE UNIX /bin 




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prompt. Thereafter, for all intents and 
purposes, you are running DOS. You 
have all the commands normally deliv- 
ered with DOS, including BASIC. You 
can also execute any Unix command 
from the DOS prompt, and even pipe the 
output of a Unix command into a DOS 
command (or vice versa). 

If you have installed Unix properly on 
a system that was already running DOS, 

you can switch to drive D and find that 
all your previous DOS files, applica- 
tions, and directories are still there! 
Using the DOS ASSIGN command can 
fix even this small difference, mapping 
your DOS hard disk files to the familiar 
C drive. Then you can execute any of 
your commands in the normal manner, 
without even caring that you are running 
Unix. I have nicknamed vpix to the 

name dos, so I can type either one of 
these commands. 

Apart from bringing up the DOS 
prompt, which might be most comfort- 
able for inveterate DOS users, you can 
also type something like vpix -c 123 
from the Unix command prompt. This 
gets VP/ix to load your DOS Lotus 1-2-3 
executable immediately, so that you are 
literally running a DOS program from 
the Unix prompt. I go a step further on 
my system, by writing little six-line Unix 
shell scripts that do some housekeeping 
on the way in and out of DOS. Here's an 

VPIXCNF= " / ips / vp ix / 123 - cnf ' 

export VPIXCNF 

mesg n 

disable oki >/dev/null 2>&1 

/usr/bin/vpix -c E:/l23-bat 

enable oki >/dev/null 2>&1 

The first two lines set up a configuration 
file for VP/ix, telling it what devices will 
be needed by the DOS session and how to 
find them in the Unix file system. While 
it's unnecessary to create one for every 
application, I find it useful because I can 


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102 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 

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Circle 69 on Reader Service Card 

THE UNIX /bin 

assign specific devices, such as laser 
printers, for specific purposes. 

The mesg n prevents other users from 
sending real-time Unix messages to my 
screen while I'm running a DOS applica- 
tion, which might confuse matters. Dis- 
abling and reenabling the particular 
printer-spooling device, as I do in lines 4 
and 6, aren't necessary either, because 
you can use the Unix printer spooler as 
your DOS printer. Only line 5 is really 

The beauty of this approach is the 
name of the shell file, in this case /usr/ 
local/ 123- I merely have to type 123 
from the Unix prompt, and I'm in the 
spreadsheet, without having to even 
know I'm working with DOS. 

And what about drive E? That's an- 
other of my improvements. Drive E to 
DOS is mapped to /ips/vpix, and it's 
literally a directory in my Unix file sys- 
tem. Some versions of DOS might be 
limited to 32 megabytes, but drive E can 
be the size of my hard disk. Since all the 
files reside under the Unix file system, 
they can be backed up on tape as part of 
my regular backup procedure. 

Even better, DOS applications benefit 
from the memory caching and structure 
of the Unix file system: Most run faster 
(especially file-oriented applications) 
and more stably than on native DOS. I've 
had VP/ix running for years with major 
applications such as Ventura Publisher 
(yes, even the new version with a bus 
mouse and extended memory), Quicken, 
and ArcList, a professional mailing 
package with 50,000 names and address- 
es on-line. 

VP/ix isn't the only DOS solution on 
the market. There's a similar product 
called DOS/Merge from Locus Comput- 
ing, which runs on other 386-based Unix 
systems, as well as SCO's Open Desk- 
top. DOS/Merge 's main claim to fame is 
that it's supposed to work as is with "for- 
eign" devices, such as scanners: no de- 
vice drivers needed. 

PCs as X Terminals 

OK, I swear I didn't know about this 
when I wrote last month's column. I pre- 
dicted we'd see inexpensive PC-based 
workstations that could just plug into an 
Ethernet line and run X Window System 
software. So, this month I found out 
about X-Pac from Integrated Inference 

The X-Pac is a single board that turns 
your normal PC (AT or higher, with 
EGA graphics or better) into an X termi- 
nal. The package includes a serial 
mouse, a serial port, 2 to 16 MB of ex- 
tended memory, and an Ethernet port 
(both thick and thin cable). You also get a 
TCP/IP kernel, an Ethernet driver, an X 
server, and a copy of Check-It software 
to help set up the system. 

It sounds like a lot of things to deal 
with, but they tell me it's been designed 
as a drop-in solution to the obvious prob- 
lem of, "Now that we're using Unix and 
workstations, what do we do with all 
these PCs?" It works as a Windows ap- 
plication with Microsoft Windows 2. 1 or 
higher, and you can set it up so that you 
just click on an icon, and— poof!— you're 
running an X terminal to Unix in a win- 
dow. And, in case it's not obvious, you 

still retain all the utility and software of 
your good old PC. 

Don't Call Me, Call Them 

It's been brought to my attention that 
some readers have been calling UUNET 
Communications Services for more in- 
formation after reading last July's col- 
umn. The only trouble is, they've been 
calling UUNET's voice line using their 

If you want to speak to someone at 
UUNET, call (703) 876-5050. To use 
the anonymous UUCP connection, you 
have to set your Unix system (in the 
/usr/ lib /uucp/ Systems or L.sys file) 
to call the organization at (900) 468-7727 
with the log-in name of "uucp" (no pass- 
word) and execute the following com- 
mand on your system: 

$ uucp uunet!/help /usr/ spool/ 

This will get you all the information you 
need. It should work at any data transfer 
rate, and will cost you 40 cents per min- 
ute. If you just want UUNET's fax, try 
calling (703) 876-5059. ■ 

David Fiedler is executive producer of 
Unix Video Quarterly and coauthor of 
the book Unix System Administration. 
He has helped start several Unix-related 
publications. You can reach him on BIX 
as <l fiedler. " 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 

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Circle 184 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 185) 

Product Feature Summary 

i Lotus 1-2-3 | Microsoft I Borland j 
Release 3.1 J PC Excel® 1 Quattro Pro® 1 

WYSIWYG Display 

3D Multi-Page Worksheets 





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© 1990 Lotus Development Corporation. Lotus and 1-2-3 are registered trademarks of Lotus Development Corporation. 
Excel is a registered trademark of Microsolt Corporation. Windows is a trademark ol Microsolt Corporation. Quattro Pro is a registered trademark ol Borland International, Inc. 

Circle 183 on Reader Service Card 

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Circle 57 on Reader Service Card 



With HyperCard 2.0, 

users finally get 

the support they need 

By now the dust surrounding the 
introduction of HyperCard 2.0 
has finally settled. Naturally, 
Apple couldn't upgrade its best 
software without stirring up a tempest in 
a teapot. All the hullabaloo that "Apple 
had abandoned its customer base" when 
it turned over the development and mar- 
keting of HyperCard to Claris has now 
calmed— and the truth is out. HyperCard 
2.0 is so much better than version 1.2.5 
that it's hard to understand how we got by 
using that earlier release. 

Here are the facts, then, to clean up 
this controversy. Apple is still bundling 
"real" HyperCard 2.0 (i.e., you can 
write and edit scripts in HyperTalk) with 
every Mac sold. The only difference be- 
tween the HyperCard 2.0 you buy from 
Claris ($49 if you're upgrading from a 
previous version; it costs more for new 
customers and less for site licensees) and 
the bundled version is the support mate- 
rial, not the HyperCard 2.0 binary. 

Apple has stripped down its giveaway 
version to fit on a single 1 .44-megabyte 
floppy disk and packaged it with a slim 
30-page getting-started manual. Apple 
has also hidden scripting from novices, 
so that you have to explicitly turn on user 
levels 4 and 5 (i.e. , authoring and script- 
ing). Otherwise, it's the same. Identical. 

Claris's version 2.0 meets the needs of 
HyperCard programmers much better 
than earlier Apple versions. It has five 
floppy disks of help and support stacks, 
three big manuals, the official guide to 
scripting, and Claris's free and first-rate 
telephone customer support. Apple was 
ill-equipped to handle this support ele- 
ment on its own, and it's the biggest rea- 
son that serious HyperCard program- 

The Mac 
and Personal 

mers have reason to rejoice, even if what 
used to be free now costs a few kopecks. 
Real software, with real support, has a 
nasty habit of costing real money. 

How good is HyperCard 2.0? Ex- 
tremely fine, thank you very much. It's 
made me forget about pretenders to the 
throne of personal programming tools 
(e.g., Plus, ToolBook, and Super Card). 
Sure, there are still things those systems 
can do that HyperCard 2.0 can't. But 
HyperCard has a momentum built up 
that's hard to stop, and version 2.0 helps 
reestablish that momentum. Consider the 
following version 2.0 improvements: 

• An optimized file format makes 
stacks smaller and better behaved. 
(Earlier stacks require a conversion 
that is not backward-compatible.) 

• Support for variable card sizes, 
ranging from 64 by 64 pixels up to 
1280 by 1280 pixels in 32-pixel 

1 Multiple, resizable, and scrollable 
card windows that follow the 
standard Macintosh document 
window style. You can open up to 
17 stacks simultaneously. 

» Styled fields that hold text of 
multiple fonts, sizes, and styles. 

1 Hot text— the ability to respond to a 
user's interaction with text within a 

» A group text style that "glues" 
together words or characters within 
-a script. This prevents a text string 
from being misinterpreted as 
several separate commands. 

► A dramatically improved printing 
scheme (including individual field 
printing), which means you don't 
need third-party add-ons like 
Reports anymore. 

> A HyperTalk "compiler." This is 
actually an incremental compiler 
that converts scripts into executable 
code. No stand-alone application is 


JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 107 

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generated. You still need HyperCard 
to run a stack, but the compiled 
scripts run much faster than the old 
interpreter mechanism did. 

To go with the compiler, you get a real 
script editor (actually, it's an XCMD) 
and an interactive debugger— complete 
with script checkpoints. These check- 
points can be made temporary or perma- 
nent, depending on your development 
needs. You can also peek at each mes- 
sage as it's generated with the Message 
Watcher; likewise, you can watch vari- 
able values change with the Variable 
Watcher. HyperCard 2.0 implements 


erhaps the 

most important change 

to HyperCard 2. 0, 

helping it reclaim its 

position as the top 

personal programming 

tool, is user-definable 

message inheritance. 

both watchers as external windows that 
look something like stripped-down mes- 
sage and variable inspectors. 

Perhaps the most important change to 
HyperCard 2.0, though, and the one that 
helps it reclaim its position as the pre- 
eminent personal programming tool, is 
user-definable message inheritance. Un- 
like the previous versions, where you 
couldn't touch the cast-in-concrete inher- 
itance path of HyperCard stacks, you can 
now insert your own stacks into the in- 
heritance path that work the same way as 
the Home stack. 

This way, these new stacks can make 
their stack scripts and resources available 
to any other stack in the path. The new 
HyperTalk command, start using, 
does this simply: 

on openStack 

start using stack ' 'Don's hard 
disk : My Test Stack ' « 

end openStack 

Similarly, you can remove a stack 
from the inheritance path with the stop 
using command: 

on closeStack 

if the stacksInUse contains ' 'My 
Test Stack' ' then stop using stack 
— 1 ' 'My Test Stack' ' 

end closeStack 

You can insert only 10 stacks this way. 

HyperCard 2.0, you should note, is 
still just object-like, not a true object- 
oriented-programming (OOP) system. It 
still lacks polymorphism and unrestrict- 
ed inheritance. Also, encapsulation can 
be violated as you see fit. And don't ex- 
pect to find anything like true Class, 
Methods, or Object Browsers. 

Still, HyperCard 2.0 has come a long 
way since its version 1.0 days. Hyper- 
Card 2.0 isn't Smalltalk or C + + , and 
I'm glad it's not. It's much easier to use 
than these OOP languages, and you get 
some personal Mac programming done 

Kudos to Apple for finally getting it 
out the door and into our hands. I look 
forward to many new services, special 
versions, and accessory stacks, now that 
Claris has taken over HyperCard's de- 
velopment. Stay tuned. 

Tips of the Month: 

Healthy Disks and Good Software 

Several months back, I reported on a use- 
ful utility for keeping track of all the 
files on your hard disk— On Location. 
This program, which functions as a 
start-up INIT and is controlled by a desk 
accessory (DA), keeps an active index of 
all your files, updating itself in the back- 
ground when necessary. 

The beauty of this active index be- 
comes clear the first time you use it. It's 
much faster than the mediocre Find File 
DA that Apple supplies, and it lets you 
search your files both by filename and 
file contents. The string-searching capa- 
bilities of On Location make it easy to 
find the exact file you want by zipping 
through their collective contents incred- 
ibly quickly. 

Despite all its capabilities, On Loca- 
tion 1.0 was a flawed product. The most 
serious flaw was the unpredictable fail- 
ure of indexes when you tried to use 
them. Since it could take On Location a 
few hours to generate a new index from 
scratch (for a big disk), you can imagine 
just how inconvenient this made using 
the software. 

I'm happy to report that version 1 .0.2, 

108 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 

Higher Level 
of Discovery 

With JMP Software for 
Statistical Visualization 

Make a quantum leap in data analysis with JMP software 
for your Apple Macintosh®. JMP combines traditional 
statistics with today's most innovative graphics. 

Discover more. 

A Fit regression and Analysis of Variance models, but 
see them in a new way with leverage plots, showing 
how each point contributes to each hypothesis test. 
A Fit means, but see the significance of their differ- 
ences visually with comparison circles. A Analyze 
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nents, but see both the points and variables in the 
same graph with a biplot, one that spins in 3D. A Ex- 
amine a correlation matrix, but see more with a 
matrix of scatterplots with density ellipses. See high- 
dimensional outlyingness of points with Mahalanobis 
distance plots. A See your data always displayed 
in a familiar spreadsheet grid. 

Interact more. 

A Point and Click to view, edit, or manipulate 
your data... to get an analysis... to identify r 

points... to customize... to get context-sensitive 
help... to choose colors and marker symbols for 
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and Click on your data in one graph, and the corre- 
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smoothly in real time... to resize any graph. Cut and 
Paste your data within JMP or to other applications. 
A Cut and Paste reports to other applications or jour- 
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Understand more. 

A JMP is simple to use, so you can spend your time 
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i ^ ■-- ----- - , - i ■ ' , * » l 

looking at graphs as well as numbers, finding 
patterns, and noticing points that don't fit pat- 
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in a unified way. You approach your data more 
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statistical recipes. You always have a method that 
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MacWEEK says "JMP is powerful and easy to 
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A Free Video Preview 

For a free video preview of JMP, call our JMP Sales 
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American Military Histoiy 
America's Habit: Drug Abuse 
Apollo Expeditions to the Moon 
Aviation in the U.S. Army 
Bicentennial of the Constitution 
Biology. Medicine and the Bill of 

Block Americans in Defense of 

Our Nation 
Brief History of the American 

Labor Movement 
Dept. of Defense: Dictionary of 

Military & Associated Terms 
Eruptions of Mount St. Helens 
Ethnic Heritage and Language 

Schools in America 
Exploring the American West 
Ford's Theatre 
Framing of the Federal 


History of the Women Marines 
Iran-Contra Affair 
Liberation of the Nazi 

Concentration Camps 
Manhattan: The Army and the 

Atomic Bomb 
NASA, the First 25 Years 
On the Treadmill to Pearl Harbor 
Our Country. Volume 1- B 
Pearl Harbor: Why, How. Fleet 

Science. Technology and the 

First Amendment 
Skylab, Our First Space Station 
Story of the U.S. Potent and 

Trademark Office 
U.S. Budget In Brief, 1989 
U.S. Marines in Vietnam 
Viet Nam from Cease Fire to 

Viet Nam: 10 Years Later 
Watergate: The Nixon Topes 
Wilderness Movement and the 

Notional Forests 
Wright Brothers 

U.S. History on CD-ROM disc $395 

Pioneer Minlchangef & U.S. History (save $300) 1499 

6 Disc CD-ROM Jukebox 

Pioneer DRM-600 Minichanger 

Complete Cr>ROM drive kit, latest in CD-ROM J 1 QftQ 
technology , hotels 6 CD-ROMdlscs forinstant access I OO/ 

Buy the Minichanger, and SAVE $$$ 
on these best selling CD-ROM titles 


Microsoft Bookshelf all time best selling title S229 

Grdier's Encyclopedia 21 volumes. VGA pics $345 

Birds Of America includes pictures and sounds $99 
Between Heaven & Hell II even stranger $99 

U.S. History on CD-ROM 107 books. 1,000 pics $395 


CD-ROM Drives (ready to run) 

Hitachi Drives- all models, PC and Mac seal! 

NEC CDR-72 or82 CD-ROM Drive ext.lnt, PC & Mac Call 
Sun Moon Star CD-ROM Drive Bundle with 7 discs Cai 
Philips CM50 CD-ROM Drive complete PC kit $489 

800 MEGABYTE WORM less than $0,18 per MB! 3495 

Also: Deoon, Chinon, & Sony drives, Best Price - Call ! 

MIS / DP & Programmers 

C library or Ada or Shareware Grab Bog $89 

PC-SlgUbray new edition, vedon 8 465 

Compute? Library essenfol fa MIS & PC managers 760 

Libraries and Science 

McGraw-Hill Ref. Set 100O00 terms; 7,300 articles $245 

Wordcruncher Disc entire works of 8 authors 249 

Oxford Engfish Dictionary over25O000 headwords! 889 
MedicoJ Year Book on Disc tun textof 1989 Year Books 195 
Pediatrics on Disc 5 years of journal Pediatrics. 1983-89 395 
Oxford Textbook of MedCine general medcd reference 595 


Movie Directory Dcrrt±ose/Saftware Potpourri $49 

Sherlock Holmes or Shakespeare on Disc "compteof 99 

CIA World Fact Book peif ectfor hternarboal "busness' 99 
World AHaS color mops and st o+Eflcs throughout world Cal 
Sporting News Baseball CD a sports fans dream 234 

Guiness Book of WoHd Records Multi-media PC & Mac Call 
Telephone Directory East a West 995 

" MORE! Over 300 cfifferent titles crvaflabte " 

Free CD-ROM Product Guide with every order 
Money bock guarantee Free tech support 

OBHH P^^&e'ry 6 

Bureau of 
Electronic Publishing, Inc. 

Dept. P, 141 New Road, Parsippany, NJ 07054 
Fax #201 ^808-2676 

Cat 1 -800-828-4766 orders only 
(201) 808-2700 infoimation 

110 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 

HyperCard 2.0 

Nisus3.01 $395 

(Authoring version, a $49 upgrade 

Paragon Concepts, Inc. 

from any previous version.) 

990 Highland Dr., Suite 312 

Claris Corp. 

Solana Beach, CA 92075 

5201 Patrick Henry Dr. 

(800) 922-2993 

P.O. Box 58168 


Santa Clara, CA 95052 

Inquiry 1148. 

(408) 987-7000 

Inquiry 1146. 

Norton Utilities 

for the Macintosh 1.0 $99 

HyperCard 2.0 

Symantec Corp. 

(Bundled version that lacks 

10201 Torre Ave. 

authoring manuals or example 

Cupertino, CA 95014 

stacks; free with any Mac.) 


Apple Computer, Inc. 

(408) 253-9600 

20525 Mariani Ave. 

Inquiry 1149. 

Cupertino, CA 95014 


On Location 1.0.2 $129.95 

Inquiry 1147. 

(Free to version 1 .0 owners.) 

On Technology, Inc. 

155 Second St. 

Cambridge, MA 02141 

(617) 876-0900 

Inquiry 1150. 

which is available free to all version 1.0 
owners, fixes this damaged-index prob- 
lem without any apparent side effects. If 
you own version 1 .0 and haven't received 
your free upgrade yet, call On Technol- 
ogy to get fixed up right away. 

Despite On Location's handy indexing 
prowess, keeping your hard disks orga- 
nized and in good shape often requires 
more help. Over the last few years, I've 
put utilities like Disk First Aid, Syman- 
tec Utilities for Macintosh (SUM) I and 
II, and Mac Tools to good use in keeping 
my disks optimized or repairing ones 
that died. 

This past summer, though, I needed 
something different: I tried to resurrect a 
Mirror Technologies 130-MB hard disk 
drive that had bellied up two years ago. 
All my old favorite utilities failed to re- 
vive this beast, until I found help from an 
unlikely source: Norton Utilities for the 
Macintosh. Although Peter Norton Com- 
puting is now owned by Symantec, Nor- 
ton Utilities for the Macintosh offers dif- 
ferent solutions to fixing disks than does 

In my case, I used the Format Re- 
cover, FileSaver, and Unerase utilities to 
recover a substantial portion of the old 
files (all Mac Write 4.6 and Microsoft 
Word 1.05 files) from the Mirror Tech- 
nologies drive, which I quickly trans- 
ferred to a brand-new GCC Technol- 
ogies HyperDrive 430S. 

I'll be putting Norton's other utilities 
to the test over the coming months. For 

now, Norton has my thanks for letting 
me excavate "ore" from a mine I thought 
was long played out. 

Finally, I've got good news for Nisus 
advocates. Nisus is fast, extensible, and 
programmable. It has a superb grep fa- 
cility, and it even has good desktop pub- 
lishing capabilities, if you have a need 
for such things. But it's never been per- 
fect. Now, with version 3.01, perfection 
is several steps closer. 

Nisus 3.01 fixes a slew of nagging lit- 
tle bugs, including some screwy screen 
updating, and it revamps the menus and 
ruler layout. George Lewak, Paragon 
Concepts' president, led the redesign. He 
has done a great job of listening to his 
die-hard customers by adding important 
new features and modifying the interface 
without stripping Nisus of its originality. 
If you'd like to try a word processor that 
doesn't forget that dealing with words is 
the first thing to get right, you should 
check out Nisus. ■ 

Don Crabb is the director of laboratories 
and a senior lecturer for the computer 
science department at the University of 
Chicago. He is the author of a new book, 
Using Filemaker Pro (Simon & Schuster/ 
Brady Books). He is also a contributing 
editor for BYTE. He can be reached on 
BIX as "decrabb." 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 

You can save time and money when you 
buy specially marked boxes of 3M diskettes. 

Buy 10. Get 11. Not only do you get 
a free formatted* diskette, you'll also get a 
chance to see how a formatted diskette can 

*Formatted for IBM PCs and compatibles. May be reformatted for 
non-IBM compatible computers. 

© 3M 1990. 

save time without disrupting your work. 

Think of your free, formatted diskette 
as one way to increase your productivity or 
your return on investment. Either way, it's 
shrewd business. 

Innovation working for yoir 


Worldwide Sponsor 1992 Olympic Games 


Circle 8 on Reader Service Card 

Call me a lyre. 

(Or, how we wrote the book on PC mail order.) 

Truth tends to be stranger than fiction in the telltail 
town of Marlow, NH (pop. 564). That's why you'll 
often find the local color gathered 'round the 
ancient sage as he recounts in vivid detail how our forest 
glade was transformed into a PC paradise. 

For, in days of yore, buying software and peripherals 
by mail was a perilous task, fraught 
with dangerand uncertainty. Only 
those \yell versed in tfte black arts 
dared risk such unpredictable 
delivery and uncertain compatibility. 

Then one day the enlightened 
Order of the Connection appeared 
majestically on the scene, bringing 

the classic virtues of toll-free tech support, prompt 
shipping, and way-under-retail prices to the brave new 
world of the IBM PC. Since that glorious day our humble 
home has served as a beacon of light to noble users in 
cottages, condos, and corporations throughout America. 
That'll be the day. 

It's not every day of the week you get offered your very 
own 1991 PC Connection Calendar. This very timely 

offer includes 13 classic illustrations 
of our legendary mascots, all your 
favorite holidays, and fascinating 
historical facts about the fiefdom of 
Marlow, NH. This wondrous wall 
calendar is free to everyone who 
places an order of $750 or more 
between now and February 28. 




Mark time with the PC Connection Calendar featuring 
our very own day-tripping mascots. Offer not available 
to accounts on net terms. One per customer. 


Ring out the old 

1 990 World Class Award for 

Best Mail-Order Company 










□ 3 1 /2" format available from us. Specify 

when ordering. 

E package includes both 5 VV and 3V2" 


El 3V2" format available from manufacturer 

by request. Call us for details. 

CP— copy-protected; NCP— not copy-protected. 

The four-digit number next to each product 
is the product's ITEM NUMBER. Please refer 
to this number when ordering. Thank you. 


We only carry the latest versions of products. 
Version numbers in our ads are current at 
press time. 

Products listed here in red are Microsoft 
Windows Applications. 




Adobe Systems ... NCP 

HAdobeType Manager for Windows $59. 

EATM & Plus Pack Bundle 169. 

H Adobe PostScript Cartridge 249. 

(Entire Adobe Type Library, from 1 to 133 
is available. Call for more information.) 
Aldus ... NCP 

DPageMaker3.01 499. 

B Persuasion 2.0 for Windows. . . . 399. 

Alpha Software ... NCP 

HAIpha Four 1.1 319. 



cte \-m 



Qualitas ... NCP 

386MAX & BlueMAX let you run your 386 
& Windows to the MAX! New! BlueMAX is 
the ultimate memory manager for 386 PS/2s! 

7539B586MAX5.0 $75. 

7967 BlueMAX 1.0 (M" only) 85. 



Application Techniques ... NCP 

EPizazz Plus 2.0 $69. 

Ashton-Tate ... NCP 

DdBASEIV 1.1 499. 

Asymetrix ... NCP 

HToolbook 1.0 for Windows 309. 

Avery ... NCP 

BLabel Pro 1 .0 (Laser) 49. 

B Label Pro 1.0 for Dot Matrix 49. 

Bitstream ... NCP 

HFaceLift 1.0 for Windows 2. x/3.0 . 59. 

DFaceLift 1 .0 & Microsoft Windows 

Productivity Pack 1.0 99. 

BCollections: each 129. 

H Typeface Packages each 89. 

Bloc Publishing ... NCP 

HFormTool Gold 3.0 55. 

HPop Drop Plus 1.0 59. 

Borland International ... NCP 

DTurboC + + 1 .0 Professional 219. 

□Turbo Pascal Professional 2nd Ed. 179. 

BQuattroPro2.0 339. 

HParadox3.5 569. 

Adobe Systems ... NCP 

8367 EL47M dl Adobe Plus Pack &W/e-ATM 
converts Windows 3.0 screen displays & 
dot-matrix printed output to crisp ; legible 
text at any point size. The Plus Pack includes 
22 additional PostScript fonts $169. 

Broderbund ... NCP 

1434 BNewPrintShop 39. 

ButtonWare ... NCP 
6419 BPC-File5.0 89. 

Caere ... NCP 
6004 HOmnipage386 2.1 599. 

Central Point ... NCP 

5039 HPC Tools Deluxe 6.0 95. 

8114 HBackup6.0 65. 

Chipsoft ... NCP 
1663 BTurboTax 8.0 for 1990 Taxes 45. 

7546 DOS Membership Kit 23. 

Concentric Data Systems ... NCP 
6575 ER&R Relational Report Writer 3B 109. 

Corel Systems ... NCP 
5506 DCorelDRAW! 2.0 389. 

Custom Applications ... NCP 
7474 DFreedom of Press 2.2 255. 

Data Storm ... NCP 
4798 HPROCOMM PLUS 1.1 65. 

Corel Systems ... NCP 

5506 □ CorelDRAW! Z.O-Jht award-winning 
PC graphics software. It gives you incredible 
type control ; drawing power ; and special 
effects in a value-packed package $389. 

DCA ... NCP 

7936 BCrosstalk Communicator 1 .0 ... . 59. 

2908 DCrosstalkXVI 3.71 119. 

5611 DCrosstalk for Windows 1.1 129. 

Delrina Technology ... NCP 
7351 HPerFORM PRO 1.0 for Windows. 299. 

Fifth Generation Systems ... NCP 

7725 H Direct Access 5.0 65. 

7795 HDisklock 1 .0 109. 

3950 BFastback Plus 2.1 119. 

FormWorx ... NCP 

5810 DFormWorxwith Fill & File 2.5 85. 

7311 H Form Publisher for Windows 1.2. 145. 

Fox Software ... NCP 
6188 IHFoxPro 1 .02 489. 

Franklin Software ... NCP 

7071 H Language Master 3.0 49. 

7416 HLanguage Master 3.0 for Windows 59. 

Funk Software ... NCP 

2228 DSideways 3.3 59. 

7380 BP.D. Queue 1 .0 (print spooler) ... 59. 


Chipsoft ... NCP 

1663 H TurboTax 8.0 for 1990 Taxes-Tht best- 
selling, easy-to-use and complete software for 
preparing individual tax returns. TurboTax 
provides on-line help ; IRS instructions and 
comprehensive tax assistance $45. 

bring on the new. 

Hayes ... 2 years 

7983 ftSmartcom Exec 2.0-On-line editor, full 
scripting language ; ZMODEM... support Eor 
all popular PC modems and high speed serial 
ports such as Hayes ESE It also supports net- 
work operations on Local Area Networks $79. 

Great American Software ... NCP 

4879 DOne Write Plus Payroll Module ... 89. 

4880 DOne Write Plus Acct. Sys. 2.06. . 189. 
5825 BMoney Matters 2.0 42. 

Harvard Associates ... NCP 
2324 KPC Logo 3.0 59. 

Hayes ... NCP 

7983 BSmartcom Exec 2.0 79. 

2295 BSmartcom III 1 .2 149. 

hDC Computer Corp. ... NCP 

7389 EWindows Express 3.0 52. 

7383 BFirst Apps 1.0 52. 

Hilgraeve ... NCP 
2323 BHy per ACCESS/5 1 . 1 (DOS & OS/2) 115. 

IBM ... NCP 
6599 DCurrent1.1 239. 

Individual Software ... NCP 
6222 BResume Maker 1.1 29. 

Inset Systems ... NCP 

7298 BHijaak 2,0 99. 

7300 B Inset Plus Hijaak 125. 

Quarterdeck ... NCP 

3221 UExpanded Memory Manager lU % 1- 
Now works in conjunction with Windows 
3.0. Able to load TSR programs and DOS 
resources into high memory regardless oE 
which Windows mode you ; re in $59. 

Insight Development ... NCP 

8320 BPrinTools 1.0 $85. 

Intuit ... NCP 
2426 BQuicken4.0 39. 

Isogon ... NCP 
7478 BFontSpace 2.0 59. 

Laser Go ... NCP 
7635 DGo Script Plus 3.0 189. 

LaserTools ... NCP 
6882 BPrintCache 2.3 99. 

Lord Publishing ... NCP 
5191 BRonstadt's Financials 1.02 75. 

Lotus ... NCP 

5417 □ 1-2-3 3.1 429. 

5653 □ 1-2-3 2.2 349. 

5134 BMagellan2.0 119. 

4603 BAndrew Tobias' Tax Cut-1990 Taxes 49. 
2798 DManaging Your Money 7.0 135. 

Microcom ... NCP 

7649 BVirex1.1 79. 

6234 DCarbonCopy Plus 5.2 119. 

Software Publishing ... NCP 

Holiday Bundles- "Free Eor all promotion!" 

7769 ^Preface (with Viruscan) $49. 

3499 HFirst Publisher (with Deluxe Paint II). 99. 

3478 DFirst Choice (with Prodigy) 105. 

3496 DProfessional Write (w/Professional File) 179. 

Micrografx ... NCP 

7683 DCharisma 1 .0 349. 

Micro Logic ... NCP 

6787 B Info Select 1.1 55. 

Microsoft ... NCP 

7010 DWindows3.0 99. 

7388 B Project for Windows 1 .0 469. 

7387 BPowerPoint for Windows 1.0. . . . 329. 

2904 DWorks2.0 99. 

2901 DWord 5.0 209. 

6195 BWord for Windows 1.1 329. 

2856 HExcel2.1 329. 

2853 BC Compiler 6.0 339. 

8137 BOffice for Windows 659. 



Marlow.NH 03456 
SALES 603/446-7721 FAX 603/446-7791 

Bitstream ... NCP 

8368 BFaceLift 1.0 for Windows Z.x/5.0 <8 
Windows Productivity Pack 1 .0-Here ; s how to 
get great type in any size for any printer & 
all the Windows help you'll ever need at a 
great price $99. 

















Multisoft ... NCP 

DPC-Kwik Power Pak 1 .5 79. 

Nolo Press ... NCP 

DWillMaker4.0 39. 

PC Globe ... NCP 

□ PC Globe 4.0 39. 

□PC USA 2.0 39. 

Personics ... NCP 

BUItravision 2.0 79. 

BMonarch 1 .0 (Data Mgmt. Tool) . 319. 
PowerUp ... NCP 

BCalendar Creator Plus 3.0 45. 

Precision Software ... NCP 
BSuperbase 4 for Windows 1.2 .. 469. 
Qualitas ... NCP 

□386MAX 5.0 75. 

BlueM AX 1.0 (3 1 / 2 " only) 85. 

Quarterdeck ... NCP 

□QRAM1.0 49. 

□Expanded Memory Mgr. 386 5.1 . 59. 

□ DESQView2.3 79. 

□ DESQView386 5.1 129. 

Reality Technologies ... NCP 

HWealthBuildeM.1 145. 

Reference Software ... NCP 

BGrammatiklVLO 52. 

BGrammatik for Windows 1.0 52. 

Revolution Software ... NCP 
BVGA Dimmer 2.01 (screen saver) . 29. 
RightSoft ... NCP 

BRightWriter4.0 55. 

Samna ... NCP 

BAmi 129. 

BAmi Professional 1.2 309. 

Sitka/TOPS ... NCP 

□TOPS Network Bundle 3.0 159. 

Flashcard 2 . 1 (AppleTalk ntwrk. card) 155. 
Softlogic Solutions ... NCP 

□Software Carousel 4.0 55. 

Software Publishing ... NCP 
□PFS:First Publisher 3.0 99. 

□ PFS:First Choice 3.1 105. 

□ Professional Write 2.2 179. 

□Harvard Graphics 2.3 359. 



A little more speed 

Samna ... NCP 

5799 \s\Ami Professional 12- Word processing 
combines ease of use with features like tables, 
drawing and charting, & more! Windows 
3.0 & HP NewWave compatible .... $309. 
5148HA»i 129. 

Software Ventures ... NCP 

6889 H MicroPhone II for Windows 215. 

Solution Systems ... NCP 
7977 HBrief 3.0 (Programmer's Editor) . 189. 

Spinnaker ... NCP 
7604 HPLUS for Windows 1.0 289. 

Symantec ... NCP 
3152 HThe Norton Commander 3.0 . . . 105. 

6397 HThe Norton Backup 1.1 105. 

3146 HThe Norton Utilities 5.0 125. 

3425 DQ&A 3.0 .... 229. 

Systems Compatibility ... NCP 

8215 HOutside In 1 .0 65. 

6564 DSoftware Bridge 4.1 79. 


2987 DTimeslips III 4.0 195. 

6994 DPercentEdge 1 .0 69. 

Timeworks ... NCP 
6253 HPublish-lt! 1.1 115. 

Touchstone Software ... NCP 
7420 HChecklt3.0 89. 


699 '4 DPercentEdge 1. C-Calculate mortgage 
rates ; present values ; annuities, savings & loan 
balances, and more. "Fill in the blank" inter- 
face completes the calculation once your data 
is entered. 'Top-up ;; mode available . . $69. 

Traveling Software ... NCP 

5179 HLapLink III 3.0 $95. 

Ventura Software (Xerox) ... NCP 

7796 HVentura Publisher for Windows 3.0 569. 

West Lake Data Corp. ... NCP 

7577 DPC-FullBak+ 1.12 52. 

7574 HPathMinder+ 1.0 79. 

WordPerfect Corp. ... NCP 

7781 HLetterPerfect 1 .0 135. 

3804 DWordPerfect 5.1 265. 

6685 HDrawPerfect 1.1 279. 

WordStar International ... NCP 
6791 DWordStar Prof. 6.0 279. 

6161 HXTreePro Gold 1.4 85. 

ZSoft ... NCP 

7016 HPC Paintbrush IV Plus 1.0 119. 

7014 HPC Paintbrush Plus for Windows 1 .12 89. 

Microsoft ... NCP 

2858 ^Microsoft Aircraft and Scenery Designer 
for Flight Simulator 4.0-Fly a 747-400 or create 
your own aircraft. Design and customize 
buildings and scenery with this brand new 
companion to the classic program .... $29. 


Broderbund ... CP 

8068 HWhere in the World is Carmen 

Sandiego Deluxe Edition 52. 

5851 HSimCity 33. 

Electronic Arts ... NCP 

5804 HDeluxe Paint II (Enhanced) 89. 

Microsoft ... NCP 

7881 DEntertainment Pk for Windows 1 .0 29. 

8270 HAircraft and Scenery Designer 1 .0 

(req.FS4.0) 29. 

2858 DFIight Simulator 4.0 39. 

Microsoft Press (Books) 

8126 Running with DOS 4th Edition 20. 

8129 Running Windows (2nd Edition) ... 22. 

8136 Running Microsoft Excel 22. 

Penton Overseas .. . NCP 
HVocabuLearn/ce Levels I & II (French, 
Italian, German, Spanish, Russian, 

Hebrew and Japanese) each 39. 

Sierra On-Line ... CP 

5106 HSpace Quest III 39. 

7972 DKing'sQuestV 45. 

Touchstone Software ... NCP 

7420 HCfecife It software will 
help find and get rid of system problems. Run 
over 160 tests on all major system components. 
Results can be logged to disk or printer with 
suggestions on fixing simple troubles .. $89. 

Spectrum Holobyte ... NCP 

3467 HTetris 22. 

5993 HWelltris 22. 

Software Toolworks ... NCP 

4659 HChessmaster 2100 (CP) 35. 

7372 DWorld Atlas 42. 

Stone & Assoc. ... NCP 

5231 HPhonics Plus 22. 

3433 H Algebra Plus Vol 1 (ages 13+) . . . 27. 

Toyogo ... NCP 
7676 HNemesis Go Master Deluxe 88. 

True BASIC, Inc. ... NCP 

ElKemeny/Kurtz Math Series, each 45. 


Manufacturer's standard limited 
warranty period for items shown is 
listed after each company name. 
Some products in their line may 
have different warranty periods. 

American Power ... 2 years 

7108 Smart UPS 400 339. 

6811 360SX (stand-by power source). . . 219. 
7106 520ES (stand-by power source). . . 329. 

AST Research ... 2 years 

1299 SixPakPlus384kC/S/P 179. 

8041 SixPak286 0k 105. 

Boca Research ... 5 years 
7001 BOCARAM/AT PLUS (0-8 Meg) 

(LIM 4.0 extended) 125. 

7061 BOCARAM/XT OK (0-2 Meg, LIM 4.0) 99. 
6998 I/O Boardfor AT 59. 

8380 BasicVGA (256K 640 x 480) 79. 

8381 SuperVGA (1 Meg 1024 x 768) . . . 145. 
Bravo Communications ... 2 years 

7400 2 Pos. Laser Compatible Switch Box 109. 

Canon ... 1 year 
7894 BJ-10e BubbleJet Printer (4. 6 lb.). 349. 
7896 Sheet feeder for BJ-10e 75. 

CH Products ... 1 year 
8119 FlightStickw/Falcon&GameCardlll . 79. 
7345 Roller mouse (Trackball) serial 85. bus 99. 

and memory would do. 


Systems Compatibility ... NCP 

8215 H Outside In 10-Import text or data 
directly into your word processor from over 
50 different word processor, spreadsheet, and 
database programs-without leaving your 
word processor $65. 

7 358 



7 157 




r 552 


Curtis ... lifetime 

Universal Printer Stand PS-1 18. 

Ruby-Plus SPF-2 Plus 65. 

Command Center 89. 

Glass Filter Plus (specify size) . . ea. 65. 
Datadesk ... 3 years 

Switchboard 175. 

Epson ... 1 year 

We are an authorized Epson Sen/ice Center; 
FX-850 (80 col., 264 cps, 9 pin) . . . call 
FX-1050 f 736 co/„ 264 cps, 9 pin). . call 
10-510(80 col., 180 cps, 24 pin). . 289. 
LO-850 (80 col., 264 cps, 24 pin) . . call 
LQ-1050 (136 col., 264 cps, 24 pin) call 
LX-810f80 col., 180 cps, 9 pin) . . . 185. 

Equity LT-286e Laptop 1995. 

Equity LT-386SX Laptop 3069. 

5th Generation ... 1 year 

Logical Connection Plus 512k. . . . 599. 

Hayes ... 2 years 

Smartmodem 2400 349. 

JTFax9600B 499. 

Ultra 9600 Modem 829. 

Hewlett-Packard ... 1 year 

LaserJet III (w/toner) 1699. 

LaserJet IIP (w/toner) 1069. 

Intel ... 5 years 

2400B MNP Internal Modem 199. 

2400B Internal Modem 159. 

2400B Internal Modem 2 (for PS/2) 249. 

2400 Baud External Modem 179. 

2400EX MNP Modem 229. 

9600EX Modem 549. 

Inboard 386/PC w/1 Meg 495. 

Above Board Plus 8 2 Meg 599. 

Above Board Plus 8 I/O 2 Meg . . . 629. 

SatisFAXtion (fax board) 399. 

NetPort (3 year warranty) 489. 


80287X1(16 MHz 80286 CPU's). . . 199. 

80387SX (16 MHz 80386SX CPU's) 309. 

80387 (16 MHz 80386 CPU's) 349. 

80387-20 (2C MHz 80386 CPU's) 399. 
80387-25 (25 MHz 80386 CPU's) 429. 

Kensington Microware ... 1 year 

2582 Master Piece Plus $109. 

7899 Expert Mouse serial. . 119. bus.. 129. 

Keytronic ... 3 years 
4518 101 Plus Keyboard 99. 

Kraft ... 5 years 

5800 3 button Thunder Joystick 29. 

5813 Game Card/Thunderstick Bundle. . 55. 
7862 TopTrack (Laptop Trackball) 79. 

Logitech ... limited lifetime 

7768 C9 Mouse with Windows 149. 

6029 Trackman (Trackball) serial 85. bus 89. 
4297 ScanMan Plus (hand scanner) ... 185. 
7975 ScanMan 256 319. 

Micron Technology ... 2 years 
7595 2 Meg Expansion for HP 

LaserJet I IP or I II 165. 

7012 Beyond Memory Board for PS/2 

Model 70 (2Meg) 169. 

Microsoft ... lifetime 
7597 Microsoft Mouse 89. 

2897 Mouse with Paintbrush 109. 

2898 Mouse with Windows 3.0 149. 


Insight Development ... NCP 

8320 ftPrinTools 1. 0-Utilities for the HP 
Laserjet ; DeskJet & compatibiles. Includes 
Spooler ; Screen Dump ; Screen Capture ; 
SetUp ; Plot with HPGL/2 support, and 
Help utilities $85. 

MicroSpeed ... 1 year 

PC-TRAC Trackball 

6007 serial 75. 6008bus 89. 

7271 Inport 79. 6330 PS/2 79. 

Mouse Systems ... lifetime 
5997 Trackball (1 yr. wrnty.) serial 75. bus 85. 
7878 PC Mouse III 99. 

NEC ... 2 years 

4799 Multisync 2A (VGA Monitor) 499. 

5085 Multisync 3D Monitor 689. 

Orchid Technologies ... 4 years 
7512 ProDesigner VGA II (1024 x 768). . 299. 
7888 ProDesigner/e (256k) 209. 



PC Connection 800B 

6 Mill Street 

Marlow, NH 03456 

SALES 603/446-7721 FAX 603/446-7791 

Boca Research ... 5 years 

SuperVGA by Bow-High-performance VGA 
upgradeable 1024 x 768 graphics in 256 colors. 
Interlaced & non-interlaced compatible. 

6995 m x 768/16 Colors (54ZK) $139. 

8381 1014 x 768/l}6 Colors (1 %) 145. 





PC Power & Cooling ... 1 year 

Turbo Cool 150(25°- 40° cooler) . 129. 

Turbo Cool 300 165. 

Silencer 1 50 (84 % noise reduction) 115. 
Pacific Data Products ... 1 year 
25 Cartridges in One! (for U II, IIP, III) 275. 
Memory upgrade for LaserJet IIP/Ill 
1 Meg . . . 149. 7055 2 Meg . . . 199. 
3 Meg . . . 279. 7759 4 Meg . . . 339. 
Pacific Page 4.0 (for LaserJet IIP/Ill) 379. 
Pacific Page with free 2 Meg 
Memory Board (for LaserJet II) . . . 379. 
Practical Peripherals ... 5 years 

2400 Baud Internal Modem 135. 

2400 Baud External Modem 179. 

2400 Baud Int. MNP Modem (Lew 5J 175. 
2400 Baud Ext. MNP Modem (Lev. 5) 209. 
2400 Baud Internal Modem for PS/2 . 229. 

PM2400 Pocket Modem 99. 

PM9600SA 489. 

Practical Peripherals ... 5 years 

7934 PM9600SA AMw-Practical Peripherals 
does it again by making communications 
affordable with their newest modem featuring 
the data compression & error correction of 
9600bps V32 & V.42bis operation . . . $489. 



Happy New \fear. 

PSION .. 1year 

7086 MC600 Mobile Computer $2149. 

7090 512K Flash EPROM 309. 

7962 3V2" External Drive 299. 

Reflection Technology .. 1 year 
7127 Private Eye (virtual display) 499. 

SAFE Power Systems ... 2 years 
7913 Safe650W 459. 

Targus ... lifetime 
6037 Premier Leather Carrying Case. . . 199. 

TheCompletePC ... 2 years 
8082 TheComplete Half Page Scanner/400 

w/ReadRight Personal OCR Software 289. 

6797 TheComplete Fax Portable 319. 

5828 TheComplete Communicator .... 449. 

Tripp Lite ... 2 years 

6199 Isobar 4-6 (4 outlets, 6 ft. cord) 49. 

6200 Isobar 6-6 ( 6 outlets, 6 ft. cord) 59. 

Video 7 ... 7 years 

5883 1024i VGA (includes 512k) 219. 

4931 VRAM VGA 512k 379. 

Intel ... 5 years 

7880 9600EXModem-?iovidzs ultra-fast data 
communications without sacrificing compat- 
ibility. Supports V.32 & V42bis 9600 bps 
operation, as well as MNP Level/5 and Hayes 
compatible 2400/1200/300 bps modes . $549. 







IOMEGA ... 1year 

Bernoulli II Transportable 44 Meg . 997. 
44 Meg Cartridge Tripak (5 W;. . . 249. 

PC2B Controller 229. 

Mountain Computer ... 2 years 
40-60 Meg Internal Tape Drive . . . 259. 

80-152M Int. Tape Drive 629. 

DC2000 Preformatted Cartridges ea. 35. 
DC2120 Tape Cartridge (5 pack) . . 135. 
Pacific Rim ... 1 year 

1 .2 Meg External (for PS/2's) 215. 

1 .44 Meg External (for PC/XT/AT) . 239. 
Plus Development ... 2 years 
Hardcard II 80 Meg (19 ms) 599. 



Hardcard II XL 50 Meg (9 ms) . 
Hardcard II XL 105 Meg (9 ms) . . 
Seagate ... 1 year 

20 Meg Int. Hard Drive ST225 
(w '/controller and cables, 65 ms) . 

2286 30 Meg Int. Hard Drive ST238R 

(w/controller and cables, 65 ms) . $269. 

4554 40 Meg Int. HD ST251-1 (28 ms) . . 329. 
TEAC ... 1year 

4951 720k Drive (specify XT or AT, 3W) . 75. 

4670 1 .44 Meg Drive for PC/XT (W). . . 89. 

4326 1 .44 Meg Drivefor AT 109. 

Intel ... 5 years 

80Z87XL <S1 80Z87XUAkh CoProccssors-Kuns 
up to 50% fester than other 80287 math chips. 
The 80287XL works in virtually every 80286- 
based PC ; and the 80287XLT is made 
especially for Compaq LTE/286. . each $199. 

The Irtd 



adds a fax 

Intel ... 5 years 

7782 SatisFAXtion-Stnd and receive faxes 
from within most applications using the 
print command. Built-in 2400 bps MNP 
modem standard. Includes coupons for free 
PC Tools and Fax-It software $399. 



Maxell ... lifetime 

2789 5V4" MD2-D 360k Disks (Qty. 10) ... . 12. 

2790 5V4" MD2-HD 1 .2Mb Disks (Qty. 10) . . 19. 

2792 3V 2 " DS/DD 720k Dskettes (Qty. 10) . . 14. 

2793 3V 2 " DS/HD 1 .44Mb Diskettes (Qty. 10) 27. 
Sony ... lifetime 

3291 5 1 / 4 " DS/DD360k Disks (Qty. 10) . . . . 10. 

3292 5V4" DS/HD 1.2Mb DisksfQty 10) . . . 19. 

3297 3V2" DS/DD 720k Diskettes (Qty. 10). . 13. 

3298 3V 2 " DS/HD 1 .44Mb Diskettes (Qty. 10) 22. 
8185 QD 2040 Tape Cartridge 19. 


6556 256k DRAMs (100 ns, set of 9) . . . $29. 
5510 1 Meg x 9 SIMMs (SO nanosecond). 69. 
5746 1 Meg Chips (SO ns, set of 9) 69. 


• Weaccept VISA and MASfERCARD only. 

• No surcharge added for credit card orders. 

• Your card is not charged until we ship. 

• If we must ship a partial order, we never charge 
freight on the shipment(s) that complete the order 
(in the U.S.). 

• No sales tax, except Ohio residents (please add 
applicable tax). 

• All U.S. shipments insured; no additional charge. 

• APO/FPO orders shipped 1st Class Mail. 

• International orders U.S. $250 minimum. 

• Upon receipt and approval, personal and company 
checks clear the same day for immediate shipment 
of your order. 

• COD max. $1000. Cash, cashier's check, or money 

• 120 day limited warranty on all products. * 

• To order, call us Monday through Friday 8:00 AM to 
1 :00 AM, or Saturday 9:00 AM to 5:30 PM. You can 
call our business offices at 603/446-3383 Monday 
through Friday 9:00 AM to 5:30 PM. 

AshtonTate ... NCP 

6922 DMultiMate 3.3*-Upgrade to 
MultiMate 4.0 through AshtonTate for 
$79.50. Total cost $121.50 including ship- 
ping. Save over $400 on list price of ^565. 
Call for details $39. 


Note: Accounts on net terms pay actual shipping. 
Continental US: 

• For heavy hardware items such as printers, monitors, 
Bernoulli Boxes, etc. pay actual charges. Call for UPS 
2nd-Day & Next-Day-Air. 

• For all other items, add $3 per order to cover UPS 
Shipping. For such items, we automatically use 
Airborne Express at no extra charge if you are more 
than 2 days from us by UPS ground. 


• For monitors, printers, Bernoulli Boxes, computers, 
hard drives, and power backups, actual UPS Blue 
charge will be added. For all other items, add $3 per 

Alaska and outside Continental US: 

• Call 603/446-7721 for information. 







No Impact 

on Your DOS or 
UNIX Applications! 

Your applications shouldn't 
have to compete with 3270 
communications for your PC's 
scarce resources. 

That's why we deliver our 

3 A and CLEO Sown API 

DataTalker 3270 high-perfor- 
mance PC-to-mainrrame con- 
nectivity software on powerful 

co-processor boards with on- 
board memory. 

With DataTalker 3270, you 
can offload all communica- 
tions processing and screen 
storage to the co-processor, 
freeing your DOS or UNIX 
system for applications 
processing. As a result 
users can perform up 
to 32 simultaneous 
mainframe sessions 

See us at Uniforum x 91 y Dallas Infomart, 
January 22-24, Booth #1213 

without affecting performance. 

DataTalker 3270 provides 
full emulation of IBM 3278 
terminals and 3274 controllers, 
along with 32 LUs, 512K 
RAM, file transfer 

£ SNA support, and 
IBM 3287 printer em- 
ulation. Line speeds 
of up to 56K baud 
are supported. 

Adds only IK to DOS ap 
cations, 40K to UNDC 

To learn more, call us tod 
at 1-800-233-2536. Or write 
to us at 3796 Plaza Drive, 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108. 
FAX: 313/662-1965. 


CLEO Communications 

A Division of Interface Systems, Im 


In Europe, call Sintec Peripherals Ltd. in Slough, England, at 0753-811888 (FAX: 0753-811666). 

NETWORKS ■ Barry Nance 



When NetWare works, 
it works well. But 
when it doesn't. . . 

Something's wrong. Users stream 
into your office, complaining 
that the network's not working 
properly. You walk over to the 
NetWare server monitor and see the mes- 
sage User RALPH exceeded outstand- 
ing NCP search limit. Or maybe you 
see Warning-FAT entry 0123 marked 
used with no file. If your luck has run 
out, you may see the dreaded General 
Protection Interrupt message— your 
file server has died. Now what? 

Perhaps the problem is more subtle— 
and more insidious. Your network grows 
slower and slower as more users run 
more applications and create more net- 
work traffic. Cable or network adapter 
faults begin to occur intermittently, leav- 
ing you in the dark as to why some work- 
stations get dropped from the network or 
why the network just seems to slow down 
once in a while for no apparent reason. 

NetWare is an excellent network oper- 
ating system. I use it both at home and at 
work, and I rarely have trouble. But when 
there are problems on a NetWare LAN, 
they can be difficult to diagnose and re- 
solve. You can acquire a hefty toolbox of 
hardware and software to help locate and 
solve problems; no single product ad- 
dresses all the common illnesses that be- 
fall a NetWare LAN. Even armed with a 
bulging toolbox, you will find that com- 
mon sense and a methodical approach are 
your best tools when your LAN fails. 

The Server Goes South 

NetWare tries to recover gracefully when 
you have to reboot a server with the 
power switch. But what if it refuses to re- 
boot, or crashes immediately after the 
reboot? First, look for a failed power 

supply or uninterruptible power supply 
(if you don't have one for your server, get 
one). Power problems are the source of 
many server failures. One symptom is a 
server lockup, often with a parity-check 
message, a General Protection Inter- 
rupt message, or another fatal error 
message at the server monitor. 

In some situations, the batteries that 
sustain the CMOS setup information 
may be the culprit. Put in fresh batteries 
and reset the CMOS data if you get boot 
errors. The next thing to look for is a bad 
RAM chip, a bad motherboard, or a bad 
hard disk drive controller. Don't spend 
time looking for the bad chip; users are 
waiting for you. If you have a medium- to 
large-size LAN, you should have spare 
boards— perhaps even a spare server— 
that you can quickly substitute. If your 
LAN is small, find a local computer 
dealer who stocks parts for your server, 
and make friends with the repair people. 

Another culprit may be the server hard 

disk drive itself. Hard disk drives, espe- 
cially the high-capacity drives designed 
for file server use, take a beating, and 
they're a common point of failure. Be 
prepared to replace the hard disk drive, if 
need be. And be sure you've got backup 
copies of the server data. 

As preventive maintenance, or to help 
solve a disk/file problem on the server, 
brush up on VREPAIR, Novell's version 
of CHKDSK. It looks for problems in the 
NetWare file system, including bad 
blocks (i.e., disk surface faults) and cor- 
rupted file allocation tables. 

The steps I've just mentioned are sim- 
ply commonsense extensions of standard 
PC repair techniques. The NetWare 
server is, after all, a PC. What if you de- 
cide, however, that the problem lies 
somewhere in the network itself? 

Network-Level Problems 

When a server seems to boot OK but 
doesn't attach itself to the network (e.g., 


JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 119 

Circle 293 on Reader Service Card 

People are talking about us. 


Port 4GB mainframe programs to 80386s with this 32-bit DOS-Extender compiler. The 
Winner of PC Magazine's 1988 Technical Excellence Award just got better. New Version 3.0 
and OS include: Editor, Make Utility, Virtual Memory Support, DESQview Support, New 
Documentation and Free Unlimited Runtime Licenses. F77L-EM/32 $895 OS/386 $395 


The compiler of choice among reviewers and 
professionals. Includes a Debugger, Editor, 
Profiler, Linker, Make Utility, Weitek and 386 
Real-Mode Support, Graphics. $595 

Lahey Personal Fortran 77 

New Version 3.0: Full ANSI 77, Debugger, 
Editor, Linker, Library Manager, Microsoft 
and Borland C interfaces, 400 page Manual, 
Unbeatable Price. $99 


When people talk about FORTRAN 
the name mentioned most often is 

Contact us to discuss our products and your needs. (800) 548-4778 

Lahey Computer Systems, Inc. P.O. Box 6091, Incline Village, NV 89450 

Tel: (702) 831-2500 FAX: (702) 831-8123 Tlx; 9102401256 



you see initialization or configuration 
error messages at the server, or the 
SLIST command from a workstation 
doesn't display that server in the list of 
up-and-running servers), make sure that 
the server network adapter is securely in- 
stalled. The next step is to swap another 
network adapter card into the server. If 
the adapter (including its cable connec- 
tor) is not at fault, you will need to substi- 
tute a different network cable to the 
server. If the problem persists, backtrack 
to the hub/repeater/transceiver/Multista- 
tion Access Unit and try a different port 
or a completely different unit. 

A time-domain reflectometer can lo- 
cate cable faults quickly. A TDR evalu- 
ates the electrical characteristics of a 
wire with sonar-like techniques, telling 
you cable distance, impedance, suscepti- 
bility to noise, and, of course, the dis- 
tance between you and a short circuit or a 
break. Microtest's $1495 Cable Scanner 
is a good TDR that works on twisted-pair 
and coaxial cable and supports Ethernet, 
ARCnet, and Token Ring protocols. 

Meanwhile, Back at the Server 

The sometimes-cryptic messages dis- 
played on the server monitor can convey 
information, a warning, or an actual 
error condition. How do you tell? Make 
sure you have a copy of the Novell System 
Errors manual in a handy place. The ex- 
planations that it provides go a long way 
toward telling you exactly how serious a 
particular problem is. 

You should look critically at recent 
changes to your LAN if problems crop 
up. Despite Novell's valiant attempts to 
make the NetWare installation/setup 
process friendly and bulletproof, a con- 
figuration error during NETGEN can 
wreak havoc on your LAN at a later time. 
It is also possible that the NetWare sys- 
tem files have become corrupted. You 
may need to reinstall NetWare to fix a 

What if your file server hasn't crashed 
but has simply run out of disk space? Or 
your network has slowed to a crawl and 
users are complaining? Running out of 
space or directory entries will idle a 
server just as quickly as a failed RAM 
chip. You can use the NetWare utility 
VOLINFO to monitor disk space and the 
number of free directory entries. (The 
number of directory entries, specified at 
NETGEN time, is the maximum number 
of directories that you can create on a 
NetWare 286 server volume. NetWare 
386 overcomes this limitation— it dy- 
namically allocates them.) The trick, of 
course, is remembering to run VOL- 
INFO on a regular basis. 



120 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 

Circle 1 73 on Reader Service Card 

Our Printer Sharing Unit 
Does Networking! 

An Integrated Solution 

Take our Master Switch 1M , a sophisticated 
sharing device, combine itwithMasterNet™ 
networking software for PCs, and you've 
got an integrated solution for printer and 
plotter sharing, file transfer, electronic mail, 
and a lot more. Of course you can also 
share modems, minis, and mainframes or 
access the network remotely Installation 
and operation is very simple. 


Or you can use the Master Switch to 
link any computer or peripheral with a serial 
or parallel interface. The switch accepts 
over 20 commands for controlling the flow 
of data. It may be operated automatically, 
by command, or with interactive menus. Its 
buffer is expandable to one megabyte and 
holds up to 64 simultaneous jobs. The 

MasterLink™ utility diskette for PCs 
comes with every unit and unleashes the 
power of the switch with its memory-resident 
access to the commands and menus. 

Other Products 

We have a full line of connectivity solutions. 
If you just want printer sharing, we've got 


it. We also have automaticswitches, code- 
activated switches, buffers, converters, 
cables, protocol converters, multiplexers, 
line drivers, and other products. 

Commitment to Excellence 

At Rose Electronics, we're not satisfied 
until you're satisfied. That's why we have 
thousands of customers around the world 
including large, medium, and small 
businesses, factories, stores, educational 
institutions, and Federal, state, and local 
governments. We back our products with 
full technical support, a one-year warranty, 
and a thirty-day money-back guarantee. 

Call now for literature or 
more information. 
(800) 333-9343 

tyw ** IR&dC fo ^Wt CtoHfiMt&l . 

P.O. Box 742571 • Houston, Texas 77274 • Tel (713) 933-7673 • FAX (713) 933-0044 • Telex 4948886 

Circle 280 on Reader Service Card 





Watch for the next BYTE 
DECK mailing that will be 
arriving in your mailbox soon! 

Use this as a fast, convenient tool 
to purchase computer products 
and services. It's loaded with 
essential hardware and software 
products that you should be aware 
of when making your buying 
decisions. . .and it's absolutely 


If you have a computer product or 
service, and would like to reach 
275,000 influential BYTE magazine 
subscribers, please give Ed Ware 
a call today at (603) 924-2596. 
Here's what a BYTE Deck adver- 
tiser has to say: 

"Ten years ago we advertised in the 
very first BYTE Deck— the number 
of sales leads we received was 
enormous! The BYTE Deck was so 
successful for us, that we have 
continued to use it over the past ten 


Lisa Tarpoff 

Marketing Manager 

Heath Company 

Benton Harbor, MI 



Cable Scanner $1495 


3519 East Shea Blvd., 

Suite 134 

Phoenix, AZ 85028 

(800) 526-9675 


Inquiry 1105. 

The Sniffer $24,000 

(includes Compaq 
Portable 386) 
Network General Corp. 
4200 Bohannon Dr. 
Menlo Park, CA 94025 
(415) 688-2700 
Inquiry 1106. 

TXD Diagnostic 

Software $195 

Thomas-Conrad Corp. 
1908-R Kramer Lane 
Austin, TX 78758 
(800) 654-3822 
Inquiry 1107. 

Tools of the Trade 

Performance troubles are the hardest to 
pin down and solve. They can also be the 
most expensive. The Sniffer, from Net- 
work General, costs about $24,000; a 
typical unit consists of a Compaq 386/20 
portable, capture/analysis software, and 
a set of protocol interpreters. (Network 
General sells the capture/analysis/inter- 
preter software separately for $12,500.) 

The Sniffer stores message traffic as a 
disk file and lets you analyze the result. It 
can inject extra message traffic if you 
want to place a load on the network to see 
how it behaves. The software lets you fil- 
ter and select message traffic by source, 
destination, and protocol type. You can 
see inside the messages. You can even 
see a skyline histogram of message traf- 
fic showing frame counts or byte counts 
by time period, along with network use. 
The Ethernet version can also reveal cer- 
tain kinds of frame-level errors. 

The Sniffer captures a wealth of data, 
but analyzing that data is a daunting 
project. In some cases, it can take several 
hours and a fairly complicated Lotus 
spreadsheet to figure out the cause of a 
performance problem. 

Thomas-Conrad's TXD Diagnostic 
Software (which costs $195 for a site li- 
cense) operates at a higher level than the 
Sniffer. TXD uses the built-in diagnostic 
facilities of IPX/SPX to let you see frame 
counts, error counts, and other statistics 
regarding your NetWare LAN. (Internal- 

ly, IPX/SPX maintains over 200 diagnos- 
tic and statistical data items that TXD 
can reveal.) TXD performs point-to- 
point tests, as well as broadcast tests, on 
a one-time or continuous basis. It does a 
good job of mapping your entire net- 
work—even across bridges. 

Although TXD can produce a 300K- 
byte report file for a 50-node network, 
errors and problems are fairly easy to 
spot. The TXD manual includes a help- 
ful chapter on specific network problems 
and suggested solutions. 

TXD doesn't see message traffic at the 
same level as the network adapter; it has 
to rely on network errors being reflected 
in the IPX/SPX statistics that it gathers. 
Once you've located a workstation with 
excessive error counts, it's not difficult 
to swap network adapters or cables until 
you've located the problem. 

If the network has a bottleneck— 
somewhere— and is just slower than it 
ought to be, you have your work cut out 
for you. You'll need to become familiar 
with how many users are concurrently 
logged on, the applications they're run- 
ning, and the impact of those applica- 
tions on the network. Major bottlenecks 
include the server hard disk drive, mem- 
ory, processor, and network adapter; the 
network substrate itself; and even the 
workstation CPU and network adapter. 
How to track down these bottlenecks is 
best left to a future column. 

If It Ain't Broke... 

If you are like me, all you want to do is 
get the network back up and running 
smoothly, or just speed it up a bit. But 
you need a grab bag of tools and tech- 
niques—and spare time— to even start 
the job. I'd like to see a single, simple 
tool that just watches for major events 
(e.g., a dead server, a cable fault, low 
disk space, or excessive traffic) and gives 
me advice on what I can do about the 
problem. A monitor program could high- 
light the problem, suggest steps to take, 
and provide an on-line reference that I 
could search. It could even tell me the 
other tools I need to use to pinpoint the 
problem. Such a NetWare-oriented tool 
would go a long way toward making me 
and my network users happy. ■ 

Barry Nance manages a 50-node Net- 
Ware LAN. The author of Network Pro- 
gramming in C (Que Publishing Corp. , 
1990), he is the IBM Exchange editor on 
BIX— you can reach him as "barryn. " 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 


You Expect A Lot 
From Your Portable PC 

4.4 Pounds 

1.4" Thin, Notebook 


640 x 480 VGA Display 

Bright 10" Display 

80C286 12MHz 

20MB Hard Disk 


MS-DOS and LapLink II 


You Should Expect Even More 
From The Company Behind It .. 

J* J* 

'/j But Don't Expect To Pay 
W More Than '2895 

CompuAdd Companion™ Exceeds 

"The critical test for any notebook computer is in 
the balance between size and processing power/' 

-PC Computing, December 1989 

CompuAdd has what the editor expects in a portable 
computer. At 4.4 pounds and 1.4" thin, the new CompuAdd 
Companion notebook computer is what portables ought to 
be — light, slim and fully featured. 

"Storage media may be the biggest challenge for 
notebook computers/' 

The CompuAdd Companion sports a fast, built-in 20MB (23ms) 
hard disk drive. You'll never have to buy volatile, expensive, 
hard to find RAM disk memory cards. You'll have all the reliable 
storage you need for applications and data files. 

And using the pre-loaded LapLink II software, you can quickly 
and easily exchange files with your desktop system. 

"'s notebook screens all offer CG A resolution or 
better and enough contrast to allow you to work on them 
for hours../' 

Why settle for less than a VGA display with the highest 
resolution and best contrast? The CompuAdd Companion 
has a bright, 640 by 480 pixel, 10-inch, sidelit LCD screen. 

"The PC must be large and powerful enough to do 
useful work but small enough to fit into a briefcase/' 

The CompuAdd Companion uses the Intel™ 80C286 
microprocessor running at 12MHz, and can handle 
sophisticated software applications, like Windows 3.0, Lotus 
1-2-3™ and WordPerfect™ 5.1. It's compatible with MS-DOS 
and OS/2. The standard 1MB DRAM is expandable to 3MB. 

Call TODAY or visit your CompuAdd 
Superstore for these savings! 

Key Code 


Hours: Monday - Friday 7:00am to 9:00pm CST; Saturday 9:00am to 5:00pm CST 

And Don't Settle For Less Than 
A Total Service Commitment! 

Value And Service Direct To You! 

■ 89 CompuAdd retail Superstores, each a complete sales and service facility 

■ 30-day, money-back guarantee 

■ Toll-free telephone support direct from the manufacturer 

■ On-site service through Memorex/Telex 

■ Local corporate sales representatives 

■ Major Accounts Program 

■ Government/Educational sales 

CompuAdd gives you more, with our superior, exclusive method of product 
delivery and after-sale support that sets us apart from other manufacturers. 

Only CompuAdd — and no other major competitor in the industry — owns the 
entire product delivery system. Our corporate structure eliminates the multiple 
layers of franchise management and the middleman overhead you encounter at 

other large computer manufacturers. When you deal with CompuAdd, you deal 

with the boss and bypass the middleman. 

CompuAdd's unique corporate structure and delivery system means we maintain 
low overhead and delivery channel efficient to bring you the best price/performance 
ratio in the industry. 

The bottom line is CompuAdd's direct-supplier relationship and local, face-to- 
face contact. No other computer manufacturer has made a service commitment 
equal to CompuAdd. 

CompuAdd Companion Features: 

I 80C286 microprocessor running at 6,7.16, or 12MHz 
I Standard 1MB high speed dynamic RAM expandable 

to 3MB 
I 1 wait-state page-mode memory 
I Dedicated 80C287 math coprocessor socket 
I Built-in serial, parallel printer, numeric keypad, and 
modular expansion ports can be used for external 
CVGA monitor or modem/fax interface modules 
I High-resolution 640x480 VGA display 
I 20MB hard disk drive with 23ms access time 
I 79-key keyboard with 101-key emulation 
I MS-DOS 4.01 and LapLink II in ROM 
I Rechargeable/removeable internal battery pack 
I Modular AC adapter 
I Dimensions: 8. 5 M xH"xl. 4" 
I System Price: $2895 (62280) 


Customer driven, by design.™ 

12303 Technology Boulevard, Austin, TX 78727 

We accept MasterCard, VISA, money orders, certified checks and personal checks (please allow 10 days for processing), CODs ($50 minimum order), company and institutional purchase orders (minimum initial purchase $500. 
(hereafter 550), and wire transfers. 

Please add 7% to ail purchases for shipping and handling (minimum $3. shipping outside the continental United States will increase cost). Add 8 ft for shipping and handling to APO/FPO addresses (minimum $10). AZ. CO. CT. 
DC FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, LA, MA. MD, MI. MN, MO, NO NE. NJ, NM. NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC. TN. TX. UT. VA. and WI residents, please add appropriate local sales tax. Thirty-day money-back guarantee does not include 
return freight or shipping and handling. Opened software, videotapes and other consumables are nonrefundable. All return items must be accompanied by a return merchandise authorization (RMA) number. Prices and product 
descriptions are subject to change without notice, CompuAdd is not liable for damage due to omissions or typographical errors. Call 800-666-1872 for a copy of CompuAdd's complete warranty. 

Circle 63 on Reader Service Card 

Short Takes 

BYTE editors' hands-on views of new and developing products 

Turbo Pascal 6.0 


Toshiba T1000LE 

Word 5.5 

and Word for OS/2 


Turbo Pascal 6.0 Almost Adds Windows 

Turbo Pascal 6.0 from 
Borland International 
lives in a nowhere land be- 
tween the houses of DOS and 
Windows. One of the biggest 
requests Borland gets from 
Turbo Pascal programmers is 
for a Microsoft Windows ver- 
sion of the program. 

Borland has made some 
vague commitments toward 
Windows for its programming 
languages, and the first signs 
of these show up in Turbo 
Pascal 6.0. The biggest single 
change to the language over 
version 5.5, which introduced 
object-oriented programming 
(OOP), is the addition of a 
powerful and flexible set of 
object-oriented tools, called 
Turbo Vision, for program- 
ming text-based windows, 
menus, and dialog boxes. 

Turbo Vision is a truly revo- 
lutionary way to program text- 
based applications for PCs. It 
lets ordinary programmers 
make their programs look like 
those written by professionals 
(e.g., Microsoft Works or PC 
Tools). Turbo Vision provides 
a huge library of windows, 
menus, dialog boxes, and other 
interface features for the pro- 
grammer to draw on. 

As an example of their 
power, a program shorter than 

200 lines can be used to open 
up multiple windows, each 
snowing the text of any disk 
file. Any number of these 
windows can be opened at 
once, and they all are movable, 
resizable, and scrollable. They 
can be controlled by mouse or 
with the keyboard. The same 
program also includes menus 
and a status line with items 
selectable by pointing and 
clicking. The user interface is 
consistent, so that applications 
written using Turbo Vision 
will operate consistently and 
have the same "look and feel." 
Programming Turbo Vision 
requires a good understanding 
of OOP principles, as well as 
an understanding of how an 
event-driven environment 
must operate. For that is what 

Turbo Vision is: an event- 
driven environment, just like 
Microsoft Windows and the 
Macintosh user interface. For- 
tunately, Borland does a fair 
amount of hand-holding in the 
manuals to get new users up 
to speed, both in OOP and in 
how to make use of Turbo 
Vision. But don't expect to get 
up to speed too quickly. In its 
own way, Turbo Vision is 
almost as complex as Micro- 
soft Windows. 

Turbo Pascal 6.0 also has a 
new integrated development 
environment. Similar to the 
one in Turbo C++, it allows 
multiple windows with differ- 
ent files to be open at once. Not 
too surprisingly, the interface 
looks like it was created using 
Turbo Vision and has the same 


Turbo Pascal 6.0 



IBM PC, PS/2, 

or compatible with 512K 

Turbo Pascal Professional 

bytes of RAM. 

6.0 (with Turbo Assembler, 

Turbo Debugger, and Turbo 

Borland International, Inc. 


1800 Green Hills Rd. 


P.O. Box 660001 

Scotts Valley, CA 95066 

(408) 438-8400 

Inquiry 1163. 

status lines, background, 
menus, and windows. It oper- 
ates quickly and retains all the 
Control and editing keystroke 
combinations of the previous 
version. I found the ability to 
work with multiple files at 
once and use a mouse helpful. 

An in-line assembler lets 
programmers enter assembly 
routines using real assembly 
instructions rather than having 
to enter hexadecimal codes, as 
previously. Turbo Pascal 6.0 
has better support for linking 
in object files, making it eas- 
ier to add assembly routines of 
all kinds. 

Other new features make 
Turbo Pascal even more suit- 
able for use as a professional, 
robust language for develop- 
ing DOS applications. One of 
these is a command-line com- 
piler that works in protected 
mode on 286 and 386 systems 
and makes use of all the ex- 
tended memory in your system 
to let you compile really big 
applications. This is available 
only in the Turbo Professional 
package, however. 

Borland has also added a 
few new compiler directives. 
The most significant one 
causes the compiler to gener- 
ate 286 code rather than ge- 
neric 80x86 code. This results 
in smaller programs that run 
only on 286 or 386 systems. 
No check is made, so such 
applications will just crash on 
8086-based computers. 

Turbo Pascal 6.0 is a wel- 
come extension to the line. It 
introduces powerful object- 
oriented and event-driven 
interface features to program- 
mers, while continuing to 
improve the overall perform- 
ance and effectiveness of the 
language. Making use of 
Turbo Vision will be good 
practice for any future version 
that may let us program in the 
even more complex Microsoft 
Windows environment. 

— Owen Linderholm 

126 BYTE • JANUARY 1991 

for the Frugal 

If you have the uneasy feel- 
ing that your speedy 386- or 
i486-based system isn't quite 
as fast as you expected, you've 
probably run into a phenome- 
non that might be termed 
"graphics indigestion." With 
today's emphasis on graphics- 
based applications (e.g., Win- 
dows 3.0 and OS/2), it's be- 
come increasingly evident that 
standard VGA cards are a 
drain on system speed. Since 
they share CPU cycles with 
your application, they slow 
everything down. 

Faster graphics cards, such 
as those based on the 8514/A 
graphics standard, haven't 
exactly taken the market by 
storm, primarily because they 
are expensive and difficult to 
install. Graphics cards based 
on Texas Instruments' burly 
TMS34020 graphics processor 
have been available for a few 
years, but you've had to pay a 
high price for the power, with 
even the lowest-priced ver- 
sions tipping the budget scales 
at about $2500 each. 

With the introduction of its 
Volante AT1000 board, Na- 
tional Design has lowballed 



E ***mffl/ff/ffflkLi^> i 

fflr^ ' - III- W& 


Volante AT1000 

National Design, Inc. 


9171 Capital of Texas Hwy. 

Houston Building, Suite 230 


Austin, TX 78759 

IBM AT or compatible 


with a free 16-bit ISA 

Inquiry 1164. 


the competitors with a 34020- 
based graphics card that retails 
for a relatively paltry $995. 
The preproduction board I 
tested brought a new dimen- 
sion to Windows 3.0 (as well 
as other graphics applications), 
giving me 1024- by 768-pixel 
resolution and 256 displayable 
colors on my 85 14/A-compat- 
ible monitor. But what was 
most dramatic was the overall 
increase in graphics speed. 
When I opened several win- 
dows and ran concurrent 
graphics applications, the dis- 
play speed didn't slow down 
the way it would with a stan- 
dard VGA board. 

The Texas Instruments 
Graphics Architecture that's 
the heart of 34020 power (and 
compatibility) is a standard 
application interface that al- 
lows applications to upload all 
graphics code to the Volante 
board, speeding up the graph- 
ics and leaving your system's 
main CPU to do what it does 
best. As boards based on the 
34020 (and its lower-cost 
cousin, the 34010) become 
available, TIGA drivers are 
slowly becoming more preva- 
lent. The ATI 000 comes with 
drivers for X Unix Windows, 
AutoCAD, and Windows 3.0; 
and you'll see more drivers 

coming down the pike soon. 

Installing the Volante was 
a bit more involved than in- 
stalling a standard VGA board. 
A DIP switch controls inter- 
rupts and I/O address, and 
there's quite a bit of support 
software, although the instal- 
lation utility is mainly auto- 
matic. The Volante also incor- 
porates a VGA controller for 
applications that don't use 
TIGA or 8514/A, and you 
must run a utility that switches 
the board to TIGA. 

To get 34020 power in a 
low-cost board, you have to 
make some compromises. The 
ATlOOO's 1024- by 768-pixel 
mode does rely on interlacing 
the display, meaning there is 
a discernible flicker. But I 
didn't find it objectionable. 
National Design has a higher- 
end board, the AT 1200, that 
uses a noninterlaced display, 
but it costs $2495. (A VMEbus 
version is also available.) 

Of course, you'll need an 
85 1 4/ A-compatible monitor to 
go along with your AT 1000, 
but monitor prices have come 
down dramatically in the past 
year. All in all, the Volante 
ATI 000 is a harbinger of the 
next generation of graphics 
boards that bring true graph- 
ics power to the PC platform. 
VGA, step aside. 

— Stan Miastkowski 

The T1000 Slims Down 

Most of the current crop of 
trendy little notebook 
computers weigh about the 
same, cost about the same, and 
sport the same standard fea- 
tures. So why look at the 
Toshiba T1000LE? Well, for 
years my road-time compan- 
ion has been the 10-pound 
T1000 laptop, and we've al- 
ways gotten along well. It's 
now time to lighten my lug- 
gage by trading a laptop for a 

notebook, and I thought it 
would be nice to stay in the 
same respected family. Given 
that I was in for few surprises, 
my main considerations were 
power and quality of the dis- 

Incidentally, the T1000LE 
weighs 6.5 pounds and has 1 
megabyte of RAM, a 20-MB 
hard disk drive, and a 3!/2-inch 
floppy disk drive — all you 
need to keep working on the 

go. It also comes with an AC 
adapter and one internal re- 
chargeable nickel-cadmium 
battery pack. DOS 3.3 is in- 
stalled in ROM. You can add 
the usual extra RAM (up to 9 
MB total), a replacement bat- 
tery pack, an external 51/4-inch 
floppy disk drive, and a 2400- 
bps modem. 

The T1000LE supports 
VDISKS (virtual disks), which 
let you use conventional and 

expanded memory to simulate 
a disk drive. The advantages 
include increased speed and 
power savings. The system 
supports the standard DOS 
VDISK, as well as Toshiba's 
own Hard RAM (actually, 
CMOS RAM). The difference 
between the two is that Hard 
RAM will save its contents 
even when power is turned 
off— unlike VDISK, which 
loses all data when power is 

JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 127 


lost. Hard RAM uses ex- 
panded memory, and you set 
it up using the simple utility 

At the core of the T 1 000LE 
is the 8-bit CMOS Intel 80C86 
running at 9.54 or 4.77 MHz. 
The ability to switch to slow 
speed came in handy as a 
power-saving feature, al- 
though it didn't buy me much 
time since I'd already run the 
battery down. Indicator lights 
along the front of the unit re- 
semble those on its higher-end 
cousin, the T2000SX. The 
battery indicator lights glow 
green when all is well, but they 
switch to amber when you're 
running low or flash red when 
you're really running out of 
power. There's also an audible 
beep, but you can turn it of fas 
a simple way to save power. 

The display is a 640- by 
400-pixel sidelit supertwist 
LCD with CGA-compatible 
graphics. I found it to be ade- 
quate — at least it's a vast im- 

provement over the T1000. I 
was able to tolerate the display 
for hours at a time, as well as 
read it under poor lighting 

If I were purchasing this 
system for writing on the road, 
I'd opt for the second battery 
pack, which goes where the 

optional modem goes. Of 
course, I'd like to have both 
modem and second battery 
pack, but an external modem 
does just fine. 

After using the T1000LE 
extensively for a week, I 
couldn't make it miss a beat. 
Running it at full speed (9.54 


Toshiba T1000LE 



2400-bps internal 
modem, $349 

Toshiba America 
Information Systems, Inc. 
Computer Systems 

9740 Irvine Blvd. 
Irvine, CA 92718 
Inquiry 1165. 

MHz) without implementing 
any other power-saving fea- 
tures, it lasted for 3 hours on 
battery power alone, and I 
could fully recharge it over- 
night. I guess I have talked my- 
self into it — this one's a 

— Anne Fischer Lent 

A Pair of New Words from Microsoft 

With the release of Word 
5.5 andWord for OS/2, 

along with the existing Word 
for Windows, Microsoft is 
mounting a three-pronged at- 
tack on market- leader Word- 
Perfect. Word 5.5 takes the 
bold step of tossing out the old 
user interface in favor of a 
new, incompatible, but more 
standardized appearance and 
behavior. With this new ver- 
sion, the labels have changed, 
but the concepts have not. At 
the same time, Word for OS/2 
is only the second full-fledged 
word processor for that much- 
maligned "operating system of 
the nineties" (DeScribe was 
the first). 

The previous release of Mi- 
crosoft Word for DOS, ver- 
sion 5.0, used the same menu- 
ing scheme as all releases dat- 
ing back to 1983, a two-level 
descending tree that sat at the 
bottom of the screen and was 
activated with the Escape key. 
In version 5.5, Microsoft has 
implemented a character- 
based interface, compatible 

with the Common User Inter- 
face, that ties the three PC 
versions of Word (i.e., DOS, 
Windows 3.0, and Presenta- 
tion Manager) together into a 
common fold, with compatible 
file structures. 

Version 5.5 lets you access 

pull-down menus at the top of 
the screen with the Alt key and 
includes terms familiar to 
anyone who uses a graphical 
user interface: File Open, Edit 
Paste, and so on. In fact, the 
top-level menus are identical 
to those in Word for Windows 

million- up 2GpeicenU 
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ISS? ISBB uses 

Nul Rfivanues. 



48-1. Ofi 













Markatinq 3.650 

1 01 08 


and Word for OS/2. Once in- 
side the menus, however, 
many dialog boxes contain 
options and syntax borrowed 


Word 5.5 

$450; upgrades: $50 from 
version 5.0; $75 from 
versions 1.0 through 4.0 

Word for OS/2 

$495; upgrades: $50 from 
Word for Windows; $150 
from Word for DOS 

Word 5.5: A DOS system 
with 384K bytes of RAM 
(512K bytes is recom- 

Word for OS/2: OS/2 1.21 
or higher. 

Microsoft Corp. 
1 Microsoft Way 
Redmond, WA 98052 
(206) 882-8080 
Inquiry 1166. 

128 BYTE • JANUARY 1991 

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from earlier versions of Word. 
The result is a hybrid that is 
surprisingly easy to use. 

Microsoft is also hedging its 
bet for loyal Word users. The 
company ships two complete 
versions of Word for DOS in 
each package: one with the 
new interface, and one with the 
old. You can share files be- 
tween the two, but you have 
to translate macros. In addi- 
tion, Word 5.5 lets you selec- 
tively preserve some elements 
of the old interface (e.g., func- 
tion-key assignments). 

Version 5.5 offers few new 
features because Word was 

already rich with them. One 
important addition is a "rib- 
bon" at the top of the screen 
that shows at a glance which 
style sheet and fonts are in use. 
It lets you change the settings 
by pointing and clicking, with- 
out using the menus. 

In Windows for OS/2, Mi- 
crosoft is providing a logical 
upgrade path from the charac- 
ter-based interface of version 
5.5 through Word for Win- 
dows to Presentation Manager. 
In fact, Word for OS/2 is vir- 
tually indistinguishable from 
the Windows version, with the 
same three-dimensional look 

and feel and switchable ruler 
and ribbon displays that let you 
quickly switch among fonts, 
styles, and layouts. 

What's different? Word for 
OS/2 is faster and smoother 
than version 5.5 or (especially) 
the Windows version. It obvi- 
ously takes advantage of OS/ 
2's multithreading capabili- 
ties; and, of course, you can 
use OS/2's true multiproces- 
sing to run multiple copies of 
Word for OS/2. You can also 
use the OS/2 High Perfor- 
mance File System for even 
better speed, along with the 
long filenames. 

Overall, the benefit for cus- 
tomers is a reduction of train- 
ing time to move from version 
to version. Word offers all the 
advanced features that power 
users need, including outlin- 
ing, indexing, style sheets, an 
integrated spelling checker 
and thesaurus, mail merge, 
page preview, and document 
management. But individual 
word processor preferences 
are highly subjective. Whether 
the three versions of Word will 
upset the WordPerfect jugger- 
naut remains to be seen. 

— Andrew Reinhardt 
and Stan Miastkowski 

Create and Lay Out Documents with Taste 

It's hard to pin a label on 
Taste, a new $ 1 50 Mac ap- 
plication from Delta Point, the 
folks who brought us Mind- 
Write (a word processor) and 
DeltaGraph (a graphing/plot- 
ting application). It seems to 
be an amalgam of word proc- 
essor, page-layout application, 
and database manager. 

Taste resembles a word 
processor in that you can write 
or import text. A menu selec- 
tion allows you to display a 
document's invisible charac- 
ters, which eliminates those 
maddening problems that oc- 
cur with embedded control 
characters when you import a 
file from another computer. It 
also does a word count on ei- 
ther the entire document or a 
selected text block. 

As a page-layout applica- 
tion, Taste allows you to im- 
port various documents using 
XTND. Clicking on a layout 
icon at the bottom of the docu- 
ment window lets you assign 
the number of columns the 
document will have, determine 
if hairline rules separate the 
columns, and arrange the spac- 
ing of the page's columns, 
headers, and footers. 

Taste uses text and draw 
layers to help you integrate 
graphics in a document. With 
a draw module active, you can 
import EPSF or PICT images 
and scale them to fit on a page. 
You can have text wrap around 

or within a graphic element, 
and you can draw a colored 
box around text to highlight 
it, as in a text box. A page-pre- 
view selection lets you view 
one or more pages at a time, 
which can be useful for exam- 
ining portions of the document 
as a thumbnail layout. 

The database portion of 

Taste is more of a personal 
data manager: It performs mail 
merge and can operate as an 
address book. Taste's address 
book can dial numbers for you. 
It can be handy if you don't 
have a modem connected to 
your Mac. 

I tried Taste 1 .0A3 on a Mac 
Ilci with 4 megabytes of RAM, 



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Delta Point, Inc. 


200 Heritage Harbor, 

Suite G 


Monterey, CA 93940 

A Mac with 1 MB of 

(408) 648-4000 

RAM and a hard disk 

Inquiry 1167. 

drive running System 

6.0.2 or higher. 

an 80-MB hard disk drive, a 
SuperMac Technology Spec- 
trum/24 PQD videoboard, and 
a 1 9-inch monitor; a Mac Ilsi 
with 5 MB of RAM, an 80-MB 
hard disk drive, and an Apple- 
Color RGB monitor; and a 
Mac Plus with 2 MB of RAM 
and a 20-MB hard disk drive. 
It was able to import an En- 
capsulated PostScript Format 
(EPSF) file from Adobe Illus- 
trator 3.0 and flow two-col- 
umn text around it on all the 
machines. Taste had no prob- 
lem operating in the 32-Bit 
QuickDraw environment and 
printing to a LaserWriter. 

Taste balances three prod- 
ucts in one by achieving mod- 
est goals. No, it's not a com- 
plete database application — 
nor does it try to be. But it lets 
you use a database as an ad- 
dress book. 

It's not a complete word 
processor, but it has enough 
useful tools (e.g., word count) 
to make it a good one. Taste 
doesn't pose a threat to either 
Aldus PageMaker or Quark 
XPress, but its ability to place 
EPSF files and add graphics 
lets you create some good- 
looking documents at a frac- 
tion of the price. If Delta Point 
can get some of the rough 
edges out of the product, it will 
be worth a look by those who 
need premium output on a 
small budget. ■ 

— Tom Thompson 

130 B YTE • JANUARY 1991 

From Tiny Kernels 
Mighty Systems Grow 

In the UNIX® world, microkernel architecture is still only a germ of an 
idea. With QNX®, it's been a reality for nearly a decade. 

QNX's advanced design has certainly proved fruitful. Our installed base 
has now grown to over 100,000 systems in factories, laboratories, and 
offices throughout the world. 

Why a microkernel? Because it gives you everything a monolithic 
"megakernel" can't. It's small, fast, and dedicated. While a typical UNIX 
kernel attempts to juggle everything under the sun, the QNX kernel 
concentrates only on scheduling tasks and coordinating message-passing 
activity. All other OS functions - file handling, device I/O, network 
management, etc. - are taken care of by separate server tasks. 

The result is an efficient, extensible, and verifiable operating system. 

You can even customize QNX on the fly. Since you can start and stop 
server tasks dynamically, you can easily add network support, install 
new devices, or incorporate entirely new system services - without 
having to take apart and rebuild the entire OS. Unlike most operating 
systems, a microkernel OS is designed to stay out of your way. 

In the seamless environment of the QNX network, tasks can reside on any 
node and can transparently access any resource attached to any node. 
You can mix and match a wide range of Intel-based PCs, from vintage 
8088s all the way up to 486 machines. And since an application can 
harness the processing power of all the CPUs throughout the LAN, the 
result is a level of distributed performance you never dreamed possible 
from a micro environment. 

Which is why QNX developers can turn cost-effective platforms into such 
powerful systems. Like a pair of PCs that run a large-scale international 

FAX service bureau. Or a dozen micros that replaced a $500,000 mini 
system. With QNX, you can afford to think big. 

Need realtime performance? QNX provides priority-driven, pre-emptive 
task scheduling, and reaches speeds usually reserved for dedicated 
realtime executives (27 |xsec per task switch on a 33 MHz 80386). 

Yet QNX is a fully integrated environment in which your development 
system and your target system are one and the same. With QNX, you can 
count on a complete OS that includes a robust file system, built-in 
peer-to-peer networking, and a rich set of development tools to boot. 
Add to this the appeal of QNX Windows, our new 3-D server-based 
OPEN LOOK GUI, and your applications will take on a whole new 

Are you ready for your next operating system? You could always wait and 
see what other systems may have in store someday. 

Or you could join the growing community of QNX users and realize your 
potential right now. 


For more information or a free demo disk, 
please phone (613) 591-0931. 

Quantum Software Systems Ltd., 175 Terrence Matthews Crescent, Kanata, Ontario, Canada K2M 1W8 


Intel is a regjaered ffadennik of Intel Cotpontioa * 1990 Quantum Software Sysaans Ud. 

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©1990 Hewlett-Packard Company PE12044 



Citrix's New 
Multiuser OS/2 

OS/2-based workgroup computing 
without a LAN 

Jon Udell 

Multiuser OS/2? It makes a lot 
of sense. /Throughout its 
short life, OS/2 has been an 
operating system with an 
identity crisis. Billed originally as the 
heir apparent to DOS and then Windows, 
OS/2 has so far been unimpressive in that 
role. Mainstream PC users now stam- 
peding to Windows 3.0 (and eagerly 
awaiting DOS 5.0) clearly prefer incre- 
mental change to the quantum leap that 
OS/2 represents. 

More recently, the action has been 
shifting to the LAN arena. Here, OS/2 
gets billed as a network operating system 
and as the platform for server-based ap- 
plications with which DOS and Windows 
clients will communicate. In the long 
run, you'll likely see both kinds of OS/2 
systems: high-end desktop workstations 
and network servers. 

But there's a third way. Citrix Sys- 
tems, a team of IBM refugees led by 
OS/2 guru Ed Iacobucci, has extended 
OS/2 into the multiuser territory occu- 
pied by Unix, Xenix, QNX, Theos, and 
a variety of DOS-based operating sys- 
tems. And the fledgling company has 
taken the right approach. Citrix Multi- 
user starts with OS/2 1.21 sources li- 
censed from Microsoft and weaves in a 
terminal subsystem, user-oriented secu- 
rity, resource auditing, and the ability to 
address up to 256 megabytes of memory. 
Citrix comes on four disks— one less 
than OS/2 1.21 (and dozens fewer than 
SCO Unix). How can Citrix's beefed-up 

OS/2 be smaller than the standard IBM/ 
Microsoft version? There is one conspic- 
uous omission: Presentation Manager 
(PM). You won't be running WingZ, 
PageMaker, or Corel Draw under Citrix 
Multiuser. You'll have to stick with char- 
acter-mode applications like WordPer- 
fect, Lotus 1-2-3, Word, Hyper Access, 
Oracle, Paradox, and R:base. 

Granted, these aren't the hottest pro- 
grams available for OS/2. But, in combi- 
nation with custom software, they're a 
good fit for the needs of small- and medi- 
um-size retail and service businesses. If 
that's your game, glamorous bit-mapped 
graphics may not be high on your list of 
priorities. You want low cost per seat, 
central control, simple installation and 
administration, and rock-solid stability. 
That's what Citrix has to offer. 

Setting Up Shop 

I installed Citrix Multiuser on a 12-MB 
Compaq Systempro equipped with an 
eight-port Digiboard PC/Xi multiport 
adapter. The system uses unmodified 
OS/2 device drivers and should therefore 
support any multiport board for which an 
OS/2 driver exists. Citrix doesn't intro- 
duce any special disk utilities: You use 
FDISK and FORMAT, just as you nor- 
mally do under OS/2. 

The boot partition does have to be a 
High Performance File System partition, 
since Citrix (like LAN Manager) uses 
extended attributes to track access rights 
on a per-file, per-user basis. Secondary 

partitions can be file allocation table or 
HPFS, but Citrix can secure only HPFS 

Citrix supports a variety of PCTERM 
terminals (i.e., terminals with standard 
84- or 101-key keyboards that transmit 
PC scan codes instead of ASCII charac- 
ters). Terminals for which Citrix pro- 
vides drivers include the ADDS 2025, 
the IBM Model 3151, the Kimtron KT- 
70, the Link Technologies MC2 and 
MC5, the TeleVideo Systems Models 
950 and 965, and the Wyse WY-150. 

The conf ig terminal utility, a full- 
screen interactive program that works 
like all the Citrix configuration tools, 
makes quick work of tweaking RS-232C 
communications settings. When all goes 
well, the terminal you're configuring 
wakes up and presents a Login: prompt. 

134 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 

When it does not— as happened to me 
once— you've got some detective work to 
do. In general, Citrix makes setting up 
terminals at least as easy as the multiuser 
DOS systems I've seen— and that is, in 
my opinion, far easier than with Unix. 

On the other hand, all these systems 
depend on cables and connectors, just as 
LANs do. Tracking down a faulty com- 
ponent isn 't necessarily any easier with a 
multiuser system than with today's mod- 
ular LANs. 

PCTERM isn't the only terminal op- 
tion. Teco, a Taiwanese manufacturer, 
has developed a new species of terminal 
that implements some of the OS/2 video 
I/O functions in its ROM. Citrix pro- 
vided me with an engineering prototype 
of this terminal, which should be avail- 
able this quarter at a list price of about 


$800. The VIO protocol speeds opera- 
tions like scrolling, since the host can 
simply send a VioScrollUp command to 
the terminal instead of a screen of data. 

Citrix says additional optimizations 
reduce the load on the host and lessen 
communications traffic. For example, if 
an application calls VioGetBuf to get the 
address of the logical video buffer, 
changes the contents of that buffer, and 
calls VioShowBuf to redisplay it, the ter- 
minal and host will conspire to exchange 
only the data needed for the update. 

Teco terminals also support color text. 
Color is important, even in character 
mode. Color-coded data-entry screens 
can make life a lot easier for the folks 
who have to use them. 

I'm willing to buy Citrix's argument 
that there's a sizable market for charac- 

ter-only multiuser systems, and I applaud 
the support for color text. I'm troubled, 
though, by the lack of mouse support. If 
you think that an effective graphical user 
interface (GUI) requires a bit-mapped 
screen, take a look at a program like Fox- 
Pro, which works just like FoxBase + for 
the Macintosh. 

Watching FoxPro users, I've noticed 
that those without mice seldom take ad- 
vantage of one of the program's best fea- 
tures: the ability to interactively resize 
and reorder columns of data. A version 
of FoxPro for OS/2 (there isn't one yet, 
by the way) would lose much of its luster 
without mouse support. Some PCTERM 
terminals do come with extra serial ports 
that can drive mice, and Citrix agrees 
that it would be a good idea to put that 
capability to use in a future release. 

JANUARY 1991 • B Y T E 135 

Multiuser OS/2 
from Overseas 

Stan Miastkowski 

As unique as it is, Citrix Multiuser 
is not the only player in the field. 
In fact, a company based in France has 
had a multiuser OS/2 available since 
January 1988. Memsoft now has setup a 
sales office in the U.S. (One Park 
Place, 621 Northwest 53rd St., Boca 
Raton, FL 33487, (407) 997-6655). It is 
now trying to carve out a market niche 
for its product, called PolyMod2. 

Sales manager Gerard Gatt told me 
that Memsoft takes "a very different ap- 
proach" from Citrix to bringing multi- 
user capabilities to OS/2. Where Citrix 
"reengineers OS/2," PolyMod2 exists 
as "a layer over OS/2"— as a separate 
program. Gatt says that this lets Mem- 
soft's product "work with any version of 
OS/2, from 1.0 to the upcoming 2.0." 

At first blush, PolyMod2's features 
and abilities look nearly identical to Cit- 
rix Multiuser's, letting you access 
multiple character-based OS/2 applica- 
tions from ASCII terminals. But Poly- 
Mod2 does add some intriguing bells 
and whistles to the basic concept. 

Gatt underlines PolyMod2's connec- 
tivity features, letting networked PCs 
(and even Macs) connected to a Poly- 
Mod2 OS/2 system run OS/2 applica- 
tions using a 40K-byte TSR program. 
Even more interesting is that Windows 
3.0 users can dedicate a window to 
PolyMod2 , s emulator and run OS/2 as a 
windowed application. 

In addition, PolyMod2 can intercon- 
nect multiple OS/2 machines without 
the need for a network. This lets the sys- 
tem administrator equalize the load on 
the system, dedicating OS/2 machines 
to processor-hungry applications. Fur- 

thermore, PolyMod2 can connect those 
multiple OS/2 machines via modem, re- 
sulting in a low-cost wide-area network. 

PolyMod2 is slightly more expensive 
than Citrix Multiuser. A 10-user system 
sells for $1600 (and you need a copy of 
OS/2). It also requires an additional 2 
megabytes of RAM over OS/2 require- 
ments. (The usual total is 6 MB.) 

Memsoft has been around since 
1979, first developing MEMDOS, a 
LAN for Apple lis. A privately owned 
company with 64 employees, it grossed 
a comparatively small $10 million last 
year. Gatt claims that PolyMod2 is in- 
stalled on over 10,000 OS/2 systems in 
France, representing (he says) 40 per- 
cent of that country's total installed 
base of systems running OS/2. 

Ironically, Citrix' s big-bucks rollout 
has the potential of increasing the over- 
all market share for OS/2 multiuser sys- 
tems, giving Memsoft a push in its hunt 
for market penetration. 

Gatt also had some interesting things 
to say about the worldwide OS/2 mar- 
ket, confirming repeated rumors that 
OS/2 is considerably more popular out- 
side the U.S. than in. He says that over- 
seas, companies are "buying OS/2 as a 
solution" because users have a "longer- 
term orientation" than those in the 
U.S., expecting to "use existing sys- 
tems for 5 to 10 years." Gatt also says 
that because Windows 3.0 is perceived 
as a "short-term solution," it hasn't 
generated much interest overseas. 

Stan Miastkowski is a BYTE senior news 
editor. He can be contacted on BIX as 
"stanm. " 

Batten Down the Hatches 

Citrix 's security subsystem models itself 
loosely on that of LAN Manager: The 
same user, group, administrator, and 
guest categories apply. Tight security is 
the norm for users. The default group 
membership confers rights to a home di- 
rectory (\usr\username) and to a mini- 
mal set of OS/2 and Citrix utilities. With 
conf ig access, you can elaborate those 
rights as needed. It represents files and 
directories in outline form— like a char- 
acter-mode version of OS/2's File Man- 
ager. As with LAN Manager, you can 
control rights to directories or to individ- 
ual files. 

Wild cards add a nice flexibility to the 
basic scheme. Suppose you've got the 
groups Accounting and Sales and a user 
called Joe. For a given directory or file, 
you can adjust rights for Joe. Accounting 
(Joe, when using his Accounting log-in), 
*. Accounting (everyone in Accounting), 
or Joe.* (Joe, regardless of how he 
logged in). 

Names of directories and files with 
implicit (i.e., inherited) rights show up 
between curly brackets; names with ex- 
plicitly assigned rights appear between 
square brackets. That's helpful when 
you're trying to sort out transitive rela- 
tionships. Another convenience is that 


conf ig access can always offer a pick 
list of user and group names, so you need 
never type the names. 

Another tool, config profile, col- 
lects information about users and groups: 
passwords, resource limits, resource au- 
diting, and log-in restrictions. As you'd 
expect, a user's profile inherits from a 
group profile and can then be custom- 
ized. Adjustable limits include the num- 
ber of log-ins, sessions, threads, file 
handles, and semaphores, and the 
amount of (virtual) memory. However, 
Citrix doesn't enable an administrator to 
limit the amount of disk space that a user 
or group can consume. A profile includes 
a "first program" field that defaults to a 
character-mode Program Selector (re- 
member OS/2 1.0?). 

If you want to create a single-purpose 
user account, you can substitute the 
name of an application. For example, 
when I specified Joe's first program as 
123. exe, Joe could do nothing except run 
Lotus 1-2-3. When Joe quit 1-2-3, Citrix 
logged him off. Generally, you'll want to 
leave the Program Selector in place and 
use per-user start-up files to tailor users' 

Citrix adds an interesting wrinkle to 
system security. A number of OS/2 ap- 
plication programming interface func- 
tions are secure under Citrix Multiuser. 
That's because even with strict user-ori- 
ented security, a program could conceiv- 
ably become a rogue. Using an OS/2 
function like DosOpen with the right (or 
wrong!) arguments, a program could 
gain unrestricted access to the disk. Cit- 
rix therefore protects such entry points. 
If a program must legitimately use them, 
you can create a "user alias" for it and 
grant the necessary API access by way of 
that alias. 

Pile On the Programs 

I tested a number of programs, including 
Brief, Slick, WordPerfect, HyperAccess 
5.0, Lotus 1-2-3, and Paradox. I also ran 
programs I compiled with the Microsoft 
C 6.0 and JPI Modula-2 compilers. Al- 
though everything ran without com- 
plaint, I did encounter a few quirks when 
transplanting single-user programs to the 
multiuser environment. It's sometimes 
necessary to distinguish between files 
that can be shared by all users and those 
that must be duplicated for each user. 
That's true when you run an application 
on a LAN, too; finding out what belongs 
where can involve a good bit of trial and 

VIO can be an issue as well, depend- 
ing on how a program handles the 
screen. When I compiled and ran a JPI 

136 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 

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demonstration program that uses charac- 
ter-mode graphics to simulate automo- 
bile traffic, Citrix slowed noticeably. 
Three concurrent instances of the simu- 
lator brought the system practically to its 

Inspecting the program, I found that it 
writes characters and attributes one at a 
time in a tight loop. That's not a problem 
for single-user OS/2 communicating 
with the video buffer at bus speed, but 
for Citrix, which talks to terminals at 
38,400 bps or less, it's disastrous. 

The solution is to use line- and screen- 
oriented update routines. Of course, the 
JPI demonstration is far from a typical 
Citrix application. Still, some commer- 
cial OS/2 applications do operate a char- 
acter at a time, according to Citrix. Soft- 
ware vendors interested in the multiuser 
OS/2 market will certainly want to avoid 
that pitfall. 

Hidden dependencies on PM can also 
cause problems. I had no trouble install- 
ing SQL Server and firing up a server 
process, but I couldn't get any of the as- 
sociated tools to work with it from an- 
other session. Although saf (Server Ad- 
ministration Facility) and isql (the 
interactive Structured Query Language 
interpreter) operate in character mode, 
they failed to load under Citrix, com- 
plaining about a PM-related dynamic 
link library (DLL). 

Apparently, the dependency extends 
to dblib, SQL Server's C library, since 
a bare-bones test program ran into the 
same wall. This surprised both me and 
Microsoft, but not Citrix. In beta testing, 
the company has come across several 
such PM dependencies, and it has even 
implemented PM stubs to enable pro- 
grams to run in spite of them. As of this 
writing, Citrix had tested Oracle suc- 
cessfully but had not yet tried SQL 
Server. Presumably, it will be a candi- 
date for the stub tieatment. Again, soft- 
ware developers interested in Citrix 
should take note. 

Off-the-shelf OS/2 programs also de- 
rive unique benefits from Citrix Multi- 
user. Most notably, they're far more effi- 
cient in their use of memory. Although 
shared DLLs can help conserve memory 
under single-user OS/2, they typically 
don't serve that purpose. How often does 
a user need two instances of Lotus 1-2-3 
or Microsoft Word? Under Citrix, how- 
ever, multiple instantiation of programs 
is the norm. And the memory saving 
that shared libraries can realize is dra- 

Lotus 1-2-3 release 3.0, for instance, 
gobbles nearly a megabyte of RAM when 
you start it up. But each successive in- 

stance shares an 800K-byte chunk of 
common code and data, thus requiring 
only an additional 200K bytes of mem- 
ory. To put it another way, five copies of 
1-2-3 running on five separate single- 
user OS/2 machines will use 5 MB of 
RAM; five instances of 1-2-3 under Cit- 
rix will use less than 2 MB. That's an im- 
pressive feature that current incarnations 
of Unix and multiuser DOS can't match. 

Why Citrix? 

In an era dominated by networks and 
GUIs, Citrix Multiuser may seem like an 
anachronism. But value-added resellers 
and consultants who earn their keep de- 
livering packaged business solutions will 
see it for what it is: a practical option. 
Clearly, Citrix faces stiff competition. If 
you require DOS applications, you'll go 
with a multiuser DOS system. When 
IBM finishes OS/2 2.0, a future release 
of Citrix built on top of it could become 
the multiuser DOS system of choice, but 
there's no DOS support now. 

Likewise, if you're already a Unix ex- 
pert, I doubt that Citrix will persuade 
you to switch. While simpler to install 
and manage, Citrix lacks Unix's rich as- 
sortment of tools and applications. Mor- 
ever, until someone figures out how to 
make PM work with a remote display, 
OS/2 (and therefore Citrix) can't hope to 
compete with Unix's networkable GUI, 
X Window System. 

Nevertheless, I suspect Citrix Multi- 
user will appeal widely enough to suc- 
ceed. If you hired me to automate an 
opthalmologist's office or a small travel 
agency, I'd seriously consider using Cit- 
rix to do the job. Why? Because I'm just 
the sort of person who'd seek out a mid- 
dle ground between DOS and Unix. OS/2 
has so far proven to be more of an operat- 
ing system than most individuals need or 
want. But, as Citrix ably demonstrates, 
that extra capacity can well serve the 
needs of a group. ■ 

Jon Udell is a BYTE senior editor at 
large. You can reach him on BIX as 
"judell. " 


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paces, only Elegance 386 and 486 emerge as the winners. 

And here's the proof! Northgate has won four PC Magazine 
Editors' Choice Awards, two Computer Shopper Best Buy Awards 
and received InfoWorlds Number One and Number Two Products 
of 1989. 

PLUS AT PRESS TIME ... Northgate received word from 
Computer Shopper that Elegance 486/25i won a 1990 Best Buy 
Award. That makes an unprecedented FOUR YEARS IN A ROW 
Northgate received Computer Shoppers prestigious honor! 

We'd be fooling ourselves (and underestimating you) if we 
thought you'd buy based on performance alone. That's why 
Northgate has a corporate commitment to customer service that's 
equally impressive. No puffery here... 

142 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 

"...Northgate stops at nothing to please 

its CUStomerS." PC Magazine September 25, 1990 

♦ Free delivery to your office or home. 

♦ NEW 60-Day No-Risk Trial! To serve you better, 
Northgate has doubled its No-Risk Trial period to 60 days. 

♦ Full parts and labor warranties: 1 year on systems; 
5 years on OmniKey® keyboards. 

♦ Overnight shipment of replacement parts— 
at our expense. 

♦ Northgate's unique 24-hour toll-free technical support 
leads the industry— most needs are met with just one call! 

♦ Free on-site service to most locations if we can't solve 
your technical needs over the phone. 

♦ Northgate makes state-of-the-art power affordable! 

Charge your purchase to your Big 'NT card, VISA or 
MasterCard. Ask about financing and leasing options, too! 

♦ Call Northgate before you decide to buy elsewhere. You'll be 
amazed at our new low pricing! 

"What WordPerfect is to software support, 
Northgate is to hardware, and there are even a 
few things WordPerfect could learn from the 
folks in Minneapolis." 

Bernie Zilbergeld 

Bav Area Computer Currents 

August 14, 1990 

Select desktop or optional vertical power case, 

Northgate's elegant desktop case features 5-bays with room for 
3 exposed and 2 internal half-height devices. Comes with 200 watt 
power supply. For greater expansion capabilities, choose our 
vertical 7-bay powerhouse with a 220 watt power supply. 

Northgate Page Mode 386/20 MHz 

As a cost-efficient, dependable network file server, Page 
Mode has no equal. Its realiability is confirmed by Novell® 
certification and by users of office networks every day. Northgate 
boosts performance of this 386/20 workhorse through the use of 
an efficient page mode memory management scheme. Other 
performance features include: 

♦ Intel® 80386/20 MHz processor 

♦ 4Mb of RAM (expandable to 16Mb) 

♦ 40Mb hard drive 

♦ 1.44Mb and 1.2Mb floppy drives 

♦ 16-bit VGA video adapter 

♦ Eight expansion card slots 

♦ One parallel and two serial ports 

♦ MS-DOS 4.01 and GW-BASIC 

♦ Microsoft® Windows™ 3.0 
and mouse 

♦ 14 " VGA gray scale monitor 

♦ Omni Ke\ r keyboard 

♦ FCC Class B' Certified 


Or as low as 5 85 00 per month* 

Northgate Elegance 386/486 Common Features: 

♦ American-made motherboard 

♦ RAM expansion up to 8Mb on 
motherboard (16Mb total RAM 
with 32-bit memory card) 

♦ 16-bit VGA video adapter 

♦ One parallel and two serial ports 

♦ MS-DOS 4.01 and GW-BASIC 

♦ Microsoft® Windows™ 3.0 
and mouse 

♦ FCC Class B Certified 

Northgate Elegance 386/25 & 33 MHz 

The best in their respective classes! Both are ideally suited for 
managing large databases (over 1000 records), full-time business 
accounting, multitasking and other demanding applications. 

Northgate gives you a powerful standard configuration including 
high-speed 64K RAM cache and 4Mb of RAM. Take a look at 
everything you get: 

♦ Intel® 80386/25 or 33 MHz ♦ 3.5 " 1 .44Mb and 5.25 " 1 .2Mb 
processor floppy drives 

♦ 4Mb of RAM ♦ l A - bit VGA adapter 

A ,,.. „ .... ♦ 14 " VGA grav scale monitor 

♦ 40Mb hard drive , Omn/ATev keyboard 

♦ 64K SRAM read/write-back cache ♦ Novell Certified 



25 MHz »^W W 33 MHz »AW U 

Or as low as s 105 00 per month* Or as low as s 115°° per month 

ri nc Computer Systems. I . \'i \Y --.-.-Mi- ■ i>-«t-:-. i .1 NmiiiiMii.-. < im/ijA'ei- .imi 1 

i.'.rr i'. nif- ! j ikc. .uij sjH-i-:tiL'jl:'i>l!S UjbjOLt I ■ v, ii!h.i.:[ :101s nc \. .1 rhi-.HL 11 ■ c, 1 '_ e. ' 1 - :i r 'tit [n 

Auii-F'iracy lloilincal l-800-38B-['IR8. -When charged to vour Norilij-aie liiK'N" card: 18% A.I'.R. UnfoWorld. July.W. \')<H). 

Northgate Elegance 486/25 and NEW 486/33 MHz ISA 

In addition to receiving an Editors' Choice and 1990 
Computer Shopper Best Buy Award, Elegance 486/25i 
outscored all competitors in InfoWorld Magazine's 1990 reviews of 
486 systems. Elegance "leads the pack by a comfortable margin", 
they said. "It offers impressive performance, exceptional 
expandability and it is tops in support and value."! 

NOW! Northgate introduces the next generation— Elegance 

486/33 ISA. Both systems are ideal for heavy-duty business 
applications like full time database management, CAD/CAM, 
financial planning, accounting and programming. Includes: 

♦ Intel 80486/25 or 33 MHz 

♦ 4Mb of RAM 

♦ 40Mb hard drive 

♦ 64K SRAM read/write-back cache 

25MHz $ 5199 00 

Or as low as s 180 ()0 per month* 

♦ 3.5" 1.44Mb and 5.25" 1.2Mb 
floppy drives 

♦ 16-bit VGA video adapter 

♦ 14 " VGA gray scale monitor 

♦ OmniKcv keyboard 

♦ Novell Certified (486/25) 

33MHz $ 5799 00 

Or as low as s 200 ()0 per month* 

Standard Upgrades (Add to the base system price) 


14 NEC 

VGA Gray Scale 

800 x 600 


14" VGA Color 



14" VGA Color 



14" VGA Color 


40Mb IDE 

$ 0.00 


$ 400.00 

$ 650.00 

80Mb IDE 



$ 600.00 

$ 850.00 




$ 700.00 

$ 950.00 

200Mb IDE 





Call for the latest pricing and custom configuration specifications. 




New... fax your order toll free! 800-323-7182 

Notice to the Hearing Impaired: Nprthgate has TDD capability. Dial 800-535-0602. 


7075 Flying Cloud Drive, Eden Prairie, MN 55344 

Circle 223 on Reader Service Card 

JANUARY 1991 'BYTE 143 

the crisp touch Northgate OmniKey! 

l 1 Il>lll 


VV v v * ,V,\ .V 




PC Computing Magazine's 
Most Valuable Product Of 1990! 

PC Computing said: "keyboards don't get any better than 
this."t And it's no wonder! OmniKeylUUTRA gives you 
twice the features of ordinary keyboards! You get 12 F-keys 
on left— PLUS 12 switchable Special Function (SF)-keys on 
top. And, the greatest touch in keyboards. 

See for yourself ... use one for 60-days RISK FREE! 

If you aren't convinced it's the best, return it. We'll refund 
every penny! 

Look! More exclusive features! 

• ALPS click/tactile mechanical key switches 

• Interchangeable CTRL, ALT and CAPS LOCK keys 

• Switchable right asterisk and backslash keys 

• Exclusive period/comma lock key locks out these < > , 
locks punctuation in 

• Repeat rate select key lets you change from 3-120 CPS 
from inside DOS or a program 

• Unmatched compatibility with IBM-type systems 

• Lifetime quality double-injected keycaps 

• FCC Class B certified 

• Industry-leading five year warranty 

Now! ONLY 


^M^mm J Minneapolis, MK 

OmniKeyllQ2 with F-keys on the left 

First keyboard to get 
back to the basics! 12 
F-keys on left for fast 
one-hand combination 
commands. Readers of 
Computer Shopper 
named OmniKey/\02 
their "Best Buy." 

• Northgate's original 102 key design 

• 12 function keys on the left 

• Interchangeable ALT, CAPS 
LOCK, and CTRL keys 

• Large L-shaped ENTER key 

• Calculator-style numeric keypad 
with added equals key 

• Five year warranty 

• 60-day no-risk trial 

• Separate inverted T cursor 
control pad 

• Unmatched compatibility with 
IBM-type systems 

• ALPS click/tactile mechanical key 

• FCC Class B certified 

OmniKeyim ONLY *8% 

Inventory Reduction... Quantities Limited! 


with F-keys 
on top and 
20% smaller 

• ALPS click/tactile mechanical key switches 

• Unmatched compatibility with IBM- 
type systems 

• FCC Class B certified 

• 10-day no-risk trial 

• One year warranty 

• Enhanced 101 key layout 

• Interchangeable left CAPS LOCK and 
CTRL keys 

• Calculator-style numeric keypad with 
added equals key 

• Separate inverted T cursor control pad 

OmniKeylVM ONLY *69t£ 

HOURS: Mon. - Fri. 7 a.m. to 12 a.m.; Sat. 

8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Central. Dealer and distributor 

prices available. Se habla espanol por su 


Notice to the Hearing Impaired: Northgate has 

TDD capability: 800-535-0602 


We accept VISA 
and MasterCard. FAX 
Your Order! 612-943-8332 




7075 Flying Cloud Drive, Eden Prairie, MN 55344 

144 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 

Circle 224 on Reader Service Card 


& •:?. 




This certificate entitles you to BYTE at a savings of over 40% 

off the cover price. You'll also receive the annual IBM PC Special Issue 

as part of your subscription. 

I I YES! Please send me 1 year 

(12 issues) for $24.95. (I'll save 
over 40% off the newsstand cost!) 

D Payment enclosed 
□ Bill me 

No-Risk Guarantee: If 
dissatisfied, cancel anytime 
for a full 100% refund. Your 
subscription will start in 6-8 
weeks. Watch for it! 













Subscription Department 

P.O. Box 558 

Hightstown, N J. 08520-9409 







libu can afford award-winning 
Northgate performance! 

Northgate makes it easy for 
you to own award-winning 

286, 386™ and 486 ™ computer 
systems ... just say "charge it" to 
your Northgate Big 'N 1 credit card. 

It's easy! Simply fill in the Big 'IV 
information form and send it to 
Northgate for prompt attention. 
Once you Ye approved, call our 
systems consultants, toll-free, to 
select the Northgate that's right 
for you. 

Northgate leases systems too! 

Choose from flexible terms up to 
five years. It's never been easier to 
get high-performance Northgate 
systems than it is right now! 

Fill out and return this form today! 

Gall Northgate Now! 


HOURS: Monday - Friday 7 a.m. - 8 p.m. CST 


7075 Flying Cloud Drive, Eden Prairie, MN 55344 

'This is a credit application. Upon approval, a credit agreement will be : 

<&C:opy tight NorthRM Computer Svsietm. Inc. l'WD. .All rights reserved.^tc. OmiuKcx 


Please complete all appropriate sections, providing at least two years residence and employment history. If you are self-employed, please be 
sure to complete section d. THIS IS NOT A CREDIT AGREEMENT! One will be sent to you upon authorization of an account. (This Form 
Must Be Signed To Process Your Order.) Alt Financed Purchases Are Subject To Credit Approval. If You Have Any Credit Questions, Please 
Call For Assistance. Thank You! 

A married person may apply for individual credit. I am applying for (check one box, please): 
D JOINT CREOIT with another person. Complete entire application. 

□ INDIVIDUAL CREDIT complete only individual section. 

□ IN0IVI0UAL CREDIT but rely on income of another. Complete entire application. 

If you are a married Wisconsin applicant, you must provide your spouse's information as indicated, even 
though your spouse may not be signing the contract. 


You must disclose your marital 


D married 

D unmarried 

D legally separated 

fa. Personal Information 


















Income from alimony, child support or separate maintenance payments need not be disclosed if you do not wish to have it considered as 

basis for repaying the obligation. 


| b. Credit Information 








VISA (Y/N) _ 

_ HOW MANY? . 


. HOW MANY? . 





. HOW MANY? . 


c. Joint Applicant's Personal Information 


_ CITY _ 


_ZIP _ 









[ d. Self-Employment Information 



TYPE OF BUSINESS D Proprietorship □ Partnership □ Corporation 



Net $ 



] e. Customer Authorization 

I authorize Northgate Computer Systems or its assignees to investigate credit records and to report my performance hereunder to credit 
agencies. I hereby certify that the following information is furnished to you for the purpose of obtaining credit and is true and correct of 
the best of my knowledge and belief. There are costs associated with the use of this credit card. To obtain more information about these 
costs, call us at 1 800-548 -1993 or write to P.O. Box 59080, Minneapolis, MN 554590080. 

NY-A consumer credit report may be requested in connection with this application or in connection with updates, renewals or extensions 
of any credit granted as a result of this application. If I subsequently ask for this information, I will be informed whether or not such a 
report was requested and, if so, the name and address of the agency that furnished the report. 






I acknowledge that the obligation described herein is being incurred in the interest of my marriage or family. 



t lit you for your signature. This agreem 

must be signed and relumed K 

ur account. 


Comes Out 

tSS© 8 

! .f*°«'MjlB 

The new dBASE IV* version 1.1 has 
been rated the #1 Multiuser Database by 
Software Digest Ratings Report (Volume 
7 Number 3, October, 1990). 

Because Software Digest accepts no 
advertising whatsoever, subscribers pay 
hundreds of dollars a year to receive their 
reviews— which are considered highly 
unbiased and objective. 

In summation, their 75-page report says: 
'Among the top ranking programs, dBASE 
IV (version 1.1) is the most well rounded, 
with solid performance, versatility, and 
usability." Commenting on speed, Software 
Digest points out that u dBASE IV produces 
all three test reports as fast as or faster 
than FoxPro/LAN." As for Ease of Use/Ease 
of Learning, dBASE IV scored as many 
times in the Excellent range as any other 
database product tested. 

Of course, Software Digest is definitely 
not alone in its conclusions. 

Because consumers have already made 
dBASE IV version 1.1 the #1 best-selling 
PC database in the world. 

Call 1-800-437-4329 ext. 1407 for more 
Better yet, call 
now to upgrade. 

The truth 
is, no other 
database can 
do so much 
to improve 


■■;/■-■:, i '■:.■;■ .■'.;.■ ■,.- ;.-.■- 


A AshtonTate* 

Trademark/owner: dBASE IV, Ashton-Tatc, Ashton-Tatc logo/Ashton-Tatc Corp. Other company orproduct names mentioned may be trademarks of theirrcspective companies. © 1990 Ashton-Tatc Corporation. All Rights Reserved. 

Circle 33 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 34) 







More of them. 
New category. 

The economy may be slowing down, but 1990 proved that there 
has been no letup in the number of exciting, innovative new 
products and technologies for personal computers. In the past 
year, we've seen an extraordinary leap in the processing power 
of systems across every major platform, significant upgrades to 
proven products at lower prices, and emerging product catego- 
ries that are opening up new applications to personal com- 

Most significantly, standard DOS faced its most serious 
challenges ever. Unix became more attractive— in looks, price, 
and ease of use— to rank-and-file end users. Apple introduced 
powerful systems on the high end and affordable ones on the 
low end. And Windows 3.0 sold over a million copies. Clearly, 
the personal computer industry is still a fascinating, dynamic 

The BYTE Award recipients are chosen by BYTE editors 
based on these criteria: It is a product or technology that is in- 
novative, that has significant impact on its respective market 
niche, that advances the state of the art, or that provides a supe- 
rior price-to-performance ratio. We have three award catego- 
ries, which, in order of importance, are Awards of Excellence, 
Awards of Distinction, and Awards of Merit, the last of which is 
new this year. Award categories for each product listed here 
were assigned according to vote totals. Of all the products 
nominated, BYTE editors voted 67 worthy of awards— three 
times the number chosen last year. The new category accounts 
for only part of the number. The rest we attribute to a richer 
lineup of candidates. 

Whatever your preferred computing platform, you'll find 
something to cheer about in the list of 1990 BYTE Award 


JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 147 



Windows 3.0, Microsoft 

Windows 3.0 is the first us- 
able graphical user interface 
for the IBM PC to meet with 
widespread, enthusiastic ac- 
ceptance by the DOS-based 
computing public. Because of 
its achievement, developers 
now have a discernible plat- 
form and growing installed 


I ilf Qptiuns Wimhiw Drip 

Window; A|tj>i initio re:; 

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ft' [ m i? ■ ■'« 

□ « ft! 

223 Pfl |.>-. ■• -Ei'ii 

base for which they can de- 
velop easier-to-use GUI ap- 

The majority of nontechni- 
cal professionals and business 
users work faster, learn more 
quickly, and are generally 
more productive using a good 
GUI— something the Mac has 
already proven. Windows 3.0 
isn't perfect, as many early 
users have discovered, but its 
potential is clear. The sheer 
strength of its presence en- 
sures a lasting impact on the 
industry. And its bundled Sol- 
itaire game isn't half bad, 

Adobe Type Manager 2.0, Adobe Systems 

ATM displays PostScript 
Type 1 font outlines as high- 
quality bit-mapped text on a 
Mac screen at large resolu- 
tions. ATM 2.0 offers better 
performance on a 68000- 
based Mac. Besides being 
useful for page layout involv- 
ing large typefaces, it's a 
boon to those using non-Post- 
Script laser printers. ATM's 
large character bit maps can 
be sent to these printers, pro- 
viding high-quality output. 
Those using fax boards on the 

Mac can have their docu- 
ments imaged at 200 dots per 
inch, producing excellent re- 
sults at the receiving fax. 

Furthermore, ATM recent- 
ly jumped platforms to the 
Windows 3.0 environment. 
This version produces great- 
looking text on a Hewlett- 
Packard LaserJet. While you 
wait for TrueType in Apple's 
System 7.0 and Microsoft's 
OS/2, ATM 2.0 provides a 
solid, reasonably priced solu- 
tion now. 

Turbo C++, Borland International 

File Edit Search Run Compile Debug i'roject Uutious Uindou Help 

Arc AnArc(151, 82, 25, 8, 138); 

// you first drag an arc using arrow 
// press Enter when tired of this! 
// Mow drag a circle (10 pixels per a 
// Press Enter to end FIGDEMQ. 

// drag increment is La 


AC Ire le. Drag (10); // now each drag is 

return 0; 

tdeflne GIAHTS 1 

void winCvoid) 

int scoreboard EZH91; 
I i:i 

: iSiioul ! 

:ttoveTo(in1 . 

/* An array two rows by nine colunns i 

H Help FlO Henu 

Borland's introduction of 
Turbo C++ legitimized the 
language for thousands of PC 
C developers. Professional 
programmers have been 
avoiding C++ because of the 
lack of good tools, and Bor- 
land's Professional bundle in- 
cludes everything that even 
the fussiest programmer has 
to create and debug commer- 
cial C++ code. The profiler 
isolates poor-performing sec- 
tions of code— a must for 
large, performance-sensitive 
projects. The assembler 
brings low-level power to 
bear, and the robust debugger 
understands C++ classes. 
Once installed, all these tools 
combine to create what may 
be the most powerful single- 
vendor DOS development en- 
vironment available. 

TravelMate 2000/ 
Sharp PC-6220/ 
CompuAdd Companion, 
Texas Instruments, 
Sharp Electronics, and 

Despite minor problems with 
the casings, several BYTE 
editors consider these porta- 
bles, all built in the same 

148 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 


Video Toaster, NewTek 

One of the coolest video/ 
graphics products of the year, 
NewTek 's hardware/software 
package turns the Amiga into 
a sophisticated, broadcast- 
quality video-editing system. 
Video Toaster provides tools 
for real-time manipulation of 
incoming live video, includ- 
ing a frame grabber; a color- 
processing engine for produc- 
ing color negatives, effects 
such as solarization and pos- 
terization, and color filters; 
dual frame buffers for render- 
ing realistic three-dimension- 
al images; 24-bit animation 
software; 24-bit paint soft- 
ware; a character generator 
for putting text on top of video 
frames; a production switcher 
to handle transitional effects; 
and more. 

Thanks to its four custom 
chips, NewTek has packed all 
these studio facilities into one 
add-in board. All the comput- 
erized imagery and digital ef- 
fects you see on TV can be 
done with this package. Turn- 
ing a personal computer into a 
workstation for manipulating 
broadcast-quality video is no 
big deal anymore. But when 
the cost is only $1595, it is a 
big deal. If you had to sepa- 
rately buy all the equipment 
to do everything that Video 
Toaster can do, you'd wish 
Ted Turner was your daddy. 

Texas Instruments plant, to 
be the best they've ever used. 
Each has more than enough 
power for any reasonable lap- 
top application, a very good 
screen, a fast hard disk drive, 
a great form factor (it really 
does fit inside a briefcase), 
lots of power/weight options 
(2, 3, or 5 hours of power, de- 
pending on the combination of 
internal/external battery you 
select), quick recharge, and a 
good price. These computers 
are winners. They may be the 
first laptops since the Tandy 
Model 100 to really deliver 
the promise of affordable, 
portable computing. 



Macintosh Classic, Apple Computer 

Apple has really delivered the 
Cheap Mac. Power users will 
sneer, but for $1500, you can 
now get a Mac with 2 mega- 
bytes of memory, a fast 40- 
MB hard disk drive, built-in 
networking, the world's most 
stable graphical user inter- 
face, and the performance of 
an SE. (Historical aside: In 
1 984, the 1 28K-byte Mac cost 
$2495.) You won't design the 
space station with this ma- 
chine, but you can do most of 
the things people use personal 
computers for, and do them 
nicely. v 

JANUARY 1991 • B Y T E 149 


■ aWdHdiM: 

Editor's note: Just as this 
issue was going to press, we 
learned that C-Cube is discon- 
tinuing the Compression Mas- 
ter board. It will continue to 
sell the chip to other develop- 
ers, however. 


Compression Master and CL550 Image Processor Chip, 
C-Cube Microsystems 

Graphics put an incredible 
strain on the CPU, bus, and 
storage device of a personal 
computer. Luckily, there's 
this thing called compression. 
One company at the forefront 
of compression technology is 
C-Cube Microsystems, with 
its CL550 image processor 
chip, which implements the 
JPEG compression algorithm. 
C-Cube has put its data 
squeezer chip onto add-in 
boards for both the Mac and 
IBM PC compatibles. The 
Compression Master boards 

can compress images by as 
much as 75 to 1. An image 
file reduced to l / 24 its original 
size shows no visible degrada- 
tion. This is good, essential 
technology for anyone work- 
ing with images, and that 
doesn't mean just desktop 
publishers, CAD users, and 
electronic artists. You don't 
have to be doing four-color 
graphics to quickly fill up an 
80-megabyte hard disk drive. 
There are other compres- 
sion boards on the market, 
many of which use the 

CL550. But none are as inex- 
pensive as the Compression 
Master at $995. C-Cube is 
quickly gathering a follow- 
ing. Major software houses 
have promised to support the 
company's Image Compres- 
sion Interface, including 
Adobe, Quark, Autodesk, and 
Electronic Arts. If C-Cube 
can produce enough of the 
CL550 to meet demand (the 
chip has been in short sup- 
ply), the company could set 
the standard in this user-help- 
ful technology. 

hyperStore/1600 Caching Controller, 
Perceptive Solutions 

The hyperStore/1600 is solid as a rock and fast. Caching is a 
complicated technology, and the folks at PSI seem to know 
more than any of their competitors. PSI's product has a unique 
design that lets you run any or all of the common hard disk drive 
interfaces from one controller board. Not only is it the fastest 
controller available, it's the most flexible, too. 

Photoshop, Adobe Systems 

*.ua*|£\ *. $ 4\ 

Quattro Pro 2.0, Borland International 

Quattro Pro provides more features and better performance 
than Lotus 1-2-3 at a lower price, and yet it still runs on any 
DOS machine, including an 8088 XT with 512K bytes of 
RAM. Quattro Pro 2.0 adds a few significant enhancements: a 
solver capability (like the Solver in Lotus 1-2-3/G) and better 
printer support. In fact, Borland provides in Quattro Pro a 
group of features not found in any single version of the market 
leader 1-2-3. 

The best 24-bit pixel editing 
package of the year, Photo- 
shop from Adobe Systems has 
excellent color-correction 
controls and a good set of 
editing tools for cropping, fil- 
tering, and resizing images. 
It's also very fast. In addition, 
it can import images of just 

about every format, such as 
TIFF, Amiga HAM files, 
and CompuServe GIF. Once 
you've modified the image, 
you can then save the image in 
any of these formats. Photo- 
shop makes the entrance re- 
quirement for any software 
for the 1990s. 

150 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 


Intel 80486, 25 MHz;, 4MB 
128K SRAM cache 

"Without a doubt, the Tangent is the overall price/ 

• Fastest SuperVGA 
adaptor in the industry 

• 1024x768 VGA monitor 

• 80 MB (19ms), w/cache 

• 1.2 MB or 1.44 MB Teac 

• 1 parallel 6? 2 serial ports; 
Enhanced 101 keyboard 

performance winner of the group, and perhaps even 

86 SVGA Systems 
MB, 42MB HD): 

80386SX,20MHz, $1995 

80386,25 MHz $2295 

80386, 33 MHz, 


of 486 systems in general!' (Personal Workstation, 

For a Quote or to Order, 
Call 800-223-6677 

FAX 415-342-9380 
Corporate P.O.s accepted 



8/90 review of Tangent, Compaq, and AST). 

In Personal Workstation's review, theTangent 486/25 clearly outperformed both Compaq and AST, 

And Tangent was priced as much as 67% less! Get breathtaking graphics and unparalleled 

hard disk performance. Plus a 30-day unconditional money-back guarantee, and a lifetime, 

toll free technicalsupport hotline. Call today, for this ^^^^ 

and other Tangent review reprints, and for a quote M A TW* flk JVCIE^T^ 7 ! 1 

on a wide choice of EISA and ISA configurations. computer 

Tangent Computer, Inc., 197 Airport Blvd., Burlingame,CA 94010. 

© Copyright 1990 Tangent Computer, Inc. 

Circle 313 on Reader Service Card 



A/UX 2.0, Apple Computer 

By executing one of the most impressive ports of Unix we've 
seen, Apple managed to create an operating system that repre- 
sents a merging of Unix System V, BSD Unix, and the Mac OS. 
The operating system installs easily in a matter of minutes from 
a CD-ROM (and other media) and presents users with a famil- 
iar Mac interface. Combined with an Ethernet board and X 
Window System 1 1 for A/UX (both optional), A/UX brings the 
benefits of workstation power and connectivity to Mac users, 
without forcing them to give up their library of Mac applica- 
tions. This is the perfect way to bring Unix to the desktop, and 
with A/UX's ability to run on the inexpensive Mac SE/30 and 
the new Mac Ilsi systems, Apple could make a name for itself as 
a provider of low-cost Unix solutions. 

file Edit MoiJe Image Select 

n n o 

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LaserJet IIP, Hewlett-Packard 

The first laser printer to 
break the $1000 street price 
barrier, the LaserJet IIP im- 
mediately became the price/ 
performance benchmark for 
the new class of personal laser 
printers introduced in 1990. 
The IIP and its competitors 
not only made personal laser 
printers affordable, they also 
helped pull down the prices of 
more sophisticated PostScript 
laser printers and helped 
make dot-matrix printers 
more of a niche market. 

In its standard configura- 
tion, the 4-page-per-minute 

printer offers 512K bytes of 
memory and a solid 10-MHz 
68000 processor. With mem- 
ory upgrades and font car- 
tridges, the IIP helped bring 
PostScript to general-busi- 
ness applications with a price 
tag that's under $3000. Com- 
pared to its larger cousins, the 
IIP sacrificed some speed and 
duty volume, but it lost noth- 
ing in output quality and 
economy. For many users, 
this justified the cost of plac- 
ing a laser printer on their 
desktops or beefing up their 
overall printing resources. 

LaserJet III, Hewlett-Packard 

For the last few years, Hewlett-Packard has effectively defined 
business printing by defining the laser printer market. As a re- 
sult, the LaserJet II was the dominant force in laser printing and 
was priced below many other laser printers. So what did HP do? 
It redesigned its already excellent LaserJet II by adding more 
fonts, as well as scalable fonts, more standard memory, and 
Resolution Enhancement to smooth out the edges of images. 
And then HP dropped the price a little. By taking the unusual 
step of improving on excellence and then offering the customer 
a better deal, HP has defined the market once again. 

152 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 

When You Buy ALTEC, 


High quality design and 

Hi-Res VGA monitor - 

all at a low price! 

486/33 ISA VGA $5,595 

64K Cache, exp to 256K • 4MegRAM" 1.2 MG 
5.25" drive • 1 .44 MB 3.5" drive • 150 MB 18ms 
ESDI hard drive • ESDI controller w/32K cache • 
1 6 bil VGA cord • 1 4" VGA monitor ( 1 024 x 768) 

• 2 serial, 1 parallels 1 game ports • 101-key 
Keyboard • Microsoft Window 3.0 • Hi-Res serial 
Mouse • MS-DOS 3.3 or 4.01 


386/33 VGA $2,795 

64K Cache • 4 Meg RAM • 1 .2 MG 5.25" drive • 
1.44 MB 3.5" drive • 104 MB IDE hord drive • 
1 6 bit VGA card • 1 4 " VGA monitor ( 1 024 x 768) 

• 2 serial, 1 parallel & 1 game ports • 101-key 
Keyboard " Microsoft Window 3.0 "Hi-Res serial 
Mouse -MS-DOS 3.3 or 4.01 

386/25 VGA $2,595 

4 Meg RAM • 1 .2 MB 5.25" drive • 1 .44 MB 
3.5"drive • 104 MB IDE hord drive • 16-bit VGA 
card • 14" VGA monitor (1024 x 768) • 2 serial, 

1 parallel& I game ports • 1 01-key Keyboard • 
Microsoft Window 3.0 • Hi-Res serial Mouse • MS- 
DOS 3.3 or 4.01 

386/SX VGA $ 1 ,895 

2 Meg RAM- 1 .2 MB 5.25" drive • 1 .44 MB 3.5" 
drive" 40 MB IDE harddrive • 16-bit VGAcord • 

14" VGA monitor (1024 x 768) • 2 seriol, 1 
parallel & 1 game ports • 101-key Keyboard • 
Microsoft Window 3.0 • Hi-Res serial Mouse • MS- 
DOS 3.3 or 4.01 • (20 Mhz version add $ 150) 

VGA COMBO $ 1 ,595 

1 Meg RAM • 1 .2 MB 5.25" drive • 1 .44 MB 3.5" 
drive • 40 MB IDE hard drive • 1 6-bit VGA cord • 
14" VGA monitor (640 x 480) • 2 seriol, 1 parallel 
& 1 game ports • 10 1-key Keyboard • Serial 
Mouse • MS-DOS 3.3 or 4.01 •Ponosonic 1 180 
printer w/cable • Surge Protector 


• 30-day money-back guaranfee 

• 2-year warranty for parts and labor 

• FREE 4 month on-site service 

• Lifetime toll-free technical support 

Policy: Same day shipping with standard 
configuration for orders before 3 p.m. E.S.T. 
Shipping and handling are extra. P.O.s ore 
welcome. Personal and company checks 
require 10 days to clear. Prices and specs 
ore subject to change. Software, shipping 
and printer are not refundable. No surcharge 
for VISA & Mastercard. 2% American Express. 

To Order: 

1 '800-255-9971 

Technical Support: 1-800-255-9968 

1 8555 East Gak Avenue • Industry, CA 91748 
(818)912-8688 -FAX: (818) 912-8048 

Circle 21 on Reader Service Card 




RISC System 6000, IBM 

IBM has come out swinging in 
its effort to get back into the 
workstation market, and at 
the same time has made a 
strong commitment to the 
commercial Unix market as 
well. The RS/6000 is un- 
matched in performance and 
remains competitive in price/ 
performance six months after 
its introduction. The America 
CPU chip set includes some 
amazing technology, includ- 
ing parallelism, superscal- 
ability, and pipelining. 

IBM has made a great ef- 
fort to get third-party support 
for the RS/6000, and it seems 
to have paid off. Many popu- 
lar workstation-based soft- 
ware packages in the areas of 
desktop publishing, CAD, 
and scientific applications are 
now running on the RS/6000 
under AIX. 

Director 2.0, MacroMind 

An excellent program for developing real multimedia content 
on the Mac, Director is fairly easy to use, it's decently priced 
($695), and it doesn't require trading in your car for some exot- 
ic hardware. The program shines at helping you put together 
sounds, scanned images, computer-generated artwork, and text 
in precisely controlled sequences. Besides a nice, intuitive in- 
terface, Director 2.0 has its own HyperTalk-like scripting lan- 
guage for building interactive controls (e.g., menus and but- 
tons). For users lacking the talent of a Disney artist, the 
program has an easy-to-use animation generator. 

Unlike some other programs for working with graphics and 
sound from multiple sources, Director is designed so well that 
it won't stymie nonartist types and won't limit artistic types. 
"Movies" created with Director will be playing soon under 
Windows, thereby extending the reach of this program. This is 
an ideal piece of software: It takes the drudgery out of work and 
turns the computer into an effective tool. 

Am286ZX/LX, Advanced Micro Devices 

This diminutive chunk of sili- 
con and circuitry isn't quite 
the "complete AT on a chip" 
that we had hoped it would be, 
but it's definitely the closest 
thing yet to a complete AT 
motherchip. This highly inte- 
grated device, incorporating 
AMD's version of the 286, 
combines the processor func- 
tions and accompanying com- 
ponents that are required to 
turn that processor into a 

working computer. Manufac- 
turers using the Am286ZX/ 
LX will be able to construct 
an AT around this single mod- 
ule by adding just the DRAM 
chips, keyboard controller, 
and system bus. This device 
can eliminate motherboards 
crowded with 50 to 150 chips. 
The LX model, intended 
for very small portable com- 
puters, implements some 
power management features, 

like a CPU shutdown mode, 
so computer vendors won't 
have to build them separately. 
A designer could put together 
a notebook computer with 
VGA display, serial and par- 
allel ports, and a slot or two 
using the LX and four or five 
other devices, plus a DRAM 
chip. This amazing piece of 
engineering could result in 
smaller, less-expensive 286- 
based machines. 

154 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 


The #1 laptop brand in America* brings you the SlimsPort™ 286 laptop 
PC— for uncompromising 286 power and VGA graphics. 

Whether you're just waiting out a layover at LaGuardia or just laying down the 
groundwork for a new pet project, with SlimsPort 286, you're always ready to hit the 
ground running. At just 9]k pounds, it's the perfect full-function laptop for the 
manager on the run. 

It offers VGA video and a backlit, fluorescent black-on-white, full-size LCD display 
that's ideal for graphical user interface computing. So you ll always have a bright, 
clear view of the big picture. And with Zenith Data Systems' 
Intelligent Power Management™ System, SlimsPort 286 puts 
power usage in your control so you can extend its 2 l k hours 
of battery life even longer. 

If your job demands full-size 286 performance in a 
downsized laptop, carry away the SlimsPort 286 laptop 
PC. Once you do, you 11 wonder how you ever managed 
without it. 

For more information and the name of the Medallion 
Reseller nearest you, call 1-800-523-9393. 


data systems liil 

Groupe Bull 

<! Source: 1990 Dataquest estimate for U.S. battery-powered laptops. Craphics simulate Microsoft® Windows™ veision 3.0, a product 
of Microsoft Corporation. Intelligent Power Management is a trademark of Zenith Data Systems Corporation. 

Circle 370 on Reader Service Card 

©1990 Zenith Data Systems Corporation. 




DOS Protected Mode 
Interface, Microsoft 

DOS Protected Mode Inter- 
face will be a key component 
of future applications to allow 
them to peacefully coexist in 
protected mode, whether 
under the auspices of Win- 
dows or a DOS extender. 
However, Microsoft is appar- 
ently dragging its feet on let- 
ting other members of the 
DPMI group gain access to 
the Windows specifications. 
But DPMI will definitely su- 
persede VCPI (Virtual Con- 
trol Program Interface) . 

SatisFAXtion, Intel 

At under $500 with a modem, fax management, a port for a 
scanner, and a coprocessor for communications, this add-in 
board is terrific. SatisFAXtion' s best feature is its ease of use. 
You just install it and then set it up to act like an Epson-compat- 
ible printer. Once this is done, all you have to do is have your 
application print output to an Epson-compatible printer, and 
SatisFAXtion intercepts it, converts it to Group 3 fax format, 
and sends it. 

The final fax looks as good as if it were printed from an 
Epson printer. Software is included and can manage telephone 
books of users, receiving faxes, and even receiving and imme- 
diately printing faxes. Because you can attach a hand-held scan- 
ner, SatisFAXtion truly allows a PC/fax-board combo to re- 
place a stand-alone fax machine by letting you scan and send 
any document. 

RadiusTV, Radius 

Radius was one of the last 
Mac display vendors to offer a 
video display and capture 
board. However, being the 
last entrant into this market 
didn't hurt, because Radius- 
TV does it best. An analog 
box conditions the video sig- 
nal before digitizing it at a 
rate of 30 frames per second 
and placing the image in a re- 
sizable window on a Mac's 
screen. But RadiusTV not 
only digitizes the video sig- 
nal, it also digitizes the audio 
component, piping the sound 
out of the Mac's speaker. Fi- 
nally, RadiusTV can grab any 
close-captioned text present in 
the video signal and save it to 
a file for an immediate elec- 
tronic transcript of a TV 
broadcast. The synergy of all 
these features makes Ra- 
diusTV a crucial engine in 
any multimedia work. 

156 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 








9.4 inch 

The Carry-! 9300 80386SX, 4M-byte RAM, 80M-byte Harddisk, 
One Expansion Slot, VGA... 


The Carry- 1 9000 series comes complete with 80386SX/80286- 1 6/80286- 1 2 
microprocessor (Co-Processor optional). 1 024 x 768 VGA/MCA & CGA display 
interface, 1/2/4 MB RAM, one 3.5" 1.44 MB FDD or one FDD plus one 40/80 
MB HDD, one 8 bit expansion SLOT, one parallel and two serial I/O ports, 
and one 30W auto range switching power adapter, all in the traditional 
240mmx 185mm x45mm (9.4"x7.3"x 18') casing of Carry-I . Each package 
includes two mini-tower stands and a carry bag. The 82 key mini keyboard 
and 9 inch color or monochrome VGA monitor are optional. 

Other Carry- 1 products include the 8000 series XT & AT book-size personal 
computers and the 6000 series XT and AT book-size LANstations. ETHERnet 
pocket LAN adapter and Carry Mouse. 


A Refreshing Idea.... 

A New Standard. .. 
Computing Goes Better With CARRY-I 





TEL* 886-2-7852556 FAX* 886-2-7852371 7 


TEL* 40-60-746081 FAX* '19-69-7-19375 

Circle 114 on Reader Service Card 


TEL* 1-408-7277373 4 

FAX? 1-408-7277375 


TEL* 852-305 1268 

FAX- 852-7968427 


TEL*852-305 1268 FAX*852-7968427 • ISRAEL: MLL COMPUTERS SYSTEMS LTD TEL* 3-75 155 11 FAX* 3-75 16615 • ITALY PRIMA COMPUTER TRADING ITALIA TEL* 522-5 18599 FAX* 522-518599 

SECUS DATA A S TEL* 2-7225 10 FAX* 2-7225 15 • SINGAPORE- TRANSNIKO PTE LTD TEL* 4758408 FAX* 4713803 • SOUTH AFRICA: PC MART COMPUTER GROUP TEL* I 1-8043355 FAX* I 1-80241 53 

LTD. TEL* 256-463754 FAX* 256-843174 • WEST GERMANY MACROTRON AG TEL* 89-4208233 FAX* 89-4237.15 • BELGIUM: CELEM S.A. TEL* 4 1-676434 FAX- -1 1-6765 15 


■■ i mwtm 

LTE 386s/20, Compaq 

The LTE 386s/20 is a great 
improvement over Compaq's 
best-selling LTE 286. Com- 
paq answered users' calls for 
a VGA screen, souped up the 
CPU to impressive levels, and 
sacrificed minimally on size, 
weight, and battery power 
consumption. The use of 
aerospace technology in pro- 
ducing the unit's mother- 
board shows Compaq's com- 
mitment as a leading-edge 

Although powerful and 

J ilr- I tlit lypr :;. -il.ri.|:. A.I.I I 



technologically innovative, 
the 386s/20's most important 
feature is its ability to double 
as a desktop system. With 
notebook computers getting 
more and more capable, there 
soon won't be much point in 
buying two systems; many 
users will just plug their por- 
tables into an expansion chas- 
sis while they're at the office. 
Compaq, by virtue of the LTE 
386s/20's size and perfor- 
mance, is now leading that 


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Lotus 1-2-3/G, Lotus Development 

This is a state-of-the-art OS/2 Presentation Manager spread- 
sheet, with powerful multithreaded architecture, good graph- 
ics support, and the Solver goal-seeking utility. Especially 
praiseworthy is the WYSBYGI (what you see before you get it) 
preview mode for type and colors. By expanding the definition 
of Common User Access, Lotus managed to preserve keystroke 
and macro compatibility with earlier versions of 1-2-3. 

Continuous Edge Graphics (CEG) Chip, Edsun Labs NetModem V.32, Shiva 

This D/A converter chip, which plugs into a standard VGA 
board, brings sharper, more colorful graphics to regular PCs 
without jacking prices out of line. The device uses interpolation 
techniques to smooth dreaded jagged lines and blend colors on 
the screen, resulting in crisper images and a bigger palette. 
With its color-mixing engine, the chip can blend VGA's selec- 
tion of 256 colors into more than 700,000 shades. Boards using 
the CEG chip will give standard IBM compatibles the power to 
generate photo-realistic graphics on VGA-type displays. 

In OEM quantities, the chip is cheap at $15 a pop; it will 
raise board prices by $200 to $300, a good price to pay for 
smoother, more vibrant images. Whether this chip finds a sig- 
nificant place in the market will be decided by companies mak- 
ing graphics boards and drivers. But the developers deserve 
recognition for their work in improving the look of VGA and 
bringing workstation-style graphics to low-cost PCs. 

Thanks to its built-in Local- 
Talk connector, this 9600- 
bps V.32 modem can be 
shared by every Mac on an 
AppleTalk network or can act 
as a router between networks. 
Mac users can easily transfer 
files, send E-mail, or access 
printers anywhere on either 
network, whether the LANs 
are next door or thousands of 
miles apart. Also, this mo- 
dem gives traveling employ- 
ees full dial-in access to the 
company's Macs and periph- 
erals. At $2000 each, it 
makes this wide-area-net- 
working technology afford- 
able for small businesses. 

158 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 

Nextstation and 
Nextdimension, Next 


Steve Jobs has finally deliv- 
ered on the original promise 
of the Next computer. These 
machines are fast and very in- 
expensive for what they do. 
Also, the applications coming 
out for them are, as promised, 
very hot. The Nextdimension, 
with its powerful graphics 
board incorporating an i860 
and a C-Cube CL550, will set 
a new standard for video and 
graphics performance. The 



Interface Builder remains the 
most enticing aspect of these 

These new systems point 
the way for advanced use of 
color display PostScript. Next 
has taken a leading role in the 
migration of expensive, power- 
ful workstation technology to 
cheaper, desktop platforms. 
The integration of sound and 
real video is another area in 
which Next is in the forefront. 

SQLWindows, Gupta Technologies 

Until now, Structured Query Language has always been a stan- 
dard that was difficult to use and not very accessible. To use 
SQL, either you had to be a programmer or you had to know 
one. SQLWindows is the first product that's completely capable 
of supporting a major SQL application while at the same time 
offering an interface that even a beginner can use. To make 
SQLWindows even more useful, the Windows 3.0-based pack- 
age supports various SQL databases on personal computers, 
database servers, minicomputers, and mainframes. Users can 
access several of these databases at the same time, and the pro- 
cess is transparent. 

8*24 GC, Apple Computer 

With the advent of 32-Bit 
QuickDraw, Macs can display 
and manipulate graphics with 
thousands (16-bit pixels) or 
millions (24-bit pixels) of 
colors. However, such graph- 
ics constitute a lot of data to 
muscle around— so much data 
that even screen updates on a 
Mac Ilfx's 640- by 480-pixel 
monitor can be sluggish. Ap- 
ple fixes this with its 8*24 
GC, a 24-bit color board that 
uses an AMD 29000 RISC 
processor and on-board dis- 
play buffers to accelerate Mac 
graphics. The 29000 proces- 
sor offloads certain Quick- 
Draw graphics primitives 

from the Mac's CPU. The 
board's buffers store and ma- 
nipulate bit-mapped images 
without the penalty of moving 
chunks of data from main 
memory to the display board. 
Both are a potent combination 
that allows high-end Macs to 
be versatile graphics worksta- 
tions for scientific, engineer- 
ing, and photo-imaging work. 

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Desqview/X, Quarterdeck Office Systems 

An enormous technical achievement, Desqview/X lets you run 
a DOS-based PC with a multitasking windowing shell that sup- 
ports X Window System sessions. Other products may let you 
hot-key into X Window, but only as a view into sessions run- 
ning on a remote client. Desqview/X could become the soft- 
ware glue that brings Unix to the DOS desktop. 

What is significant here is that Desqview/X will allow X- 
based Unix systems to coexist naturally with DOS systems on a 
network, widening the options available to users. This means 
that your MS-DOS machine suddenly becomes part of the cor- 
porate X environment and is transparent to operating systems, 
just as the multitasking in DOS is transparent. 

JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 159 




Ami Professional, Samna 
Word for Windows, Microsoft 

FaceLif t, Bitstream 

The masters of digital typography have developed a software 
package that gives Windows users smooth, scalable fonts on the 
screen and on paper. But it's not just laser-printer users who 
benefit. FaceLif t generates nice-looking text on dot-matrix 
printers and lets you control the saturation of dots to produce 
characters that are sharp, not muddy. FaceLif t works with 
existing bit-map fonts if available; otherwise, it scales the char- 
acters to the size you specify. Not only does FaceLif t generate 
nice type, it comes with 13 Bitstream fonts. The only thing 
wrong with this program is that it works only with Windows. 

Probably the best implemen- 
tation of optical character rec- 
ognition today, WordScan 
runs under Windows and 
makes use of its Dynamic 
Data Exchange capabilities. 
Therefore, it will make a nat- 
ural partner for all kinds of 
imaging and word processing/ 
desktop publishing applica- 
tions under Windows. Its 
other capabilities, including a 
pop-up verification window, 
are typically found in high- 
end systems. 

DR DOS 5.0, Digital Research 

PC users, particularly those whose PCs are tied to a network, 
are tired of running out of memory for applications in MS- 
DOS. Although several utilities have tried to take advantage of 
extended and upper memory by loading memory-resident pro- 
grams and device drivers there, they often meet with mixed 
success. As one BYTE editor commented, everything above 
640K bytes is a swamp. But DR DOS fixes that. It lets you move 
network device drivers and memory-resident programs out of 
the 640K-byte work space. It even relocates its own kernel in 
high memory, giving you the maximum amount of work space 
below 640K bytes for your applications. At least one company 
isn't willing to give the whole MS-DOS playing field to 

Word for Windows and Sam- 
na' s Ami Professional make 
serious word processing a re- 
ality in Windows. In doing 
so, Microsoft and Samna have 
raised PC applications to a 
new level— one where appli- 
cations don't have to be overly 
simple or unacceptably slow. 
Because of the technical suc- 
cess of these two word proces- 
sors, the most often used ap- 
plication of BYTE readers on 
a PC need not be held back 
by a text-only environment. 
Their success also leads the 
way for scores of other prod- 
ucts in Windows. 

Looking Glass, 
Visix Software 

This software comes closer 
than any to providing a Mac- 
like environment for Unix 
systems. Files, directories, 
and programs are all repre- 
sented by unique (and change- 
able) icons, and a simple 
scripting language allows the 
program's behavior to be 
modified. Looking Glass is a 
boon for those administering 
large networks of systems, 
since administrators can de- 
velop custom scripts that give 
users easy point-and-click 
access to applications and ser- 
vices. This product, and oth- 
ers like it, will go far toward 
bringing Unix and X Window 
System to the general comput- 
ing market. 

160 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 

Get the FasMatfi 

Cyrix FasMath math coprocessors provide 
real advantages for all 386™ computer users. 

Performance is why you buy a math 
coprocessor. And, the entire line of 
Cyrix FasMath processors were 
developed with superior performance 
in mind. Cyrix engineers have 
designed FasMath utilizing new 
technology. The result— FasMath 
processors are the fastest, most 
accurate and consume the least 
amount of energy when compared to 
all other math coprocessors on the 
market today. 

Spreadsheet Calculation 



A math coprocessor offloads the 
complicated math functions from your 
computer's main processor, providing 
actual time savings. Depending on 
your application, FasMath can deliver 
up to three times the application 
performance of the Intel 80387. 
No other math coprocessor provides 
greater time-saving advantages than a 
Cyrix FasMath processor. In addition, 
FasMath computes results to 2 
decimal digits of accuracy in the same 
time other coprocessors compute 
7 digits. With FasMath, accuracy is 
never sacrificed for the sake of speed. 
Another FasMath advantage is that the 
FasMath processor runs cooler and 
uses less power than all other math 
coprocessors — a feature that is 
especially important to laptop users 
who can take advantage of extended 
battery life by using FasMath. 




performance on 

many popular 



If you thought that only scientists, 
engineers and programmers 
performing high-level mathematical 
calculations could benefit from the 
performance advantages that FasMath 
delivers, think again. FasMath helps 
hundreds of leading software 
programs work faster. These include 
spreadsheets, databases, accounting 
packages, and of course scientific, 
engineering and graphics applications. 
FasMath is easy to install in any 
80386 or 80386SX system, is fully 
compatible with IBM® PC based 
software and socket standards, and is 
backed by a 5-year limited warranty 
and toll-free support hotline. 


An unprecedented combination 
of performance and value. 
Cyrix FasMath is setting the 
standards for the 90s! 


The entire line of Cyrix FasMath 
numerics processors offers the value- 
conscious buyer distinct advantages — 
faster performance, improved accuracy 
and low power dissipation, all at 
competitive prices. What's more, there 
are tens of thousands already in use 
today, attesting to the product's 
superior dependability. 
So when it's time to choose a math 
coprocessor, get the one with 
all the advantages — FasMath by Cyrix. 
The world's most advanced numerics 

Cyrix manufactvies a full-line of advanced processors for 386 systems 

at various clock speeds. For more information 

or where you can buy FasMath in the US. A. or Canada 

call 1-800-FASMATH (1-800-327-6284) 

Advancing the Standards 

© 1990 Cyrix Corporation. All rights reserved. 

FasMath is a trademark of Cyrix Corporation. All other products referenced 

are trademarks of their respective companies. 

Circle 78 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 79) 




X Window System release 1.2, Interactive Systems 

With this release, Interactive 
Systems has created the fast- 
est, most capable X imple- 
mentation for PC Unix. It 
works with a wide range of 
graphics cards, supporting 
resolutions of up to 1280 by 

1024 pixels in 256 colors. In- 
teractive has also added sup- 
port for 256-color VGA and 
85 14/ A, making it possible to 
build color-rich Unix work- 
stations at a lower cost than 
before. Interactive's unique 

hardware-independent server 
architecture paves the way for 
support of new graphics tech- 
nologies as they become avail- 
able. Looking Glass, which 
also won a BYTE Award of 
Distinction, is included. 

Magellan 2.0, Lotus Development 

Lotus llagellan 

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Notes, Lotus Development 

An ambitious project, to say 
the least, Lotus Notes is the 
first major product to bring 
together all workgroup activi- 
ties for PC-based networks in 
a nonrestrictive way. Its sup- 
port of LAN and wide-area- 
network activities with self- 
replicating file servers (so 
that branch offices are work- 
ing with up-to-date data), as 
well as its text filters and 
manager, puts Notes in a class 
all by itself. Notes automati- 
cally sifts through mail and 
electronic conferencing mes- 
sages in a way that's tailored 
for each user on the network. 

F6 F? 
Sort Launch 


Zoon 1 Explore | felt 

The strength of Magellan is its joining of two unrelated soft- 
ware technologies: industrial-strength data compression plus 
extremely powerful indexing. PKZIP gives you the same data 
compression (effectively doubling your hard disk capacity), but 
finding what's in a ZIP file is a pain; other programs have 
powerful indexing but can't tell you what's inside a ZIP file. 
Magellan lets you PKZIP any or all files, yet it retains a com- 
plete index of every word in the ZIPped (and unZIPped, for that 
matter) files. You can locate, browse, copy, and print text from 
inside the ZIPped files without having to unarchive them to 

Apollo 2500, 

'•■( :■■ f;u!i ! >•;] ;-. ■'• ; .•■ 



1931) Gnuls 

03/20/90 To OenmsAllon 
0'4/?9/90 : To' rjeoige uund 

(kind Ni-w. 

03/23/50 To Glenn Hartwiq 


Q3/?3/90 GtennHertwiij 

MfiSM To Shift Dtabl 

News File 


Carmen projea on trod* 
iVianuoMon notes 

[tl *J t mm umt*nl 

LlI |_*J Main Document 

■ »] > Inn-mi I 'hi uniriil 

At its introduction, the Apollo 
2500 was the most inexpen- 
sive Unix workstation on the 
market, and its arrival forced 
other vendors to follow with 
low-end systems of their own. 
For under $5000, the 2500 
offered high-resolution 
monochrome graphics, 8 
megabytes of memory, and a 
network adapter. Running 
Domain/OS, users could have 
the best of both Unix System 
V and BSD Unix, as well as 
full support for both X Win- 
dow System and Apollo's 
Display Manager graphical 
interfaces. The low-end 
workstation market is now 
thriving, with Sun, DEC, and 
Hewlett-Packard all partici- 
pating, but it was the Apollo 
2500 that kicked it all off. 

Gram-mat-ik IV 

Grammatik IV, Reference Software 

Considered by many to be the best proofreading package for the 
PC, Grammatik IV works with most major word processing 
programs. It allows on-the-f ly style and grammar changes, and 
it adapts to the style of writing it is evaluating. 

162 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 

Circle 365 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 366) 


Adobe PostScript Level 2, 
Adobe Systems 

Major upgrade of the 
industry-standard page- 
description language. 

HyperCard 2.0, 
Apple Computer 

Significant revision of the 
hypertext development 
software for the Mac. 

Macintosh Ilf x, 
Apple Computer 

High-performance 40-MHz 
68040-based system. 

FileMaker Pro, Claris 

Flat-file database manager. 

Color MacCheese, 
Delta Tao 

Low-cost 32-bit color paint 
program for the Mac. 

Dragon Dictate, 
Dragon Systems 

Voice-recognition system 
for the PC. 

Hercules Graphics Station, 
Hercules Computer 

Low-cost, high-resolution 
graphics card for the PC. 

American Heritage 
Dictionary, Houghton 
Mifflin Software 

On-line dictionary and 
thesaurus reference. 

M-Motion Video 
Adapter/A, IBM 

NTSC video board for the PC . 

ScanMan Model 32, 

Hand-held scanner with 
innovative software. 

MediaMaker, MacroMind 

program for novices. 

R:base 3.1, Microrim 

Relational database 
manager for the PC. 

LAN Manager 2.0, 

Network operating system 
for the PC. 

OS/2 2.0, Microsoft 

Multitasking operating 
system for the PC. 

Works 2.0, Microsoft 

Low-cost integrated software 
package for the Mac and PC. 

RMD-5100-S Rewritable 
Optical Disk Drive, 
Mass Optical Storage 
Technologies (MOST) 

The first rewritable 
3 Vi -inch optical drive. 


A wireless LAN for PCs. 


Opus Systems 


ISA bus cards that turn PCs 

into workstations. 

Nisus 3.01, 
Paragon Concepts 

Upgraded version of a 
popular Mac word processor. 

Stor/Mor, Q/Cor 

The first-to-ship ultra-high- 
capacity (20 MB) floppy disk 
drive for PCs. 

QMS-PS 410, QMS 

Innovative, low-cost 
PostScript laser printer. 

Desqview 386/QEMM-386, 
Quarterdeck Office 

New version of the popular 
multitasking software 
for PCs. 

Sparcstation IPC, 
Sun Microsystems 

Small, fast, and inexpensive 
RISC workstation. 

TravelMate 3000, 
Texas Instruments 

Powerful 20-MHz 386SX- 
based notebook PC. 

Paradise 8514/A Plus Card, 
Western Digital 

A fast, inexpensive 
display adapter with VGA 


... to your data collection and 
data entry problems! 

The Psion Organiser II 
& dCAPP 

Psion Gives You the Answers! 

With eight different Organiser II models to choose from, Psion lets 
you select the Organiser II that best meets your needs. Standard 
configurations are available with or without built-in software pro- 
grams, and provide the options of either two or four lines of LCD 

display, several different 
keyboard designs, and from 32K 
to96Kof internal RAM memory. 
All Organiser units can use our 
removable and interchangeable 
memory modules, allowing the 
Organiser II to be configured to 
meet your unique data and 
program memory require- 

The Organiser II is a powerful 
hand held computer capable of 
running a broad range of pre- 
written programs. When an off 
the shelf program just won't due, 
you can custom program the 
Organiser II to the unique 
requirements of your 
application. From inventory 
control to remote sales order 
entry, the Organiser II has the 
power to do the job. 


For jobs ranging from simple 
data collection to an RS-485 
factory floor network, the 
Organiser II has the right tools 
for the job. Peripherals include 
Bar Code Wands, Laser 
Scanners, Mag Card Readers, 
Portable Modems and Printers, 
Carrying Cases, all the way to a 
broad range of interfaces which 
include serial, parallel and 
multiple types of SPC devices. 

dCAPP Gives You the Solution!! 

• dCAPPdatacollection software is completely user configurable 
allowing even non-programmers the ability to create their own 
custom data collection program for the Organiser II in a matter 
of minutes, including its own operating instructions manual. • 
dCAPP data collection software is completely user configurable. 
Keyboard, MagneticCard, or BAR CODE input. • Direct Interface 
to most Database and Spreadsheet programs; (dBASE 3, dBASE 
4, Lotus 123, D.I.F., and many others). 

TYPICAL APPLICATIONS: Inventory Control; Stock Taking; 
Tools and Equipment Control; Sales Route Accounting; Quality 
Control and Inspection Reporting; Tank Farm Gauging; Stores 
Accounting; Plant Inspection; and More . . . 

For more information, contact: 
XEC Products 

13630 58th Street North, Suite #103 
Clearwater, Florida 34620 


Lotus 123 is a registered trademark 

Of Lotus Development Corp 

dBASE is a registered trademark 

ol Ashlon Tate Corp 

IBM-PC is a registered trademark 

orlnternaliona I Business MachmesCorp 

JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 163 


The Third Annual BYTE Award Winners 

Adobe Systems, Inc. 

PostScript Level 2 
Adobe Type Manager 2. 
1585 Charleston Rd. 
P.O. Box 7900 
Mountain View, CA 94039 
Inquiry 1138. 

Advanced Micro Devices 


5204 East Ben White Blvd. 

Austin, TX 78741 


Inquiry 1139. 

Apple Computer, Inc. 

8*24 GC Accelerator Card 
HyperCard 2.0 
Mac Classic 
20525 Mariani Ave. 
Cupertino, C A 95014 
(408) 996-1010 
Inquiry 1140. 

Bitstream, Inc. 

215 First St. 
Cambridge, MA 02142 
(617) 497-6222 
Inquiry 1141. 

Borland International 

QuattroPro 2.0 
Turbo C++ 
1800 Green Hills Rd. 
Scotts Valley, CA 95066 
(408) 438-8400 
Inquiry 1142. 

Claris Corp. 

FileMaker Pro 
5201 Patrick Henry Dr. 
Santa Clara, C A 95052 
(408) 987-7000 
Inquiry 1145. 

Compaq Computer Corp. 

P.O. Box 692000 
20555 FM 149 
Houston, TX 77269 
Inquiry 1009. 



12303 Technology Blvd. 

Austin, TX 78227 


(512) 250-1489 

Inquiry 1010. 

Delta Tao 

Color MacCheese 
760 Harvard Ave. 
Sunnyvale, CA 94087 
(408) 730-9336 
Inquiry 1011. 

Digital Research, Inc. (DRI) 

DR DOS 5.0 
Box DRI 
70 Garden Court 
Monterey, C A 93942 
(408) 649-3896 
Inquiry 1012. 

Dragon Systems, Inc. 

Dragon Dictate 
90 Bridge St. 
Newton, MA 02158 
(617) 956-5200 
Inquiry 1013. 

Hercules Computer 
Technology, Inc. 

Graphics Station 
921 Parker St. 
Berkeley, CA 94710 
(415) 540-6000 
Inquiry 1016. 

Hewlett-Packard Co. 

LaserJet IIP 
LaserJet III 
Peripherals Group 
19310 Pruneridge Ave. 
Cupertino, CA 95014 
(800) 752-0900 
Inquiry 1017. 


Apollo 2500 
330 Billerica Rd. 
Chelmsford, MA 01824 
(508) 256-6600 
Inquiry 1018. 

Houghton Mifflin Software 

American Heritage Dictionary 
One Memorial Dr. 
Cambridge, MA 02142 
Inquiry 1019. 

IBM Corp. 

M-Motion Video Adapter /A 
RISC System 6000 
Old Orchard Rd. 
Armonk, NY 10504 
Inquiry 1020. 

Intel Corp. 


5200 Northeast Elam Young 



Lotus Development Corp. 

Lotus 1-2-3/G 

Magellan 2. 


55 Cambridge Pkwy. 

Cambridge, MA 02142 

(617) 577-8500 

Inquiry 1024. 

MacroMind, Inc. 

Director 2. 



Suite 408 

San Francisco, CA 94107 

(415) 442-0200 

Inquiry 1025. 

Mass Optical Storage 
Technologies, Inc. (MOST) 


Rewritable Optical 

Disk Drive 

1 1205 Knoft Ave., 

Suite B 

Cypress, CA 90630 


Inquiry 1026. 

Microrim, Inc. 

3925 159th Ave. NE 
Redmond, WA 98052 
(206) 885-2000 
Inquiry 1027. 

Microsoft Corp. 


LAN Manager 2. 

OS/2 2.0 

Windows 3. 

Word for Windows 

Works 2.0 

1 Microsoft Way 

Calera Recognition 

(503) 696-7086 

Redmond, WA 98052 

Systems, Inc. 

Edsun Laboratories, Inc. 

Inquiry 1021. 

(206) 887-8080 


Continuous Edge Graphics Chip 

Inquiry 1028. 

2500 Augustine Dr. 

564 Main St. 

Interactive Systems Corp. 

Santa Clara, C A 95054 

Waltham, MA 02154 

X Window System release 1. 2 

NCR Corp. 


(617) 647-9300 

2401 Colorado Ave. 


(408) 986-8006 

Inquiry 1014. 

Santa Monica, CA 90404 

Workstation Products Division 

Inquiry 1144. 

(800) 537-5324 

1700 South Patterson Blvd. 

Gupta Technologies, Inc. 

Inquiry 1022. 

Dayton, OH 45479 

C-Cube Microsystems 



Compression Master 

1040 Marsh Rd. 

Logitech, Inc. 

Inquiry 1029. 


Menlo Park, CA 94025 

ScanMan Model 32 

399-A West Trimble Rd. 


6505 Kaiser Dr. 

NewTek, Inc. 

San Jose, CA 95131 

Inquiry 1015. 

Fremont, CA 94555 

Video Toaster 

(408) 944-6300 

(415) 795-8500 

1 15 West Crane 

Inquiry 1143. 

Inquiry 1023. 

Topeka, KS 66603 
Inquiry 1030. 

164 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 


Next, Inc. 

Reference Software 


Grammatik IV 


330 Townsend, 

900 Chesapeake Dr. 

Suite 123 

Redwood City, C A 94063 

San Francisco, CA 

(415) 366-0900 


Inquiry 1031. 


Inquiry 1039. 

Opus Systems 

Personal Mainframe /8000 

Sanina Corp. 

20863 Stevens Creek, 

Ami Professional 

Building 400 

5600 Glenridge Dr. 

Cupertino, CA 95014 

Atlanta, GA 30342 



Inquiry 1032. 

Inquiry 1040. 

Paragon Concepts, Inc. 

Sharp Electronics Corp. 


Sharp PC-6220 

990 Highland Dr., 

Sharp Plaza 

Suite 312 

Mahwah, NJ 07430 

Solana Beach, CA 92075 


(800) 922-2993 

Inquiry 1041. 

(619) 481-1477 

Inquiry 1033. 

Shiva Corp. 

NetModem V .32 

Perceptive Solutions, Inc. 

155 Second St. 


Cambridge, MA 02141 

2700 Flora St. 

(617) 864-8500 

Dallas, TX 75201 

Inquiry 1042. 

(800) 486-7278 


Sun Microsystems 

Inquiry 1034. 

Sparcstation IPC 

2550 Garcia Ave. 


Mountain View, C A 94043 




Inquiry 1043. 

Norcross, GA 30093 

(404) 923-6666 

Texas Instruments 

Inquiry 1035. 

TravelMate 2000 

TravelMate 3000 

QMS, Inc. 

P.O. Box 202230 

QMS-PS 410 

Austin, TX 78720 

P.O. Box 81250 

(800) 527-3500 

Mobile, AL 36689 

Inquiry 1044. 

(205) 633-4300 

Inquiry 1036. 

Visix Software, Inc. 

Looking Glass 

Quarterdeck Office Systems 

1 1440 Commerce Park Dr. 

Desqview 386/QEMM-386 

Reston, VA 22091 


(703) 758-8230 

150 Pico Blvd. 

Inquiry 1045. 

Santa Monica, CA 90405 


Western Digital Corp. 

Inquiry 1037. 

Paradise 8514/ A Plus Card 

2300 Main St. 

Radius, Inc. 

Irvine, CA 92714 


(415) 960-3353 

1710 Fortune Dr. 

Inquiry 1046. 

San Jose, CA 95 131 


Inquiry 1038. 


Service Diagnostics 

All the software, alignment diskettes, parallel/serial wrap-around 
plugs, ROM POSTs and extensive, professional documentation to 
provide the most comprehensive testing available for IBM PCs, 
XTs.ATs and all compatibles under DOS or Stand Alone. No other 
diagnosticsofferssuch in-depth testing on as many differenttypesof 
equipmentby isolating problems to the board and chip level. 

NEW: SuperSoft's ROM POST performsthe most advanced 
Power-on-Self-Test available for system boards that are compatible 
with the IBM ROM BIOS. It works even in circumstances when the 
Service Diagnostics diskette cannot be loaded. 

NEW: 386 diagnostics for hybrids and PS/2s! 
For over nine years, major manufacturers have been relying on 
SuperSoft's diagnostics software to help them and their customers 
repair microcomputers. End users have been relying on SuperSoft's 
Diagnostics II for the most thorough hardware error isolation 
available. Now versions of Service Diagnostics are available to save 
everyone (including every serious repair technician) time, money, 
and headaches in fixing their computers, even non-IBM equipment. 

All CPUs & Numeric Co-processors 
System Expansion & Extended Memory 
Floppy, Fixed & Non-standard Disk Drives 
Standard & Non-standard Printers 
System Board: DMA, Timers, Interrupt, 
Real-time Clock & CMOS config. RAM 

All Color Graphics & Monochrome 

Parallel & Serial Ports 
Mono, CGA, Hercules & EGA 

All Keyboards & the 8042 Controller 


Service Diagnostics for PC, PC/XT, and compatibles only $169 

Alignment Diskette for PC, PC/XT and compatibles (48 tpi drives) $ 60 

Wrap-around Plug for PC, PC/XT and compatibles (parallel and serial). .$ 30 

Service Diagnostics for AT and compatibles only $169 

Alignment Diskette for AT and compatibles (96 tpi drives) $ 60 

Wrap-around Plug for AT (serial) $ 15 

ROM POST for PC, PC/XT and compatibles only $245 

ROM POST for AT and compatibles only $245 

Service Diagnostics: The KIT (Includes all of the above— save $502). $495 
Service Diagnostics for PS/2 models 25/30 50/60 or 70/80 and compatibles 

(please specify) $195 

Service Diagnostics for 386 or V2, V30 t or Harris, etc. (please specify) . . .$195 
Diagnostics II is the solution to the service problems of users of all 

CP/M-80, CP/M-86 and MS-DOS computers $125 

Alignment Diskette for PS/2 and compatibles (3.5 inch) $ 60 

To order, call 800-678-3600 or 408-745-0234 
FAX 408-745-0231, or write SuperSoft. 




SupetS ft 

FIRST IN SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY P.O. Box 4178, Mountain View, CA 94040-0178 
(408) 745-0234 Telex 270365 

SUPERSOFT is a registered trademark of SuperSoft, Inc.; CDC of Control Data Corp.; IBM PC. AT & XT of 
International Business Machines Corp.; MS-DOS of Microsoft Corp.; NEC of NEC Information Systems. Inc.. 
PRIMEof PRIME INC.: Sony of Sony Corp. 

Circle 309 on Reader Service Card JANUARY 1991 • B Y T E 165 

If you think 
the HP LaserJet III is great, 






Annual Sales 





In Thousands 


I Organic Chumlslry 


Antimatter Bottled 

I Metal -organic chemit Uy bridge* the e»P bet «on upn'c andinor- 
gnnic ehomiKtry, It un load to important new productadorcraapSe, 
poison antidote*). A chelate, ruch a» EDTA above (containing carbon, 
! hydrogen, oxyucn ■ d nitrogen atorai) can »urcound tons orraetala 
I andremove themf romunwnntodplwfi (centinutd nalpagt} 

[I win almost exactly three yeara ago that n ceramic material that 
«upcrcon<luct« ubbve liquid nitrouon temperature WHa dascuvored, 
thindnyaol I onic*,] war transmission, and 

transportation were heinjr rodoflmid In uvorj'une'a imagination. Y*l 
superconductivity vnm not a now phenomenon, Tim effect was first 
observed In mere ry In 1911, and.slnoe h«n, more tharf 6000 ele- 
ment*, alloy*, and compoundi'Kst* cnfbundlo superronductl 

(continued next past) 

A device tested may Riv iovesfiga n agJjrnpse of what an antimnt-, 
tor world might look (ilea. Tho device coola antimatter to a temperature 
n Tew depress above absolute ii'ro and ittorus it for several days at 
Htlmo. {continued next po$ii 

— — — " — - --—, v •.-..-,- s- . 


Introducing the new HP LaserJet 
HID printer. The LaserJet that com- 
bines all of the advanced capabili- 
ties of the exciting LaserJet III with 
all of the paper-handling features 
required by today's busy office. 

There's a lot to like. Like two 
paper trays for different types 
and sizes of paper. 200-sheet 

capacity in each of those trays 
for less reloading. And two- 
sided printing that lets you easily 
condense your output. Even an 
optional automatic envelope 
feeder that eliminates manual 

Equally impressive is HP's Reso- 
lution Enhancement technology. 

Pioneered in the LaserJet III, 
this technology actually varies 
the sizes of dots. So curves really 
curve. Lines are never jagged. 
And you get resolution never 
before seen in a 300 dpi printer. 
Output has never looked so good. 

Documents can be made even 
more elaborate thanks to our en- 

"Suggested U.S. list price. Adobe and PostScript are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Inc. in the U.S. and in other countries. 

you'll automatically like 
the new HP LaserJet WD. 

Two-sided printing means 
better paper usage and more 
professional-looking documents. 

Resolution Enhancement 
technology actually shrinks dots 
to handle the finest curves. 

The optional envelope 
feeder allows for up to 
fifty envelopes. 

Enhancements to our 
HP-GL/2 language allow 
you to reverse, scale, 
and shade output. 

Two paper trays 
allow for regular 
or legal corre- 
spondence while 
also increasing 
paper capacity. 

hanced PCL5 printer language, 
which includes HP-GL/2 graphics 
language. You can print regular 
or reverse type. Shaded text. Even 
portrait and landscape on the 
same page. 

Beyond this, all types of options 
are available for all types of users. 
Which means you can customize 
with Adobe® PostScript® software. 
Add memory. Or better express 
yourself with our Masteriype 

library of fonts and typefaces. 
You can even connect a Macintosh. 

The best part is that the $2,395* 
LaserJet III and $3,595* LaserJet 
HID are both easily within any bud- 
get. So call 1-800-752-0900, Ext. 
1586. We'll tell you where to find 
your nearest authorized HP dealer. 



51990 Hewlett-Packard Company PE 12022 


Caching Controller Cards 

Caching Cards 
Speed Data Access 

The BYTE Lab tests eight 
caching controller cards 
that help relieve hard disk 
drive bottlenecks 

Steve Apiki and Rick Grehan 

If you spend your days doing hard disk 
drive-intensive chores, you know all 
too well how a slow disk subsystem 
cripples an otherwise speedy com- 
puter. Even today's faster hard disk 
drives put only a dent in data bottle- 
necks. A drive's 12-millisecond access 
time may sound impressive, but that 
hardly keeps up with a 33-MHz CPU's 
voracious demand for data. 

For many people, the solution to hard 
disk drive gridlock lies in caching con- 
trollers. This technology borrows from a 
decades-old idea: sandwich fast (pri- 
mary) storage between the processor and 
the slow (secondary) storage. In this con- 
text, primary storage is the high-speed 
RAM that is sequestered to the control- 
ler, and secondary storage is the hard 
disk drive. 

But caching controller manufacturers 
don't stop there. Semiconductor intelli- 
gence rides herd on all the RAM, and 
this intelligence ranges from 8032 mi- 
crocontrollers all the way up to 68000s. 
The result: These boards aren't just fast, 
they're smart, too. 

This month, the BYTE Lab evaluates 
eight of the fastest caching boards avail- 
able for ATs (two other products, a Unix- 
based caching controller from Consensys 
and an ESDI controller from Ultrastor, 
did not arrive in time for testing). We 
chose ESDI and SCSI controllers because 
we believe that these interfaces will re- 

168 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 

main the mainstays for high-perfor- 
mance hard disk drives in the future. 

To test these controllers, we wrote a 
pair of benchmarks that reflect activities 
that depend heavily on hard disk drive 
system performance. The tests are porta- 
ble across operating systems, specifi- 
cally DOS (see figure 1), Novell's Net- 
Ware 386 (see figure 2), and The Santa 
Cruz Operation's SCO Unix (see figure 
3), so we could gauge controller perfor- 
mance in each environment. For bench- 
mark details, see the text box "How We 
Tested Controllers Across Three Operat- 
ing Systems" on page 172. To help you 
decide which card is right for you, see 
the text box "Choosing the Right Cach- 
ing Controller" on page 180. 

Disk Caching 

Hardware disk caches usually consist of 
1 or 2 megabytes of RAM with an access 
time of about 100 nanoseconds (see the 
text box "Buffering: The Lower-Cash 
Alternative" on page 176). The disks 
that these products cache typically con- 
sist of a few hundred megabytes of mag- 
netic media with access times of between 
15 and 25 ms. Caches are pragmatic 
solutions to an economic, not a techni- 
cal, problem. They dramatically im- 
prove the performance of slower, cheap- 
er media (hard disks) with just a small 
amount of fast and expensive media 

The cache holds a copy of some data 
from the disk. When the system requests 
data from the caching controller, the 
controller first looks in the cache to de- 
termine if the cache contains the request- 
ed data. If it does, the controller pro- 
cesses the request almost immediately; if 
not, the controller gets the data from the 
disk at normal disk-access speeds. In 
general, the larger the cache, the better 
the performance, although there is a 
point of diminishing returns. 

While the concept is simple, its imple- 
mentation encounters some rather diffi- 
cult technical problems. Using propri- 

etary algorithms, the caching controller 
decides which sectors of the disk should 
be copied to the cache in anticipation of 
the system's next request. The controller 
then must organize the cache for efficient 

When the cache is full, the controller 
must decide which sectors can be dis- 
carded. The dedicated microprocessor, 
which may be as powerful as a 68000 or 
Z280 chip, helps solve these complex 

Each manufacturer jealously guards 
its caching algorithm because that's one 
of the main determinants in deciding a 
controller's performance. However, con- 
trollers share some techniques for solv- 
ing performance problems. For exam- 
ple, when your system asks to read a 
sector that has not been cached, the con- 
troller copies that sector into the cache as 
well as fulfilling the request from the 

On a disk write, the controller may 
choose to buffer the write by writing to 
the cache only. The controller writes the 
cached sectors to disk later, after some 
period of inactivity or if the modified 
sector must be replaced in the cache. 
While buffered writes improve perfor- 
mance, there is a small chance that data 
will be lost in a power failure or other 

Read-ahead is a method for improving 
read performance. On a read request, the 
controller reads more sectors than re- 
quested (sometimes a full track) and 
sends them into the cache. Because the 
system tends to read sectors in contigu- 
ous blocks, this optimization can save ac- 
cess time, although there is some over- 
head due to the additional information 
being read. 

Organizing the Data 

Cache data is usually organized in a set- 
associative fashion. This means that 
each cache location can contain data only 
from a fixed set of disk locations. In a 
two-way set-associative cache, two cache 


JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 169 


SCSI controllers 

PSI hyperStore 1600 
LDP Cache II 

ESDI controllers 

PSI hyperStore 1600 

CompuAdd HardCache/ESDl 

FTI TenTime 

DPT SmartCache 

Track-buffering controllers 

Adaptec ACB-2322D 

Ultrastor Ultra 12F 
Western Digital WD1009V/SE2 

I < Slower FIO Faster ► I 

















', i 

— ' 


■ ^ X i 


...■■■:.-. \ i 

i I 

Faster ► I M Slower Database Faster ► 



1000 2000 4000 5000 10 20 30 40 50 

K bytes per second Records per second 

□ Sequential write □ Sequential read □ Random read/write □ dbVista 

Figure 1: DOS benchmark performance. PSI's hyperStore 1600 clearly demonstrated superiority on sequential operations (a), 
while DPT's SmartCache edged it out on our random tests, (b) In our dbVista benchmark, the performance of CompuAdd' s 
HardCache /ESDI suffered because of its write-through design. 


SCSI controllers 

PSI hyperStore 1600 
LDP Cache II 

ESDI controllers 

PSI hyperStore 1600 

CompuAdd HardCache/ESDl 

FTI TenTime 

DPT SmartCache 

Track-buffering controllers 

Adaptec ACB-2322D 

Ultrastor Ultra 12F 
Western Digital WD1009V/SE2 

< Slower 

Faster ► II < Slower Database Faster ► 

; i i 

100 200 300 400 500 2 4 6 8 10 

K bytes per second Records per second 

□ Sequential write □ Sequential read EH Random read/write □ dbVista 

Figure 2: Performance under NetWare 386 version 3.10. Performance of all the boards was similar on all tests (a,b). 

Our four-user LAN simulation apparently did not push NetWare past its own cache; in small networks, even heavy random disk 

access may not show a measurable benefit from a caching controller. 

170 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 


Caching Controller Cards 


SCSI controllers 

PSI hyperStore 1600 
LDP Cache II 

ESDI controllers 

PSI hyperStore 1600 

CompuAdd HardCache/ESDI 

FTI TenTime 


Track-buffering controllers 

Adaptec ACB-2322D 

Ultrastor Ultra 12F 
Western Digital WD1009V/SE2 


■I I ' I 



— n 1 — ' 


=f 1 


I 1 — ' 






~wer Database Faster ► 


I I I ~ T 





5000 6000 

2000 3000 4000 
K bytes per second 

□ Sequential write □ Sequential read □ Random read/write □ dbVista 

1 1 1 1 r 

i i i i i i 

5 10 15 20 25 30 
Records per second 

Figure 3: Results of our benchmarks under SCO Unix, (a) Notice that the hyperStore 1600 continues to perform well. 

Also note that Unix 's write-buffering scheme favors write operations over read operations. 

(b) SCO Unix 's own buffers were able to handle most of the dbVista throughput (even the track-buffering controllers did well), 

so the results are tightly grouped. The hyperStore 1600 barely edges past the competition. 

locations cache the same set of disk sec- 
tors. The controllers we evaluated offer 
up to eight-way set-associative caching. 
Fewer numbers of sets mean that more 
disk area can be held in the cache at one 
time, but the trade-off is that the cache 
locations must then be replaced more 

In a multiple-set-associative cache, 
the controller must decide which cache 
location to discard when the cache be- 
comes full. The most common strategy, 
known as least recently used, discards the 
location that has gone the longest time be- 
tween accesses. 

When these caching algorithms work 
and requested data is in the cache, the 
controller can return the data almost in- 
stantaneously. However, the access time 
is still limited by the I/O bus, which usu- 
ally runs at 8 MHz. Most manufacturers 
test these boards at higher bus speeds, up 
to 16 MHz, and you may want to con- 
sider running them at speeds higher than 
8 MHz. 

The Interface 

Internally, caching controllers have little 
in common with the Western Digital 

WD-1003 controller, which set the inter- 
face standard for IBM ATs and clones. 
However, to maintain compatibility with 
PC operating systems, all the caching 
controllers that we tested mask their in- 
ternal technology with a WD- 1003 regis- 
ter-level interface. 

Thanks to this interface, the caching 
controller looks like a WD-1003 to your 
PC. This means that any operating sys- 
tem that supports a WD- 1003 (as virtual- 
ly all do) can run these cards without de- 
vice drivers. 

Most of these cards also supply a built- 
in BIOS ROM, which handles INT 13 
hexadecimal calls. Usually, BIOS calls 
use the controller in "native" mode, 
which is more efficient than going 
through the WD-1003 interface. Fast 
Technology, Inc., and Perceptive Solu- 
tions, Inc., supply operating system 
drivers that access the board's full capa- 
bilities and avoid the standard interface 
(PSI currently supplies drivers for Unix, 
NetWare, and DOS; FTI offers DOS driv- 
ers and says it is exploring Unix drivers). 

DOS supports a maximum of 1024 
cylinders for each of its drives. Some 
software expects that there will be only 

17 sectors per track, in keeping with the 
usual MFM format. Because ESDI drive 
controllers often format their drives with 
many more sectors, and large drives can 
have more than 1024 cylinders, some 
translation is needed to ensure compa- 

All the controllers we evaluated can 
map the physical geometry of the disk to 
some combination of heads, cylinders, 
and sectors that has fewer than 1024 cyl- 
inders. The controllers can also map to 
17 sectors per track. If your BIOS table 
does not support the full capacity of your 
drive, these controllers can provide a 
drive type that will. 

The ultimate limitation under DOS is 
1024 cylinders, 16 heads, and 63 sectors 
per track, or 512 MB. Several caching 
controllers let you split a drive into multi- 
ple logical units to overcome this limita- 
tion on large drives and provide better 

Other Considerations 

Two features of caching controllers- 
field upgradability and mirroring— don't 
enhance speed or compatibility, but they 
may help you decide whether or not to 

JANUARY 1991 •BYTE 171 


Caching Controller Cards 

How We Tested Controllers Across 
Three Operating Systems 

We ran DOS and NetWare tests on a 
Club American AT 386/33 with 
4 megabytes of memory. The AT 386/33 
runs its I/O bus at 8 MHz. To complete 
our small test network, we used two 
Compaq 286Ns hooked to the AT 386/ 
33 through an Ethernet connection. Our 
test ESDI disk drive was a Maxtor XT- 
8380E, and our test SCSI drive was a 
Micropolis 1684. 

For Unix tests, we used an Everex 
Step 33-MHz 386 with 8 MB of mem- 
ory. The same disk drives that served as 
test units for DOS and NetWare also 
served time on Unix. 

Our test suite consisted of two bench- 
marks: fio, which exercises rudimen- 
tary file operations, and a database 
benchmark that put the test systems 
through more complex calisthenics. The 
fio benchmark is one we have revived 
and revised from past system and disk 
drive reviews. The test simulates both 
random and sequential disk activity 
typical of applications in which one sys- 
tem may be called upon to perform sev- 
eral different types of tasks. 

The fio test reports three results: 
throughput rates for sequential reads, 
sequential writes, and random I/O. The 
fio benchmark conducts sequential I/O 
with random block lengths to avoid fa- 
voring any single drive geometry or 
controller mapping. The only constraint 
is that the lengths of each access must be 
in whole sectors. This avoids unrealistic 
delays, since most disk transfers are 

sector oriented, and non-sector-aligned 
transfers incur additional overhead. For 
these tests, the access lengths ranged 
from 512 bytes to 32K bytes. 

The fio random tests are designed to 
represent the actions of one or more 
users using a random-access applica- 
tion—a database, for example. For our 
DOS tests, we set fio to simulate one 
user, using two files of 1 MB each. Files 
are accessed as sets of records, and the 
records vary in length from 512 bytes 
to 4K bytes. Under Unix and NetWare 
386, we used two instances of fio to 
simulate four users, each with two 
128K-byte files. Read-to- write ratios 
for the random tests were fixed at 3 to 1 . 

We wrote the database simulation 
benchmark using Raima's db Vista III 
database package. The db Vista system 
is actually a library of C routines that 
implement a combined relational- and 
network-model database system. We 
chose db Vista because it gave us control 
over the source code we wanted to gen- 
erate and because DOS, LAN, and 
Unix versions of dbVista are available. 

The database we constructed con- 
sisted of two data files and two index 
files. The first data file contained sales 
records composed of a sales representa- 
tive's ID number, name, phone num- 
ber, and department code. We indexed 
this file by the sales rep ID. The second 
data file contained customer records 
consisting of associated sales rep ID, 
customer ID, customer name, address, 

phone number, and payment balance. 
We indexed this file using a compound 
key of sales rep ID plus customer ID. 

The test reads two raw ASCII files, 
building the database as it goes. The 
first ASCII file holds the sales rep data 
that is simply loaded into the database. 
The second ASCII file carries customer 
data. As the program reads each line of 
customer information, it first searches 
the sales rep key file to verify that the 
customer's associated sales rep already 
exists in the sales file. If the program 
finds a match, it inserts the customer in- 
formation into the database. 

We ran the LAN version of the bench- 
mark on two client stations; each up- 
dated a central database stored on the 
server. One of the client stations ran the 
lock manager— a TSR program that co- 
ordinates multiuser access. Client tasks 
communicate with the lock manager via 
NetBIOS. (Extensive testing revealed 
that running the lock manager on a cli- 
ent station had no effect on the perfor- 
mance of that station.) 

The test simply reports one number, 
an index indicating the number of rec- 
ords processed per second. Note that 
this figure combines sales rep and cus- 
tomer records for all clients operating 
simultaneously. (Our NetWare tests 
were apparently unable to stretch any 
controller to the point where differences 
become apparent. NetWare's built-in 
disk optimizations made each controller 
perform at the same level.) 

use a caching controller. All but one of 
the cards reviewed can be field-upgraded 
using off-the-shelf memory parts. Cache 
capacities range beyond what most users 
will need— up to 16 MB— so you can 
start of f with a minimal amount of mem- 
ory and increase it as your disk require- 
ments grow. 

Finally, some of these boards support 
disk mirroring as a standard feature or as 
an option. Disk mirroring allows you to 
connect the controller to two drives, ad- 
dress them as a single drive, and have the 
contents of one duplicated exactly on the 
other. NetWare handles mirroring on its 
own, but hardware mirroring will give 
you enhanced reliability with any operat- 
ing system. 


Our performance crown belongs to P Si's 
hyperStore 1600, a solidly built control- 
ler that displayed impressive speed on all 
our tests. In addition to performance, the 

hyperStore offers expansion hooks for 
controlling an impressive amount of stor- 
age. The controller is not a bargain-base- 
ment item, but it combines an excellent 
price and performance balance in our 
tested configuration ($1700). (The 
price— like that of FTI's TenTime con- 
troller—is approximate. PSI sells the 
board without RAM, so you add your 
own. The tested-configuration price is 
based on $100 per MB for RAM; adjust 
it up or down according to the latest 
quotes from your favorite RAM vendor.) 
Caching controller vendors usually 
tout their products as vehicles to boost 
random-access disk speed. On our ran- 
dom fio test, the SmartCache from Dis- 
tributed Processing Technology (DPT) 

172 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 



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Circle 117 on Reader Service Card 


Caching Controller Cards 

Both true caching controll 
we found that all boards d 

ers and track-buffering controllers are represented 
o not perform equally well (%=yes\ = no). 

Full caching controllers 

in this table. Although many 

of the basic features are similar, 
Track-buffering controllers 















LDP Cache II 



Ultra 12F 


Price 1 



S1990 2 


ESDI:$1700 2 
SCSI:$1700 2 




System interface 









Disk interface 












Number of hard disk 
drives supported 3 





7 SCSI* 
2 ESDI or 





Number of floppy disk 
drives supported 









Standard RAM 









RAM configuration (as tested) 









Maximum RAM 


4.5 MB 5 







Memory type 


2-MB modules 


1-MB ZIP, 





Memory speed (ns) 
Bus speed compatibility 









12.5 MHz 


16 MHz 

16 MHz 

12.5 MHz 

11 MHz 


11.5 MHz 










Disk mirroring 









1 As tested; price includes RAM (see RAM configuration, below) and daughtercards, if required. 

2 Price based on $100 per MB for RAM; company does not have a list price that includes 4 MB of RAM. 

3 Addressable disks; if disk mirroring is supported, additional drives may be required. 

4 Numbers are given per daughtercard; up to four daughtercards can be attached. 
6 Additional 1 2 MB available with additional bus card. 

6 Additional 16 MB available with additional bus card. 

clipped the hyperStore, but just barely 
(see figure la). Both the hyperStore and 
the SmartCache drives easily beat the 
CompuAdd Hard Cache/ESDI and FTI 
TenTime cards on random file I/O. 

On sequential tests, where caching 
controllers do not usually fare much bet- 
ter than noncaching controllers, the hy- 
perStore stood out (see figure la). Under 
DOS, both sequential read and sequen- 
tial write times were far and away the 
best of any controller. 

According to PSI, the hyperStore can 
detect access patterns and determine 
whether they are generally sequential or 
generally random. If the controller de- 
tects sequential accesses, it organizes the 
cache with a granularity greater than a 
single sector. This means that on large 
sequential reads and writes (as in our se- 
quential benchmarks), the controller can 
cache strings of sectors or even an entire 
track. Obviously, the technique results 
in excellent sequential performance. 
CAD and image-file applications can 
probably get a big boost from PSI's 

174 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 

The hyperStore 's Z280 runs its own 
disk-based multitasking operating sys- 
tem. When you first configure the con- 
troller, it copies the operating system 
from a floppy disk and writes it to a re- 
served area on the hard disk it controls. 
At boot time, the controller reads the op- 
erating system from the hard disk. Oper- 
ating-system upgrades are trivial; you 
just download them from a floppy disk. 

In addition to WD-1003 emulation, 
the hyperStore offers two native modes 
of operation, based on either block- or 
sector-based data transfers. While both 
are faster than WD-1003 emulation, the 
block-based mode of SSP (standard stor- 
age protocol), which we tested, provides 
a significant performance advantage 
over the other modes. It transfers data in 
blocks larger than a single sector. SSP- 
block mode is available to DOS users 
through the built-in INT 13h BIOS; PSI 
provides SSP drivers for NetWare 2.15 
and for popular versions of Unix. 

The hyperStore in its base configura- 
tion has no disk interface. Instead, the 
controller accepts daughtercards with 

either ESDI, SCSI, IDE, or ST506 inter- 
faces. Up to four daughtercards can be 
mixed and matched on a single control- 
ler. Each daughtercard has its own 32K- 
or 64K-byte track buffer for additional 

Since the controller runs a multitask- 
ing operating system, it can access multi- 
ple daughtercards simultaneously. In a 
large setup with multiple daughtercards, 
you could expect to see good perfor- 
mance because of this parallelism. 

While the daughtercard scheme makes 
for a wide controller (it will prevent you 
from using several adjacent slots), it also 
provides access to a staggering amount of 
mass storage. PSI claims that the hyper- 
Store's total storage capacity is 50.4 

In addition, the controller can address 
single disk drives as multiple logical 
units. With optional software, the hyper- 
Store can be used to mirror one logical 
unit to another. 

The card is complex: The setup soft- 
ware and preliminary documentation 
that we saw were downright confusing. 


Mylex has the best EISA solution. 
At least that's what people tell us. 

"The Mylex MAE486 with its 
32-bit EISA SCSI controller 
kills the competition for reading 
large sequential files in the IOBench 2 tests 

Under UNIX." Personal Workstation, June 1 990 

"If I wanted to replace my entire 
system for optimum all-around 
performance, I'd build it from Mylex 
EISA-based boards." 

Personal Workstation, June 1990 

Ethernet LAN Adapter 

"The GXE020A TIGA board 
...scored as much as 45 
percent higher on our low- 
level benchmark tests than any other 
TIGA board evaluated." byte, April 1990 

"Mylex has done a lot of work with EISA, 
and we plan to use its motherboard and 
adapters in a LAN Labs ( super-AT seiver" 

PC Magazine, May 1999 

Of course, we've tested our EISA peripherals for compatibility with major EISA systems. #VVI^J I £*^f 
To see what our high-performance EISA solutions can do for your system, call us at | ^^| ^^ J^ 

1-800-446-9539, or fax us at 1-415-683-4662. 

486 is a registered trademark of Intel Corporation.!] 34020 is a registered trademark of Texas Instruments. Mylex is a registered trademark of Mylex Corporation. © Mylex Corporation* 1990 

Circle 205 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 206) 

Buffering: The Lower-Cash Alternative 

Three track 

While we progressed 
through this Product 
Focus, we unearthed some 
alternative caching philoso- 
phies. A number of manu- 
facturers of track-buffering 
controllers, which typically 
hold 32K or 64K bytes of 
RAM, showered us with 
some persuasive arguments. 
Specifically, don't put the 
cache memory on the con- 
troller board; keep it in the 
host. The reason: Once it's 
on the controller board, all 
memory can ever do for you 
is cache disk data. When it's 
in the host, you can control 
how much the operating sys- 
tem uses for disk buffers 
and how much is used for 
program code and data. 

If you're going to spend 
money on memory, the argument con- 
tinues, spend it on memory that can do 
double duty. Besides, there's plenty of 
good, inexpensive disk-caching soft- 
ware available. Examples often cited 
were PC-Kwik from Multisoft, Flash 
from Software Matters, and Fast from 
Future Computer Systems. And there's 
the SMARTDRV.SYS driver that Mi- 
crososft now includes with DOS 4.x. 

Two track-buffering controllers, 
from Adaptec and Ultrastor, are short 
cards (the Western Digital controller is 
a full-length card). The differences be- 
tween these boards and the "heavy- 
weight" caching controllers are not 
merely physical. Because the buffering 
controllers aren't weighted down with 
complex cache-management algo- 
rithms, installation code can live com- 
fortably on a single EPROM. The result 
is that to perform a low-level format on 
your hard disk, you must use DEBUG as 
a way into the EPROM 's initialization 
code. Fortunately, that's a once-only 
job, and all the boards we tested had so- 
phisticated initialization programs that 
kept complexity to a minimum. 


Adaptec offers a pair of controllers: The 
ACB-2320D supports only an ESDI 
hard disk drive, while the ACB-2322D 
(our test controller) also carries an on- 
board floppy disk drive controller. 

The ACB-2322D's on-board 64K- 
byte track buffer allows the controller to 
perform track read-ahead operations. 
So, when a read request comes in for a 
single sector, the ACB-2322D antici- 

buffering controllers (clockwise from top left): the 
, Ultra 12F, and WD1009V/SE2. 

pates sequential operations by reading 
the four upcoming tracks. 

Other interesting features of the 
ACB-2322D include power sequencing, 
which reduces current draw on the host 
power supply by spinning up the hard 
disks one at a time. Sector sparing lets 
you set aside one sector per track as a 
spare. If, during low-level formatting, a 
sector on the track is found to be defec- 
tive, the spare will be used. Drive split- 
ting lets you convert one large physical 
drive into two smaller logical drives. 
This allows DOS to handle a single 
drive of up to 1 gigabyte. 

The ACB-2322D's manual is well de- 
signed and has plenty of diagrams and 
jumper location maps. We were happy 
to see a list of supported operating sys- 
tems in an appendix— right down to the 
revision level. 

Ultra 12F 

Ultrastor's Ultra 12 ships with only 8K 
bytes of cache memory (expandable to 
32K bytes by replacing a single static 
RAM chip). We tested the 32K-byte 
12F version. 

The Ultra 12F's on-board configura- 
tion program allows sector and track 
mapping. Sector mapping enables DOS 
to accept drives that have more than 
1024 cylinders; track mapping over- 
comes the 528-megabyte limit that the 
Adaptec 2322D handles via drive split- 
ting. Finally, NetWare users will be 
pleased to discover that the Ultra 12F's 
manual outlines a technique whereby 
you can shorten the lengthy COMP- 
SURF procedure to a matter of minutes. 


The WD1009V/SE2 from 
Western Digital is a well-de- 
signed board. It's so easy to 
install that the instructions 
take up only three para- 
graphs in the manual. And 
because the controller 
comes from the developer 
of the WD- 1003 interface, 
compatibility is not a con- 

Western Digital describes 
its on-board 64K-byte cache 
as "adaptive." The control- 
ler's on-board microcon- 
troller constantly monitors 
incoming data, looking for 
patterns in how the data is 
retrieved. On the fly, the 
microcontroller optimizes 
the cache to the current pat- 
tern. Western Digital boasts 

a 50 percent boost in throughput, thanks 

to the cache optimizing. 

Operating Cache-Free 

The track-buffering controller cards 
fared surprisingly well in our bench- 
mark tests, especially when you con- 
sider that they cost hundreds of dollars 
less than even the least-expensive cach- 
ing controllers. In particular, note that 
the performance of the small caching 
controllers in the Unix leg of the db- 
Vista benchmark was so close to that of 
the large caching controllers that the 
difference is virtually negligible. This 
is an example of an application that runs 
well within the caching provided by the 
operating system. 

On the DOS benchmarks, we ran the 
small caching controllers through the 
tests using SMARTDRV.SYS with 4 
MB of cache enabled. We should there- 
fore point out that the figures shown 
owe their values more to SMART- 
DRV.SYS and less to the operations of 
the boards. However, we consider this 
to be a good indication of small-cach- 
ing-controller throughput. 

Should you go the track-buffering 
controller route? The answer depends 
on the specifics of your application. Our 
tests indicate that the better-performing 
large caching controllers outperform 
the small caching controllers by at least 
a modest margin. You have to decide 
how critical that performance margin is 
and whether it will justify the cost. But 
when you compare $163 to prices over 
$1000, you may be willing to overlook a 
few seconds' delay here and there. 

176 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 

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Caching Controller Cards 

But after you choose your options and get 
the card running, its performance and 
addressing capability are more than ade- 
quate rewards for your trouble. 

Like many other caching controllers, 
TenTime from FTI acts less like a con- 
troller and more like a dedicated copro- 
cessor board. It has a 68070 CPU that ex- 
ecutes a proprietary real-time, multi- 
threaded operating system. The op- 
erating system supports error correction 
and intelligent cache management (the 
details of which the people at FTI were 
understandably reluctant to reveal). 

The result is a sophisticated combina- 
tion of hardware and software. For ex- 
ample, if the TenTime acts up and you 
can't determine the problem, you can at- 
tach a special cable to an on-board diag- 
nostic port, hook the cable to a modem, 
and FTI's technical-support people can 
call your board for an over-the-phone 
house call. 

The basic TenTime board comes with 
2 MB of RAM, which can be expanded 
to 10 MB via daughterboards. If you're 
worried about data integrity, you can 
choose an optional battery-backed static 
RAM "write safeguard." This circuit 
holds data that is on its way out to the 
disk, so if a power failure takes your sys- 
tem down during a write operation, the 
TenTime will complete the write when 
the power returns again. 

The TenTime operates in WD- 1003- 
emulation mode. As of this writing, FTI 
was in the final stages of preparing a 
driver to bypass emulation mode under 
DOS. Drivers for NetWare and Unix 
may be on the way as well . 

The TenTime's documentation was 
adequate for the comparatively easy con- 
troller installation. FTI provides an in- 
stallation and diagnostic floppy disk 
drive with a simple menu-driven install 
procedure. There is also a utility for 
tweaking various parameters controlling 
the board's software. For example, you 
can disable caching when you're install- 

ing Unix, so the Unix installation's sur- 
face scan can talk directly to the disk and 
identify questionable tracks. 

Performance scores for the TenTime 
ranged in the middle of the pack. How- 
ever, the controller's price stood near the 
top for the configuration we tested. This 
makes us hesitate before suggesting the 
TenTime over less expensive boards that 
performed as well or better. However, 
the TenTime's write-safeguard feature 
makes the product attractive in situations 
where data is critical, power is question- 
able, and an uninterruptible power sup- 
ply is unavailable. 


Based on its price alone, CompuAdd's 
HardCache/ESDI is instantly attractive. 
At $895 in its tested 4-MB configura- 
tion, the HardCache costs less than half 
the price of comparable ESDI control- 
lers. Although its performance lagged 
behind the others in this select group, 
the HardCache significantly improved 
performance over that of a standard con- 

The card's DOS utility lets you run a 
low-level format or a surface scan on the 
drive, and you can configure the physical 
parameters. You then use the DOS com- 
mands FDISK and FORMAT as usual. 
While this is standard procedure with 
other cards, too, the HardCache' s utility 
was the easiest to use, and the drive 
worked on the first try. 

You can fine-tune read-ahead param- 
eters using another utility. CompuAdd's 
HardCache/ESDI utility (HCU) program 
lets you configure read-ahead using a 
read-ahead factor and a read-ahead cap. 
Each time the system makes a request, 
the number of sectors requested, multi- 
plied by the read-ahead factor, deter- 
mines how many sectors the HardCache 
will actually read. If the number is great- 
er than the read-ahead cap, the controller 
uses the read-ahead cap value instead. 
While we didn't do any tuning for our 
tests, HCU should increase performance 
by tailoring reads to your application. 


NO NOISE improves PC 
working environments. 

NO NOISE removes the constant humming 
noise which is a daily irritation to PC 

It's not that the noise is high — it's more a 
matter of its constantly being there, from the 
moment you start up in the morning and until the 
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Constantly — for hours on end — day in and 
day out. 

This noisecomesfrom the PC's cooling fan. 

The cooling fan is designed and constructed to 
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This is where the constant noise arises. 
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up with this irritating noise — thanks to NO NOISE. 

How to stop the noise. 

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The fan is practically soundless at temperatures 
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Built-in safety 

If a fault should occur, a built-in safety circuit in 
the NO NOISE automatically ensures that the 
fan converts to maximum performance. This 
ensures the necessary ventilation/cooling under 
all conditions. 

NO NOISE suits all PC models. 

Thousands of units are already in use worldwide 
by computer manufacturers, major corporations 
and individual users, who realise that excessive 
noise in the work environment can lead to 
fatigue and stress, ultimately affecting 
performance and productivity. 

NO NOISE is extremely simple to install; your 
customary PC dealer can provide you with further 
details and provide this service if required. NO 
NOISE comes with a five-year warranty and a 30- 
day trial. 


" worked perfectly. ..noise level was 

dramatically reduced. " 


"...NO NOISE worked exactly as advertised, 

reducing fan noise to nil. " 

BYTE, International Section, February 1990 


no noise 



ORDER NO NOISE NOW at $99.95 by calling 
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©NO NOISE 1990 

JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 177 

Circle 193 on Reader Service Card 

Quark PC+®. 

PC XT® Compatibility 
On a 4" x 6" Board 

► 3 Serial Ports 

► 3 watts (typical) 

► XT® Bus Expansion 

► Real Time Clock 

► NEC V-40® Processor 
» SCSI Hard Disk Control 

• Up to 768k Main Memory 

• Complete RS-232C Drivers 

• Will boot PC, MS and DR DOS™ 

• Up to lO Mhz CPU Clock Frequency 

• Floppy Disk Control (1.44 M support) 

• Hercules, Monochrome, CGA Video/Color LCD 


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(416) 245-2953 FAX (416) 245-6505 
125 Wendell Ave., Weston, Ontario M9N 3K9 

Densitron Corp 

2540 West 237th St., Torrance, CA 90505 

(213) 530-3530 FAX (G2/G3) (213) 534-8419 

Telex II: 910- 349-6200 

Europe/UK 0959 76600 

REPS: Italy 39 331 256 524 
W. Germany 49 6074 98031 
U.K. 44 959 71011 
Netherlands 31 838 541 301 
Australia 61 03 568 0988 
France 1 47 46 94 52 

Trademarks: IBM XT®- IBM Corp. V-40 - 
MS+DR DOS - Digital Research Ltd. 

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Finland 358 0757 1711 
Sweden 46 4097 1090 
Norway 47 986 9970 
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NEC Corp. Hercules - Hercules Corp, 
Quark - F. + K. Manufacturing Co. 



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The HardCache uses a set-associative 
organization that ranges from two to 
eight sets. The number of sets is automat- 
ically determined by the amount of mem- 
ory that's on-board. 

While most of the controllers that we 
tested buffer writes as well as reads, 
CompuAdd takes a fail-safe approach in 
implementing a write-through cache. 
Write-through caching means that the 
controller always writes to the disk as 
well as the on-board cache. There is no 
increase in write performance over a 
standard controller, but if a power loss 
occurs, you'll have all the data you've 
written safely stowed on the disk. 

This design hampered the HardCache 
on several of our benchmarks— most no- 
tably, on the dbVista benchmark under 
DOS, where the HardCache was easily 
outrun by its three competitors. The db- 
Vista benchmark does a lot of writing, 
and it rarely reads back what it has writ- 
ten. This is a worst-case situation for the 
HardCache; it should perform better in 
most real-world applications. 

The HardCache also performed near 
the bottom on the sequential-write por- 
tion of the fio benchmarks under Unix. 
Other DOS benchmarks put it well below 
the top-performing hyperStore and 
SmartCache boards but close to the Ten- 
Time. Under NetWare 386, however, any 
write performance differences evaporat- 
ed. NetWare itself operates a delayed- 
write cache within the operating system, 
and the operating-system cache was 
enough to overcome any differences be- 
tween controllers. Overall, the Hard- 
Cache is an adequate performer at an ex- 
cellent price. If affordability is one of 
your top criteria, the HardCache may 
well be the controller for you. 


DPT's SmartCache is a caching control- 
ler pioneer. Although old by PC industry 
standards, the SmartCache is well de- 
signed and managed to outperform most 
of the other boards we tested. 

We should note that DPT is planning to 

178 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 

Circle 37 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 38) 

$r ; -- ; l ; :*»- 

SERIES 400™ 

High-Speed Caching Disk Controller 

Unprecedented Hard Drive Performance 
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SERIES 400 Features 

• Models available for SCSI, IDE, ESDI, MFM* and RLL* 

• Supports two floppy drives (5.25" or 3.5") 

• WD 1003 emulation for driverless installation 

• All Networks, UNIX, OS/2 and DOS compatible 

• Easy installation 

• 512 Kb-to-4Mb on-board cache RAM 
•Uses low cost 100 nsec SIMMs 

• Read and write cache for best overall performance 

• On-board 16-bit parallel processor, and data bus with 
56-bit ECC 

• Dealer upgrades for disk mirroring and more* 

Affordable, Lightning-Quick Disk Access 

In today's high performance PC's, disk access is the number one 
system bottleneck. The SERIES 400 from SSDC is a new class 
of hard drive controller with its own powerful on-board par- 
allel processor and memory to independently manage disk 
drive data. The SERIES 400 actually anticipates what infor- 
mation the PC is going to need and stores the data in its own 
high-speed cache RAM. Disk accesses are 100 times faster 
and large file transfers are up to 10 times faster. This means 
applications load and execute fasti 
Even the slowest and most cumber- 
some applications become lightning 
quick. All applications - Windows, 
CAD, large databases, desktop pub- 
lishing - become supercharged with near 
instant file access. SSDC has broken the price barrier to 
hardware disk caching. No longer is powerful disk per- 
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1 Tremendous increases in system performance 
J Accelerates disk access over 100 times 
• Increases file transfer rate 5 to 10 times 

' Speeds up ALL disk -intensive applications 
J Frees up system resources for increased performance 

Across the Board Performance Advantage 




Effective seek time 

0.270 msec 

0.520 msec 

0.500 msec . 

Read data transfers 

2230 Kb/sec 

892 Kb/sec 

1150 Kb/sec 

Large record read 

16.0 sec 

25.0 sec 

36.0 sec 

Feature Comparison 

Retail Price 




With 4-Mb RAM 




Max memory on-board 




Memory type 




WD-1003 Emulation 




Custom drivers 




Drive types supported 




Networks, UNIX and 
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Boot drive 


"C" only 

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Auto bad track repair 




Parity check RAM 




I/O bus speed 



10.0(12.5 opt) 

Data look ahead 




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F O C U S 

Caching Controller Cards 

Choosing the Right Caching Controller 

First, the obvious: Users whose ap- 
plications are disk intensive will 
benefit the most from a caching control- 
ler. An installation that makes heavy 
use of databases is the most obvious tar- 
get for a caching controller. Many tasks 
are CPU-bound: For example, a cach- 
ing controller won't help an AutoCAD 
application draw any faster. 

Tasks that might benefit from a cach- 
ing controller include desktop publish- 
ing applications that allow you to spool 
printer output to disk. A caching con- 
troller that buffered write operations 
would allow the DTP application to 
complete the print job rapidly; you'd be 

back editing your document quicker. 

Price should certainly be a factor, 
particularly given the wide range pres- 
ent between the caching controllers and 
the track-buffering controllers. Our 
tests indicate that a Unix system of mod- 
est proportions will perform acceptably 
with the track-buffering controllers. 
Ditto for NetWare. Consequently, the 
operating system you use will surely af- 
fect the outcome of any buying decision. 

Analyze the daily load on your disk 
system. If you have a friend willing to 
lend you a memory card for a week or 
so, try using that. See if caching in the 
host will give you the throughput you 

need. If it does, simply adding to your 
system memory will certainly be a less 
expensive route to higher performance. 
If you've decided that you must have a 
caching controller, don't focus solely on 
the performance. Think about flexibil- 
ity and expandability. Most ESDI con- 
trollers that we looked at will handle 
at most two hard disk drives (some can 
handle four). SCSI controllers can ac- 
cept up to seven; this capability may be 
important if the target machine is the 
server of an infant network. As the net- 
work grows and the disk requirements 
grow, the SCSI bus will go a greater 

release a new version of the SmartCache, 
with major revisions, by the time you 
read this. In addition to having bundled, 
native support for popular versions of 
Unix, DPT promises that the new board 
will be faster than the current model. 

Not that the model we tested was any 
slouch. Its excellent performance was 
partly due to read-ahead buffering. 
However, rather than reading a whole 
track into a buffer for each read, as some 
other boards do, the SmartCache hands 
back the requested data before continu- 
ing with the read-ahead. While the main 
system CPU reads the data, the DPT's 
on-board 68000 continues to read a fixed 
number of sectors into the cache. 

The SmartCache also buffers all disk 
writes. It installs data written by the host 
system into the cache and immediately 
acknowledges the data. During idle peri- 
ods, or when a fixed percentage of the 
cache locations become dirty, the Smart- 
Cache dumps the data out to the disk. 
When dumping the data, the controller 
writes sectors according to disk geom- 
etry, minimizing seeks wherever pos- 
sible. You can interrupt this disk write, 
and the read-ahead mentioned above, if 
the host system requires data that is not in 
the cache. 

Under DOS, these performance fea- 
tures really show. The hyperStore 1600 
blasted the SmartCache on sequential 
benchmarks, but on the random and db- 
Vista benchmarks, the SmartCache held 
a slight edge. The hyperStore' s sequen- 
tial optimizations helped in sequential 
operations, while the SmartCache' s sec- 
tor-oriented organization served it well 
on benchmarks with a more random ac- 

cess pattern. (When comparing bench- 
mark results, remember that the Smart- 
Cache had 4.5 MB of RAM, while the 
other cards had only 4 MB. We couldn't 
avoid this discrepancy because the 
SmartCache doesn't support 4 MB and 
the other boards don't support 4.5 MB. 
However, we believe that the difference 
in size did not give the SmartCache a sig- 
nificant edge on these tests.) 

Installation and setup were straight- 
forward. We had trouble with a buggy 
new version of the firmware but resolved 
the problem after calling DPT technical 
support. In addition to excellent phone 
support, DPT offers a full BBS service. 
The documentation was the best among 
the boards we reviewed. 

The firstthing you'll notice if you test 
the board with the computer's cover off 
is a 10-position bar-graph LED, which 
constantly reports the drive's status. You 
can watch the controller go through its 
POST RAM tests, and if there's an error, 
you can determine the cause immedi- 

DPT's format utility, which is appro- 
priately called DPTFMT, lets you pre- 
pare the drive. When the low-level for- 
mat is complete, the utility asks what 
operating system you intend to use with 
the controller. The software uses your 
answer to look up the best match avail- 
able in the BIOS table. The board we 
tested had an optional BIOS expander 
ROM installed, which supplements the 
choices available through the BIOS. 

The SmartCache has two drawbacks, 
however, and both involve money. At 
$2025, the SmartCache is the most ex- 
pensive board we tested. It's more than 

$300 costlier than the hyperStore, which 
closely paralleled its performance. The 
board's second weak spot will become 
apparent only if you need to upgrade your 
controller. DPT, unlike the other manu- 
facturers, provides additional RAM on 
proprietary modules that must be pur- 
chased from the company. With off-the- 
shelf memory prices continuing to drop, 
upgrading the SmartCache could be sig- 
nificantly more expensive than upgrad- 
ing the other boards. 


Lomas Data Products may not be a well- 
known name among disk drive controller 
vendors, but it builds a good product 
that's available at a good price. Although 
the LDP Cache II's benchmark perfor- 
mance was generally disappointing, it 
offers built-in disk mirroring and the 
prospect of enhancing slower disk drives 
at about two-thirds the price of the other 
SCSI entry, PSI's hyperStore. 

The hyperStore 1600 beat the LDP 
Cache II handily on all the benchmarks. 
Although the LDP Cache II buffers 

180 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 



i n 

The 4167's 10 MFLOPS performance delivers 3X the speed of the 486! 

The new Weitek 4167 coprocessor outperforms the 486 by 3 to 1 in numeric processing. Capable of 10 
MFLOPS, the 4167 has sockets in some of the most sophisticated 486 systems on the market, including 
Compaq, Intel, Hewlett-Packard, and Microway. The 4167 is object-code compatible with the WEITEK 3167 
FPU and Microway's mW3167-PS add-in card for the MicroChannel— offering easy access to a broad base of 
existing CAD/CAM, scientific and engineering applications like Mathematica, CADKEY, HOOPS and 
Microway's NDP compilers. And look for 4167 support on upcoming products from Autodesk! 

Number Smasher®- 486 converts 

your old AT or 386 into a powerful 486 
workstation. In a review of 25 MHz 486 
motherboards, Mike George of Personal 
Workstation magazine wrote, "Microway's 
Number Smasher-486 gives you top 486 
numeric performance for the best 
price.. .Number Smasher's numeric perfor- 
mance exceeds that of all 25 MHz 486 
systems we've tested to date." Running the 
Microway Benchmark Suite, the 
4167-equipped Number Smasher-486 achieves 
11.9 MegaWhetstones. The board features a 

Burst Bus™ memory interface that makes it stand out in numeric 
problems that involve large arrays. Burst cycle response in a 486 
system is much more important than second level caches, which 

are usually too small to be of any use on the 
I -i^***-,.- !' megabyte arrays found in real world 



The ideal solution for numerically or I/O 
intensive applications is Microway's new 
Number Smasher-486/33T workstation. Two 
configurations are available, each incor- 
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with 300 to 600 megabyte drives. 

For more information, please call 508-746-7341. 



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Holland 40 836455 • Norway 9 876656 • Japan 81 3 222 0544 

NDP Fortran-486, NDP 
&486 and NDP C++ are 

your keys to unlocking the power 
of the 4167. Each compiler 
generates globally optimized, main- 
frame quality code and has special 
features that take advantage of the 
4167, such as register caching, loop 
unrolling and automatic inlining of 
small procedures. These optimiza- 
tions are handed off to a code 
generator that is tuned for the 
4167, and takes advantage of its ad- 
vanced instructions like multiply 
accumulate. In addition, the 486 
versions of NDP Fortran, C++ and 
C properly sequence 486 and 4167 
instructions so that the 486's 
prefetch queue has time to 
"breathe." NDP compilers are also 
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And our technical support is the 
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Caching Controller Cards 

writes, it obviously does not do it as well 
as its competitor. But the results may be 
skewed by the speed of our test SCSI 
drive, a Micropolis 1684. The Micropo- 
lis has a cache of its own, which attempts 
to buffer directories as much as possible. 
LDP pointed out that the controller's 
caching overhead may have offset any 
performance gains the card could have 
provided to the relatively fast drive. 

On a slower drive, the LDP Cache II 
achieved better relative results. It clearly 
outperformed a standard SCSI controller 
on the test that is most representative of 
cachable applications, the random I/O 
benchmark. Nevertheless, its perfor- 
mance doesn't compare with that of the 
hyperStore 1600. 

Installation and setup were easy, 
helped by LDP's utilities. Like the other 
controllers, the LDP Cache II provides 
the operating system with an appropriate 
number of heads, cylinders, and sectors 
based on the number of SCSI blocks it 
reads from the drive. Most controllers 
look up the geometry in a table in ROM 
and provide whatever table entry comes 
closest. LDP's strategy is to generate a 
table based on drive size and store it in 
EEPROM, so full utilization of a large 
disk drive is virtually certain. 

LDP offers disk mirroring as a stan- 
dard feature. The card's setup program 
lets you configure the controller to mir- 
ror one SCSI device to another. The util- 
ity can also format the drive and dupli- 
cate data from one drive to another. 

When an error occurs, the controller 

attempts to correct it. If the error cannot 
be corrected, the controller notes that the 
disk is bad in its internal EEPROM, and 
the disk is not used. The next time the 
system boots, the LDP Cache II's BIOS 
notifies you that one of the disks has 
failed and is no longer in use. Surprising- 
ly, the controller board does not provide 
an audible alarm on drive failure. 

We can't recommend the LDP Cache 
II strictly on performance, but only if 
high reliability is your primary goal and 
you don't already have a fast disk drive. 

Memorable Results 

We learned two important lessons from 
this Product Focus: first, that no two 
controllers are created equal (which is 
not as obvious as it sounds in this plug- 
and-play world); and second, that no two 
operating systems are created equal 
(which is much more obvious). During 
our testing, we discovered that those two 
facts wrapped themselves around one an- 
other. The result: Benchmark results for 
a controller running on one operating 
system won't adequately predict its per- 
formance while running on another op- 
erating system. 

Unix and NetWare users will have a 
slightly more difficult decision to make 
than DOS users. That's because Unix 
and NetWare provide buffering and cach- 
ing features built in. This raises two 
questions: Should you buy a controller 
with lots of RAM and hope the controller 
guesses right about buffer management? 
Or should you buy a less expensive (and 

theoretically less capable) controller and 
put the difference into host RAM, where 
the operating system can use it and, in 
theory, make more informed guesses? 
We suspect that cost-conscious people 
will choose the latter route; the small 
(track-buffering) caching controllers can 
provide you with more than acceptable 
performance at unbeatable prices (see 
"Buffering: The Lower-Cash Alterna- 
tive" on page 176). Throughput-con- 
scious souls will likely choose the former 
route— if you've got to squeeze every 
byte per second you can out of that disk 
system, a 4-MB caching controller might 
be just what you need. 

For overall price and performance, we 
prefer PSI's hyperStore. Its multiple-per- 
sonality design is unique, allowing you 
to run any of the popular hard disk drive 
interfaces from a single controller board. 
Its performance is a winner, too. Its 
scores ranked at or near the top for all the 
tests across all operating systems. If you 
run a large installation that consists of 
LANs, Unix workstations, and DOS ma- 
chines, the hyperStore 1600 should do 
well on them all. Flexibility like that is 
hard to find. ■ 

Steve Apiki is a BYTE Lab testing editor/ 
engineer. Rick Grehan is the director of 
the BYTE Lab. He has a B. S. in physics 
and applied mathematics and an M.S. 
in computer science/ mathematics from 
Memphis State University. You can reach 
them on BIX as "apiki" and "rick_g," 



Fast Technology, Inc. 

Ultrastor Corp. 




(Ultra 12F) 

of Other Products 

691 South Milpitas Blvd. 

3204 South Fair Lane 

15 Hammond, Suite 3 10 

Used in this Review: 

Milpitas, CA 95035 

Tempe, AZ 85282 

Irvine, C A 92718 

(408) 945-8600 



Maxtor Corp. 

Inquiry 1113. 

Inquiry 1116. 

Inquiry 1119. 


211 River Oaks Pkwy. 

CompuAdd Corp. 

Lomas Data Products, 

Western Digital 

San Jose, CA 95134 




(408) 432-1700 

12303 Technology Blvd. 

(LDP Cache II) 

8105 Irvine Center Dr. 

Inquiry 1121. 

Austin, TX 78727 

182 Cedar Hill St. 

Irvine, CA 92718 

(800) 627-1967 

Marlborough, MA 01752 

(714) 932-5000 

Micropolis Corp. 

Inquiry 1114. 

(508) 460-0333 

Inquiry 1120. 


Inquiry 1117. 

21211 Nordhoff St. 

Distributed Processing 



Perceptive Solutions, 

(818) 709-3300 



Inquiry 1122. 

140 Candace Dr. 

(hyperStore 1600, 

P.O. Box 1864 


Maitland, FL 32751 

2700 Flora St. 

(407) 830-5522 

Dallas, TX 75201 

Inquiry 1115. 

(800) 486-7278 
Inquiry 1118. 

182 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 

Accurate OCR You Can Buy 


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Our unique Pop -up Editor guarantees the most accurate results possible. Proof twice 
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We started with the lowest error- rate OCR technology 
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And because Word- 
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You can even add your 








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© 1990 Calera Recognition Systems, Inc. (lalera * is a registered trademark ol'Calera Recognition Systems, Inc. WordScan and TrueScan are trademarks ol'Calera Recognition Systems, Inc. 

Circle 54 on Reader Service Card 

The Joneses. 

Check out the benchmarks. When it 
comes to speed, pure and simple, main- 
frames are no longer the main attraction 
Introducing the Everex STEP 486/33 
and STEP 486/25. Along with the STEP 
486/5, they give you desktop perform- 
ance that was previously unheard of. 

There are two reasons. The first, of course, is 
the 486™chip.The other is AMMA T , M Everex's 
proprietary Advanced Memory Management 



IBM 3083 

34,000 Dhrystones (19.4 MIPS) 

17.857 Dhrystones 

16.666 Dhrystones 

AMM A uses "write-back" cache technology 
instead of the "write-through" technologies used 
in most PC's. The write-back cache was developed 
for mainframes. Everex was the 
pioneer in developing it for the PC. 
And in doing so, opened a whole new 
dimension in desktop performance. 
With AMMA, you can write directly to the 
STEP 486's cache in nearly all cases. With write- 
through techniques, on the other hand, you lose 
most of the performance benefit of the cache. 

♦Inquiries from outside the U.S. call 415-498-1 11 1. EVER for Excellence is a registered trademark and Everex, STEI* STEP 486/.y, AMMA and PDS are trademarks of Everex Systems, Inc. 486 is a trademark of Intel Corp. 

And how to keep up 
with them. 

That's because write-through forces you to write 
to main memory much more often. And main 
memory is slower than the cache. 

This is especially important in 486 computing, 
where the CPU performs as many as four times the 
write operations as in 386. Which makes AMMA's 
write-back architecture, combined with the 486's 
embedded cache, a powerful combination indeed. 

But the STEP 486 machines give you more 
than just speed. They come with Programmable 
Drive Select. If your drive isn't listed on the set- 

up table, PDS™ lets you custom-configure the BIOS. 
It's good for virtually any hard drive. 

What's more, all STEP systems come with a one- 
year extendable warranty and a one year renewable 
on-site service contract that also covers all Everex 
peripherals in the system. 

To find out more, call 1-800-334-4552* for the 
name of your nearest Authorized Everex Reseller— 
every one a high performance expert. 

Then you can let the Joneses try keeping up 
for a change. 

KVER lor Excellence 

5 1990 Everex Systems, Inc. For more information on how the above benchmarks were derived, please write the Everex Performance Test Center. 48431 Milmonl Drive, Fremont, CA 94538. 

Circle 108 on Reader Service Card 



Robert Mitchell 


LAN Remote-Control Software: Better Than Being There 

Remote-control programs have come 
a long way. The first programs 
worked exclusively with modems, 
but now remote users can exchange key- 
strokes and screen information with any 
other workstation on a LAN. These 
packages are handy tools for network ad- 
ministrators, technical-support person- 
nel, or any user who wants to gain tempo- 
rary access to another node's resources. 

Some LAN remote-control packages 
support one-to-one connections exclu- 
sively; others let you simultaneously ac- 
cess many hosts and toggle between ses- 
sions. Still others let many remote users 
simultaneously control a single host ma- 
chine. These one-to-many and many-to- 
one sessions are designed for training sit- 
uations where a teacher wants to monitor 
each student's progress or wants all stu- 
dents to view the instructor's screen. 

I reviewed six LAN remote-control 
programs that run on NetWare or Net- 
BIOS PC LANs: Close-Up/LAN, Net- 
remote + , The Network Eye, pcAny- 
where IV/LAN, R2LAN, and Screen 
Monitor. In addition, senior editor at 
large Tom Thompson tested two products 
for Macs on AppleTalk Phase II LANs: 
Carbon Copy Mac 1 .0 and Timbuktu 3 . 1 
(see the text box "The Macintosh Takes 
Control" on page 190). Each program 
has its own terminology that describes 
the controlling and controlled machines; 
for clarity, I'll refer to them as the re- 
mote and host machines, respectively. 
Table 1 lists important features for each 
PC LAN product. 

In the PC's increasingly graphical 
world, remote support would be incom- 
plete without the ability to view host ap- 
plications running in VGA mode. Sur- 

simple pull-down 
menus make 
remote control 

prisingly, many packages offer limited 
or no graphics support. All run in the 
background on the host machine, with 
memory requirements ranging from 2K 
bytes to 100K bytes, depending on the 
configuration. Other key features in- 
clude host and remote security, session 


can configure 
IV/LAN host lists 
and tailor remote 
access rights 
for each user. 

logs, chat windows, and performance- 
tuning options. At press time, no pro- 
gram supported a remote mouse on the 
PC, and sound support was limited to 
beeps generated through the BIOS. 

My PC LAN test-bed consisted of a 
NetWare 2.15 LAN that was running 

186 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 

Netremote + 
reads NetWare 
bindery files and 
presents remote 
users with a 
wealth of 
and diagnostic 
information for 
any workstation 
on the LAN. 

UH '1 .III FiiiUuj Itai-uli IS, l'J9t \\\;?\ in 

Selected Node "GtlEHNSEY/STAN .«" 

Configuration Soeeary 

I Net Address: Ct8888B881:B2878183BFB3) CPU: 8828b WS: HSDOS U3.3 
Active: 63 Bays 18:32:82 <H:H:S) Hideo: EGA Color 
IPX/SPX: 3.1/3.1 Node: 88x25 Text (16 Color) 

KEHORV Base Exp Ext Tot, 
sten: Available Installed: 64BK 8X 384R 182 

I., lata: Available Available: 452R 81 81 « 

Shell Br Ivor: Mlcoe- Inter Ian H 152 18 892.3 Brlver VLB 
Settings: IRQ ■ 2, 10 Address ■ 388b, Buffer = T 

over a twisted-pair Ethernet. Test sys- 
tems included a Club American 386SX, 
Gateway 386SX and 386/20 machines, 
and several Hyundai 286 systems. 

I tested each package for compatibility 
with Quattro Pro 1.0, Xy Write 3.55, 
FoxPro LAN 1.1, Procomm Plus 1.1, 
and Windows 3.0. Windows posed the 
biggest challenge; the programs that ran 
it successfully required a special key- 
board handler and supported Windows in 
real mode only. 

To test host performance degradation 
I ran the BYTE low-level CPU bench- 
marks, first without the host software 
loaded and then with the software run- 
ning and one remote connection active. 
At the remote machine, I measured 
screen response when running the appli- 
cations suite; each package received a 
grade of pass or fail. Some programs up- 
date the remote screen at timed intervals; 
others perform updates only when the 
host screen changes. Dynamic updates 
create less network traffic and produce 
much faster screen response. 

I judged each program by its ability to 
reproduce host graphics screens at the re- 
mote machine, performance, memory 

requirements, ease of use, security, pric- 
ing, and other features. 


Norton-Lambert's Close-Up/LAN 2.5 is 
one of the most flexible and easy-to-use 
packages I tested. It has many advanced 
features, but you won't find them clutter- 
ing up the program menus; most run 
from the command line. Close-Up/LAN 
only supports text or CGA screens, and 
the $795 eight-user license fee makes 
this package the most expensive of the 

Close-Up/LAN's Viewer lets you con- 
trol workstations running the Host soft- 
ware. Both programs reside in memory. 
Viewer consumed 80K bytes of RAM on 
my test machine. Host occupied 54K 
bytes, but a menuless version fits into 
just 10K bytes. 

Using Viewer's pull-down menus, you 
start up to 16 simultaneous sessions. You 
then toggle between sessions or go back 
to viewing your local screen while other 
applications continue to run on the host 
machines. Hosts can accept up to 16 re- 
mote sessions. Viewers can set up exclu- 
sive connections and disable the host key- 

board and screen for privacy. You can 
even set up a host to alert remote users 
when a process completes on the host. 

Close-Up/LAN automatically uses 
NetWare user names when you run 
Viewer or Host. It lists how many LANs 
and Close-Up users are available, but it 
doesn't tell you who those users are; you 
must know the host user name. The pro- 
gram doesn't support file transfers, but 
you can hot-key to your local screen and 
then copy files to the shared area of the 
file server, where the host machine can 
access them. 

The Host menu lets you establish a 
master password and a Viewer password 
for each host machine. You can restrict 
remote users to viewing only, or you can 
restrict access by user name. As a host, 
you can also alert a viewer when you 
want to begin a session. 

You can increase the number of host 
connections beyond 16 by daisy chain- 
ing—connecting to a host and then run- 
ning Viewer on the intermediate machine 
to connect to a second host. This works 
as long as you reconfigure the Host and 
Viewer on each machine so that each has 
unique hot keys. 

Close-Up/LAN doesn't support asyn- 
chronous sessions; for that you need Nor- 
ton-Lambert's Support/ACS remote pro- 
gram ($245) and Customer/Terminal 
host program ($195). By running Cus- 
tomer/Terminal and Viewer on the host 
machine, remote users can call into one 
network node and control any other host. 

Close-Up/LAN successfully worked 
with all host applications. On the remote 
side, Viewer was unable to run under 
Windows 3.0's V86 mode. Close-Up/ 
LAN performed well overall. With one 
remote connection, host CPU perfor- 
mance didn't degrade significantly. 
Screen response at the remote machine 
was somewhat jerky at the command 
line, but all applications ran smoothly. 
Adjusting the scan interval settings on 
the host side improves the response 

Close-Up/LAN is ideally suited for 
teaching and other environments that re- 
quire one-to-many or many-to-one ses- 
sions and don't need VGA graphics sup- 
port. Its simplicity also makes it a good 
choice for the average user who wants to 
remotely take over an idle computer's 
modem or printer. 

Netremote + 

Brightwork Development's LAN re- 
mote-control package is a must for Net- 
Ware administrators, and its simplicity 
makes it ideal for other users as well. 
Netremote + 4.1 supports one-to-one 

JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 187 


LAN Remote-Control Software: Better than Being there 


Table 1: LAN remote-control packages fall into two camps: those that support one-to-one connections exclusively, and 

those that support many 


sessions per host 

or remote machine 

. The more advanced packages 

let remote 

workstations view host VGA-mode applications. All LAN remote-control packages run as 

TSR programs on the host 

machine, but memory requirements vary considerably. 

Once you \e configured the host, 

Close-Up/LAN and pcAnywhere 

IV /LAN let you run small versions of the host software to save memory (• 

=yes; O =no ). 



The Network Eye 


R2LAN 2.0 

Screen Monitor 

LAN 2.5 



IV/LAN 4.02 


Networks supported 

NetWare SPX/IPX 














Memory requirements 

(observed) (K bytes) 








Remote TSR 







TSRs unload 

from memory 







Graphics modes 




Text mode 




Remote screen 








Adjust screen update rate 







Maximum concurrent 


Per host 







Per remote 






1 4 

Daisy chain sessions 







Broadcast host screen 







Host security 

Password access 







Notify when 

connection made 







Reject connection 








Terminate session 







Restrict remote to 

view only 







Allow/disallow host 




Always allowed 



Always allowed 

Set to reboot after 

each session 







Remote security 

Disable host 








Disable host display 







Exclusive session 













Option 5 


Chat window 







File transfers 







Redirect printing from 

host to remote 







View list of available 








Host can initiate session 







Remote diagnostics 







Session log 








$795 for 



$495 for 



8 users 

per server 

per LAN 

2 users; 

$25 each 

additional user 

per LAN 

per server 

' Small host requires 20K bytes. Standard host uses 62K bytes; file transfer capability requires an additional 1 8K bytes of RAM. 

2 Host requires 68K bytes; Chat feature and Guard security require an extra 21 K bytes and 10K bytes of RAM, respectively. 

3 NetBIOS version supports CGA mode only. 

4 Supports one controlling machine on the network at one time but can broadcast screens to an unlimited number of workstations. 

5 Requires Remote 2, IBM Asynchronous Communications Server, or other protocol-compliant communications server. 

6 Host can initiate asynchronous sessions only. 

N/A=Not applicable. 

188 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 


LAN Remote-Control Software: Better than Being There 

connections only, but it offers an easy- 
to-use interface for end' users, as well as 
powerful remote diagnostics that will 
save network managers countless trips 
around the office. Netremote-I- requires 
little memory, supports applications run- 
ning in VGA mode, and includes Triton's 
remote-control dial-up software, Co/ 
Session— all for $350 per server. It's 
also the fastest product I tested. 

The Netremote-I- host module re- 
quires just 15K bytes of RAM. The re- 
mote module runs from the command 
line or as a 7K-byte TSR program. 

There's no host menu; command-line 
switches let you set the host password, 
break a connection, or unload the host 
program from memory. The remote 
menu lists all network nodes and station 
numbers, and it highlights those running 
as hosts. You can search for hosts by user 
ID, network address, or internetwork 

When you select a computer, Net- 
remote-I- displays configuration infor- 
mation that includes the node's SPX/IPX 
version, network interface card type and 
settings, and network address. If the ma- 
chine is operating as a host, Netremote + 
attempts to determine the host system's 
CPU type, DOS version, video adapter 
type, current video mode, and memory 
configuration. You can then control the 
host PC, view additional configuration 
information, or run diagnostic tests. 

Once you connect to the host, a pop-up 
menu lets you hang up or change your 
control options. Additional system infor- 
mation includes a memory map of the 
host system that lists programs running, 
the amount of memory used, and inter- 
rupts used. Server and network informa- 
tion is equally detailed. Diagnostics ex- 
ercise server connections, analyze the 
network traffic at the host, and display 
LAN adapter and IPX statistics. 

Using Netremote-I- didn't affect the 
host performance significantly. Remote 
screen performance was noticeably 
faster than with R2LAN or pcAnywhere 
IV /LAN when running graphical appli- 
cations. Tuning options determine how 
much host processor time Netremote + 
gets and how often remote screen up- 
dates occur. Netremote + ran all the ap- 
plication tests without problems, al- 
though Windows 3.0 required special 

Netremote-I- doesn't offer all the bells 
and whistles of R2LAN or pcAnywhere 
IV/LAN. But it's fast on graphics, and 
it provides invaluable information for 
system administrators. Unfortunately, 
the NetBIOS-compatible version of Net- 
remote-I- isn't as exciting. It only sup- 

ports CGA graphics and doesn't offer 
any remote diagnostics capabilities. 

The Network Eye 

The Network Eye 1.23 is the only other 
product besides Close-Up/LAN that lets 
you control more than one workstation at 
a time. Artisoft's $295-per-LAN licens- 
ing fee is the lowest in the group, and the 
program requires just 2K bytes of RAM 



Network Eye is the only 
product besides Close- 
Up /LAN that lets you 
control more than one 
workstation at a time. 

on the host. The program supports text 
mode only and works only with NetBIOS 
LANs (I used Novell's NetBIOS emula- 
tion program during testing). 

The Network Eye doesn't have menus. 
To initiate a session you press the insert 
key, which brings up a window, and 
enter the name of the workstation that 
you want to control. By repeating this 
process, you can have a "master" system 
control up to 32 "workstations" simulta- 
neously. Conversely, a workstation can 
have up to 99 masters and can restrict ac- 
cess to viewing only. Masters can move 
or resize windows and can toggle be- 
tween them. The Clipboard window lets 
you capture host screen information and 
transfer it between hosts, but it doesn't 
work with the local screen. 

You won't find many advanced fea- 
tures in The Network Eye. There's no 
chat window or session log, for example, 
and you can't remove the software with- 
out rebooting. The manual is short and 
not well organized. 

Performance was fair. On a controlled 
workstation with one master connected, 
CPU performance declined about 15 
percent. At the controlling workstation, 
screen response time was good. 

The Network Eye ran all applications 
satisfactorily except for Windows 3.0, 
which requires graphics support. The 
program also doesn't like himem. sys and 
smartdrv.sys. For text-mode applica- 
tions, The Network Eye works fine. But 

with so many applications now requiring 
graphics screens, chances are that at least 
one user on your LAN will find this 
package inadequate. 

pcAnywhere IV/LAN 

This new product from Dynamic Micro- 
processor Associates (DMA) integrates 
both node-to-node and remote dial-up 
connections in one package. Its gateway 
function enables off-LAN users to dial in 
through a gateway machine to control 
any host machine. Alternately, you can 
share the gateway machine's modem 
with all LAN users for outgoing calls. 
Operations take place in the background, 
freeing the gateway system for other 
tasks. pcAnywhere IV/LAN 4.02 also 
supports remote connections to NASI/ 
NCSI-compliant asynchronous commu- 
nications servers, such as Novell's ACS. 

pcAnywhere IV/LAN translates be- 
tween graphics modes so that a remote 
monochrome, EGA, or CGA system can 
view applications running in VGA mode 
on the host machine. The program sup- 
ports one active host session at a time, 
but you can "suspend" sessions and 
switch between them fairly quickly. 

LAN administrators create a shared 
set of configuration files that define host 
machines, gateway machines, and access 
privileges for each remote user. Alter- 
nately, users can maintain their own con- 
figuration files locally. Hosts can set 
passwords and session time limits, log 
calls, allow background file transfers, 
and even record sessions and play them 
back to see what remote users did. Re- 
mote users can also maintain session 

One menu system controls gateway, 
host, and remote operations. You start by 
entering a three-character user ID, nam- 
ing your machine, and then selecting 
host, gateway, or remote operation. Re- 
mote users can select from a predefined 
list of host and gateway machine names, 
and they can list currently available host 

pcAnywhere IV/LAN's diagnostics 
utility generates basic system configura- 
tion information and tests the communi- 
cations ports, video subsystem, and key- 
board for your local machine. It doesn't 
give you the same level of detail as Net- 
remote + , however, and you can't run the 
diagnostics tests remotely. 

All test applications ran without inci- 
dent. Establishing a session didn't affect 
host performance significantly, but re- 
mote screen response could have been 
better in VGA modes. pcAnywhere IV / 
LAN reproduced the host VGA mode 
screens at about the same rate as R2L AN 

JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 189 

The Macintosh Takes Control 

The Mac LAN remote-control soft- 
ware market has two products: Far- 
allon's Timbuktu 3.1 and Microcom's 
Carbon Copy Mac 1.0 (see table A). 
They function through various Apple- 
Talk network implementations such as 
LocalTalk, EtherTalk, and TokenTalk. 
Both are TOPS-compatible. In the par- 
lance of these products, the host is the 
Mac that is viewed or controlled, while 
the guest is the Mac that views or con- 
trols the host computer. Both host and 
guest use a single INIT and a desk ac- 
cessory to provide remote-control ser- 
vices. The INIT installs critical drivers 
at start-up that manage the network con- 
nection, screen imaging, and mouse/ 
keyboard control. The DA lets you set 
access rights and control file transfers. 
You also use this DA to select the host 
from a list of network names. 

Timbuktu and Carbon Copy Mac let 
you passively view the host's screen or 
actively control the host using your own 
mouse and keystrokes. However, the 
host Mac always has the option of break- 
ing the connection. Both provide peer- 
to-peer file transfer capabilities— that 
is, no server is required. Since a DA 
provides access control, you can con- 
nect and watch a host screen in a back- 
ground window as you continue your 
work, even under the Finder. If the host 
has a larger screen than yours (e.g., if 
you're using a Mac SE to view a Mac 
II), the host screen is displayed in a 
draggable, scrolling window. 

Only when the host screen changes 
does this software relay the changes to 
the guests. This lowers network traffic, 
but the overhead involved reduces the 
host's performance. On the Mac Ilci, 
this performance penalty is scarcely 
perceptible; on a Mac SE, the system 
slows down noticeably when a guest 

Both Timbuktu and Carbon Copy 
Mac relay only black-and-white screens 
to the guest, even if the host has a color 
display. This reduces the amount of data 
sent through the network, but it also 
makes remote work with color-imaging 
applications problematic. For the same 
reason, the host only relays beep signals 
to the guest; the actual beep sound is not 
reproduced on the guest Mac. 

Timbuktu 3.1 

Timbuktu ($298 for two users) lets you 
observe one or more host screens simul- 

Tom Thompson 

file Edit UmliuKlu' 

Timbuktu monitoring several sessions simultaneously. 

The Timbuktu DA window in the lower left is used to 

create connections to each host. Clicking on certain icons 

determines whether you control or view the host. 

6 File Edit 


w Fife Edit Font Size Style Format Spelling Uiem 




j OepthKey Doc j 





[ Uisit ] 
[ Leaue j 
[File Hfer..T) 

[ About... I I 

Connection: flppIeTalk 

Installin g De pthK ey 

There are several iragra to install an FICEY into youx Mac ; 

1) Use ResEdit. This application le* you cut-and- pa 
the System file. DepthKey's file type and creator are 
automatically launches ResEdit. You can Also use ResEc 
number yau prefer. The down side » ResEdit is that it's a 
to everyone. And if you're not sure vhat yau're doing, y 
making your Mac unusable. Make sure you have a cop) 
just in case you obliterate the System file on your Mac, 
(there's a $20?year membership fee, and veil worth the pr 

2) Use an FICEY installer. There are several share fl 
installation »o pointing and clicking, and eliminates $ Hpp'eiaiK <!ones 

dowloaded from fine on-line systems such ss America 

3) Use a *ie30nrce manager". If you're not using 
resource manager te* you hare practically an unto 
accessories, and sounds on your Max;. Better still, thes« 
your Sys*m file, but can be stored in separate files. Wh& 
will adjust things so that goodies saved in these files are available to you. The mo most exceHSSn?? 

, ,m,gmiir a nnanatt fl iy . Jia , &uUC *a a . , . t Ufa-yen . TT . ifth , f iA ^ » ^ ^ t > o , ft. . ftvg fe.> v t j.^^ t -i.l-Lit.>j^^ l i;i ruV ia; - ..U^.^ L — , 

^j Page 2 T5T M LuEi 

You can connect to a host via Carbon Copy Mac 's 

DA window, seen at the right of the screen. 

You can monitor only one host at a time, in this case 

a Mac Ilsi with a low-cost screen. 


j Carbon Copy (Ted) 

[ Host Options... ) 
fluailable Hosts 

□ Be a Host 

190 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 

taneously. It provides a rich array of ac- 
cess controls for the network expert. A 
configurable password table lets you set 
varying levels of host access, as deter- 
mined by the password that the guest 
uses to connect. Different passwords 
can provide combinations of control/ 
view access and determine whether the 
guest can send, receive, or delete the 
host's files. 

Timbuktu's menu-bar icon flashes 
when a guest connects to a host. This 
icon also provides a pull-down menu 
that supplies a guest log (i.e., who con- 
nected to the host); lets you modify the 
access rights (e.g., change a guest from 
a controller to a viewer); and discon- 
nects a particular guest or all guests. 

In a teaching environment, where 
dozens of Macs are guests to an instruc- 
tor's computer, the host can "broad- 
cast" its actions rather than maintain in- 
dividual sessions with each guest. This 
reduces network traffic, but it can cause 
conflicts with routers or bridges that use 
the same broadcast socket (the net- 
work's logical address for broadcast 
data) to query the network for printers 
or other bridges. Timbuktu sidesteps 
this problem by allowing you to change 
the broadcast socket number. 

Carbon Copy Mac 1 . 

Carbon Copy Mac uses a minimalist in- 
terface that effectively spares the user 
from network details. It displays only a 
single host screen at a time. A two-user 
package costs $299. 

A single password allows host access. 
The host configuration determines the 
guest's control privileges and file trans- 
fer capabilities. As a guest, you can se- 
lect a specific network zone to search 
when looking for a host Mac. 

You can set the host so that guests re- 
quire the host's permission to connect. 
An alert box with the guest's name ap- 
pears, and the host can approve or deny 
the connection. Unlike with Timbuktu, 
you can't be selective about disconnect- 
ing guests: Once you disable the hosting 
function, all attached guests are discon- 

Carbon Copy Mac can also connect 
to a remote host via a serial connection. 
(Farallon offers a separate package, 
Timbuktu/Remote, to accomplish this.) 
A pop-up menu enables you to choose 
whether to use an AppleTalk or serial 

A Choice of Pathways 

I used a Mac Ilci, Mac SE, and Mac II 
for my networking tests. The only prob- 
lem I encountered was a conflict be- 


Table A: Both Carbon 

Copy Mac and Timbuktu support host graphics 

screens on the remote 

machine in black and white only. Timbuktu offers a 

broadcast mode that 's 

handy in classroom situations. Carbon Copy 

Mac supports asynchronous dial-up connections as 

well as node-to-node 

sessions. Farallon supports asynchronous connections through its 

Timbuktu/Remote package. 


Carbon Copy Mac 1 .0 

Timbuktu 3.1 

Networks supported 









Memory required 

Host and guest 

250K bytes 1 

90K bytes 1 

Graphics support 

Black-and-white viewing 

Black-and-white viewing 

QuickDraw/bit maps 



Maximum concurrent 


Per host 

Limited by memory 

Limited by memory 

Per remote 


Limited by memory 

Daisy chain sessions 



Broadcast host screens O 


Host security 

Password access 


Notify when 

connection made 


Reject connection 



Terminate session 


Restrict remote 

to view only 


Allow/disallow remote 

host reboot 


Reboot after each 




Guest security 

Disable host keyboard 



Disable host display 



Exclusive session 







File transfers 



Host can initiate 




Session log 




$299 for 2 users; 

$149 peruser; 

$199 each additional user; 

$1995 for 30 users 

$999 for 1 5 users 

1 Additional memory usage determined by screen size and operating mode. 
•=yes; O=no. 

tween the Carbon Copy INIT and Mas- 
ter Juggler 1.53 when booting the Mac 
Ilci in the the host mode. My typical 
workday host of applications— Mind- 
Write, MacWrite II, Photoshop, Illus- 
trator, and White Knight 10. 10— oper- 
ated without problems. 

While both products worked flaw- 
lessly, I found Timbuktu's refined net- 
working controls more to my taste than 

Carbon Copy's minimal interface. My 
preferences are based on the fact that I 
maintain BYTE's AppleShare network; 
someone with less network experience 
might prefer Carbon Copy's setup to 
keep network matters simple. 

Tom Thompson is a BYTE senior editor 
at large. You can reach him on BIX as 
li tomjthompson. " 

JANUARY 1991 •BYTE 191 

Circle 377 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 378) 


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Boca Raton, FL 33431 
Ph (407)750-8061 Fax (407)750-8057 



did. . Adjusting the screen update rate 
didn't help. 

pcAnywhere IV/LAN's many unique 
features come at a price. An eight-user 
license costs $645. The program also 
takes its share of memory: It requires at 
least 62K bytes on a host— 80K bytes 
with the background file transfer option. 
But once you've configured the host, you 
can run a small version of the software 
that uses just 20K bytes of RAM. And 
if you use a memory manager such as 
Quarterdeck's QEMM, you can config- 
ure pcAnywhere IV/LAN to automati- 
cally load into high memory on the host 
when the session begins. The remote 
software doesn't run as a TSR program. 
You can temporarily exit to DOS, but 
pcAnywhere occupies 465K bytes of 
RAM, leaving little room to run any- 
thing else. 

pcAnywhere IV/LAN isn't as easy to 
use as Close-Up/LAN or Netremote + , 
but it's still one of the best programs I 
tested. Shared configuration files make 
administration a breeze, and its ability to 
support background gateway operations 
is a plus. 


DCA's R2LAN 2.0 doesn't have fancy 
remote diagnostics capabilities, but it 
does support VGA screens and just about 
every feature you might want. It also has 
the most comprehensive security of any 
package I tested. R2LAN supports one- 
to-one connections only. 

Setting up R2LAN takes some work 
up front. At each host you set up an ac- 
count for each remote that includes a 
password and specific privileges. Only 
the host user or a remote user with system 
manager rights can work with these ac- 

At the remote mach ine, you set up a di- 
aling directory that includes the host 
name, password, and a few caller op- 
tions. A pop-up menu lets you end the 
session, transfer files, disable the host 
video and keyboard, redirect printing, 
and save text-mode host screens to disk. 

For extra security, you can load a 
rights mask that restricts each remote 
user's access to specific host drives or di- 
rectories, and curtails their access rights 
within those areas. Remote users can 
have read, write, create, delete, search, 
open, or modify rights. 

R2LAN ran the application test suite 
smoothly. Screen response at the calling 
machine was fast, except when running 
in VGA mode. R2LAN required about 
20 seconds to draw a Quattro Pro pie 
chart that Netremote + did in just 2 sec- 
onds. Establishing a remote connection 

192 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 

Circle 101 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 102) 

The best got better. 

SYSTAT 5.0's new menus make the top-rated 
statistical program even easier to use. 

SYSTAT is the only package 
to receive these three awards. 

Mlllta ntn BBS frtft ttttlrttn - | 




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New Features Menus or commands— your choice Rewritten 
documentation includes statistics tutorials Fast, built-in drivers for 
SYGRAPH Global mapping and many new plots Multi way repeated 
measures Means model for missing cells designs Post-hoc tests 
Interactive stepwise regression. 

Statistics Basic statistics, frequencies, Mests, post-hoc tests 

Multi way crosstabs with log-linear modeling, association 
coefficients, PRE statistics, Mantel-Haenszel, asymptotic standard 
errors Nonparametric statistics (sign, runs, Wilcoxon, Kruskal- 
Wallis, Friedman two-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U, Kolmogorov- 
Smirnov, Lilliefors, Kendall coefficient of concordance] Pairwise/ 
listwise deletion of missing values, Pearson correlation, SSCP, 
covariance, Spearman, Gamma, Kendall Tau, Euclidean distances, 
binary similarities Linear, polynomial, multiple, stepwise, weighted 
regression with extended diagnostics Multivariate general linear 
model includes multi way ANOVA, ANCOVA, MANOVA, repeated 
measures, canonical correlation Principal components, factor 
analysis, rotations, components scores Multidimensional scaling 
Multiple and canonical discriminant analysis, Bayesian classification 
Cluster analysis (hierarchical, single, average, complete, median, 
centroid linkage, k-means, cases, variables] Time series [smoothers, 
exponential smoothing, seasonal and nonseasonal ARIMA, ACF, 
PACF, CCF, transformations, Fourier analysis] Nonlinear estimation 
[nonlinear regression, maximum likelihood estimation, and more]. 

Graphics Overlay plots Drivers for most graphics devices 
Two-dimensional: Error bars Scatterplots Line and vector graphs 
Vector, dot, bubble and quantile plots Bar graphs (single, multiple, 
stacked, range] Box plots (single and grouped] Stem-and-leaf 
diagrams Linear, quadratic, step, spline, polynomial, LOWESS, 
exponential smoothing Confidence intervals and ellipses (any alpha 
value] Smooth mathematical functions Rectangular or polar 
coordinates Log and powerscales ANOVA interaction plots 
Histograms (regular, cumulative, fuzzy] Stripe and jitter plots 
Gaussian histogram smoothing Scatterplot matrices Voronoi 

tesselations Minimum spanning tree Maps with geographic 
projections (U.S. state boundary file included, county and world 
boundary files available] Chernoff faces Star plots Fourier plots 
Pie charts Contour plots on regularly and irregularly spaced points 
Control charts and limits Three-dimensional: Data plots Smooth 
function plots Vector plots Linear, quadratic, spline, least squares 
surface smoothing Typefaces that print in perspective. 

Data Management Import/export Lotus, dBase, and DIF 
files Full screen data editor Full screen text editor Unlimited 
cases Missing data, arrays, character variables Capability to 
process hierarchical, rectangular or triangular files, irregular length 
records Character, numeric, and nested sorts Merge and append 
large files Unlimited numeric and character variable transformations 
Subgroup processing with SELECT and BY Value labels and RECODE 
statements Macro processor with programming language, screen 
control, file manipulation, applications generation, and report writing. 

SYSTAT operates on IBM PC's® and compatibles, MS-DOS? 
VAX®/Microvax and Macintosh? Site licenses, quantity prices and 
training seminars available. No fees for technical support. 


SYSTAT. Intelligent software. 

For more information call or write: SYSTAT, Inc. 1800 Sherman Avenue, Evanston, Illinois 60201-3793 Tel: 708.864.5670 Fax: 708.492.3567 
For international representatives call: Australia 61.3.4974755. Canada 416.424.1700, Finland 358.0.6923800. France 33.1.40935000, 
Germany 49.61.265950, Italy 39.587.213640, Japan 81.3.5902311. New Zealand 64.71.562675. Norway 47.3.892240, Sweden 46.8.110620. 
Switzerland 41.31.416611, The Netherlands 31.3402.66336, UK: Letchworth 44.462.482822, London 44.81.6926636. London SE 44.0753.841686 

Circle 310 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 311) 


LAN Remote-Control Software 

didn't have a significant effect on host 

R2LAN supports remote dial-up con- 
nections on NetBIOS LANs that are run- 
ning IBM Asynchronous Communications 
Server or compatible communications 
servers. Otherwise, you'll need Remote2 
($195) for off-LAN connections. 

The R2LHOST program gobbles up 
68K bytes of RAM. Adding a chat win- 


is a good choice for 
LAN administrators 

who want to 

closely control access 

to host machines. 

dow (2 IK bytes) and Guard (10K bytes) 
increases the memory hit to almost 1 00K 
bytes. R2LCALL doesn't run as a TSR 
program. You can hot-key to DOS during 
a session, but you lose 155K bytes of 
RAM. Both programs can run under 

In smaller, more informal LANs, 
R2LAN's extended features and fancy 
configuration menus are probably over- 
kill—especially when you consider the 
$795 per LAN price. But it's a good 
choice for LAN administrators who want 
to closely control access to host ma- 
chines, and once set up, the package is 
easy to use. I liked R2LAN's well-orga- 
nized and illustrated documentation and 
context-sensitive help screens. I'd like to 
see faster VGA screen updates and an op- 
tion for callers to view a list of available 
host machines, but otherwise, the prod- 
uct is top-notch. 

Screen Monitor 

D-Link's Screen Monitor 5 . 1 does things 
a little bit differently. Here a "host" con- 
trols one "client" or views many client 
screens. The host can broadcast its 
screen to all clients, or capture any client 
screen and broadcast it to other clients on 
the LAN. 

The host software requires 18K bytes 
of RAM. Only one host system can oper- 
ate on the network at a time. A hot key 
brings up the menu. To control another 
workstation, you enter its name. The cli- 

194 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 

ent screen then appears, and a "Remote 
Controlling [station name]" message 
flickers atop the screen in reverse video. 
I couldn't remove this message, which 
blocked part of the Quattro Pro menu. 

You can monitor a client screen or 
create client groups that you want to 
monitor. Screen Monitor dutifully cycles 
through these screens, pausing for 3 sec- 
onds at each. You can stop cycling by 
holding down the Fl key, but there's no 
option to step through the screens or 
change the cycle time. 

Screen Monitor doesn't have many 
other features. There's no chat window 
or file transfer capability. Clients can't 
restrict access by password or prevent a 
controlling user from rebooting their 
workstations. You can't hot-key to your 
local screen while controlling another 
workstation. The memory-resident host 
and client software won't unload without 
rebooting. Screen Monitor only supports 
graphics modes up to EGA. Documenta- 
tion is also poor. But Screen Monitor's 
biggest weakness is its performance. 

Controlling a client cut its perfor- 
mance in half. At the host machine, re- 
sponse time was unacceptably slow. Key- 
strokes took 1 to 2 seconds to echo back 
to the host system, and screen updates 
were jerky. Except for Windows 3.0, all 
the applications I tested ran fine. A con- 
flict between client.exe and smartdrv 
.sys caused Procomm Plus to fail. Re- 
moving smartdrv. sys from the CON- 
FIG.SYS file solved the problem. 

As a remote-control tool, Screen 
Monitor doesn't cut it. Other programs 
offer more features, better performance, 
and the ability to have many remote 
workstations controlling hosts on the net- 
work simultaneously. This product is 
best suited to one-to-many teaching situ- 
ations where rapid screen updates aren't 
an issue. For those users, the program's 
$295 per server price may make Screen 
Monitor worth considering. 

Controlling Factors 

For one-to-one connections over Net- 
Ware, Netremote+ offers the best com- 
bination of features and performance at a 
good price. It supports host VGA screens 
at the remote machine, executes fast re- 
mote screen updates without degrading 
host machine performance, provides 
asynchronous, off-LAN connections 
through bundled Co/Session software, 
uses little host memory, and, above all, 
is easy to use. The program's extensive 
remote diagnostics capabilities under 
NetWare are an invaluable tool for LAN 
administrators and support technicians. 
And at $350 per server, it's one of the 






in a 



by Julie Caruso 

Business automation needs do not 
change simply because a slowing economy 
threatens. The willingness of business to 
make the commitment to meet those 
needs, however, becomes more closely tied 
to the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of 
the technology available in light of an 
uncertain economic future. 

This presents a challenge to the computer 
industry to provide solutions that are 
sensitive to both technological and economic 
concerns. An important example is the 
economics of connectivity. The need to 
provide employees with the technology to 
share data, hardware and software resources 
can actually increase in a slowing economy. 

For companies who need a connectivity 
solution for an existing base of PCs, a LAN 
offers the ability to share information, 
printers and other resources while 
preserving the existing technology 
investment. In terms of performance, a 
LAN is most efficient in CPU-intensive 
activities like computer-aided design. 

For companies who need to expand their 
computer resources, multiuser systems 
become an extremely effective choice. 
Providing the speed and power of 80386- 
and 80486-based PCs for an entire corporate 
department or small business can be 
enormously expensive. With a multiuser 
solution like The Software Link's PC-MOS, 
the speed and power of one PC can be 
shared by up to 25 users working on dumb 
terminals that can cost thousands of dollars 
less than individual computers. Existing PCs 
can still be used by installing PC EmuLink, 
a terminal emulation software product. 

Because PC-MOS is a DOS-compatible 
operating system, the existing investment 
in software and training is not lost. And 
like a LAN, PC-MOS allows a business to 
share expensive resources such as laser 
printers. Because multiuser systems are 
generally easier to use and maintain 
than LANs, the expense of a network 
administrator is usually avoided. Multiuser 
system performance is generally best in 
disk-intensive environments like accounting. 

In an uncertain economic environment, 
The Software Link is one company that 
expects the multiuser computing 
environment to gather even greater 
strength. The combination of performance 
and efficiency with the PC-MOS platform 
add up to a sound investment in the future. 

Julie Caruso is Managing Director and 
Director of Sales and Marketing for The 
Software Link, Inc. in Atlanta, Georgia. For 
more information, call 1-800-451-UNK 


Circle 324 on Reader Service Card 


The Multiuser DOS Platform 

For The '90s 

The 386 and now the 486 microprocessors have 
focused a lot of attention on the multiuser, multi- 
tasking possibilities of advanced PCs. A myriad of 
software and hardware manufacturers are promis- 
ing a new age of multiuser options in the '90s. 

But when you take a closer look, only one solu- 
tion focuses on the features you want and antici- 
pates the capabilities you need to use your PCs to 
their greatest potential. That solution is PC-MOS™ 
from The Software Link, the first DOS-compatible, 
multiuser, multitasking operating system. 

A Network Alternative 

The advantage to the PC-MOS shared processing 
solution is its ability to maximize the available 
memory on your PC, taking full advantage of ex- 
tended memory and sharing it with up to 25 users 
on inexpensive terminals or monitors. You can 
share data with the same speed and integrity of a 
network solution without the expense of network 
cards and the waste of under-utilized PCs. And no 
additional investment is required to get the multi- 
tasking capabilities inherent in PC-MOS. 

A Network Enhancer 

For affordable network expansion, PC-MOS 
servers can be connected to other servers with 
The Software Link's LANLink or with the PC-MOS 

PC-MOS is a trademark of The Software Link. All other products referenced are 
trademarks of their respective companies. Prices, policies and specifications subject 
to change without notice. 

GATEWAY™ to Novell's NetWare®. This connectiv- 
ity lets a business configure its automation systems 
for departmental efficiency and expand affordably 
as needs grow with LANs or even WANs. 

DOS Compatible 

The PC-MOS alternative is clear: DOS compati- 
bility means your users can continue to use all the 
popular software packages. And that means no 
investment loss, no retraining and no limitations 
in available applications. 

An Unbeatable Solution 

The next decade of shared processing will be 
clouded with choices. Only one operating system 
was first to offer you DOS-compatible, multiuser, 
multitasking solutions. Only one operating system 
continues to provide unbeatable multiuser solu- 
tions for over 150,000 users. PC-MOS from The 
Software Link. Call today and set your computing 
sights on a more productive horizon. 


1-800-451 -LINK 

3577 Parkway Lane, Norcross, GA 30092 
(404)448-5465 FAX: (404)263-6474 TELEX: 4996147 SWLINK 

Ask about our Sales Support Program 

GSA Schedule/GSOOK 90 AGS6448 
Circle 326 an Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 327) 

Circle 146 on Reader Service Card 

Rack & Desk 
PC/AT Chassis 

Integrand's new Chassis/System is not 
another IBM mechanical and electrical 
clone. An entirely fresh packaging design 
approach has been taken using modular 
construction. At present, over 40 optional 
stock modules allow you to customize our 
standard chassis to nearly any requirement. 
Integrand offers high quality, advanced 
design hardware along with applications 
and technical support all at prices competi- 
tive with imports. Why settle for less? 

Rack & Desk Models 

Accepts PC, XT, AT Motherboards 

and Passive Backplanes 

Doesn't Look Like IBM 

Rugged, Modular Construction 
Excellent Air Flow & Cooling 

Optional Card Cage Fan 

Designed to meet FCC 

204 Watt Supply, UL Recognized 
145W & 85W also available 

Reasonably Priced 


Call or write for descriptive brochure and prices: 
8620 Roosevelt Ave. • Visalia, CA 93291 


TELEX 5106012830 (INTEGRAND UD) 

FAX 209/651-1353 

We accept Bank Americard/VISA and MasterCard 

IBM, PC, XT, AT trademarks of International Business Machines. 
Drives and computer boards not included. 

196 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 

LAN Remote-Control Software 


Artisoft, Inc. 

Microcom Systems, Inc. 

(The Network Eye 1.23) 

(Carbon Copy Mac 1 .0) 

575 East River Rd. 

500 River Ridge Dr. 

Tucson, AZ 85704 

Norwood, MA 02062 

(602) 293-6363 


Inquiry 1076. 

Inquiry 1081. 

Brightwork Development, Inc. 

Norton-Lambert Corp. 

(Netremote-r- 4.1) 

(Close-Up/LAN 2.5) 

766 Shrewsbury Ave. 

P.O. Box 4085 

Jerral Center W 

Santa Barbara, CA 93140 

Tinton Falls, NJ 07724 

(805) 964-6767 

(800) 552-9876 

Inquiry 1082. 


Inquiry 1077. 


Although not included in this review, 

(R2LAN 2.0) 

the following companies also sell 

1000 Alderman Dr. 

LAN remote-control software: 

Alpharetta, GA 30201 

(404) 442-4000 

Fresh Technology Group 

Inquiry 1078. 

(LAN Assist Plus) 

1478 North Tech Blvd., Suite 101 

D-Link Systems, Inc. 

Gilbert, AZ 85234 

(Screen Monitor 5. 1) 


5 Musick 

Inquiry 1084. 

Irvine, CA 92718 

(714) 455-1688 

LAN Systems 

Inquiry 1083. 


300 Park Ave. S 

Dynamic Microprocessor Associates 

New York, NY 10010 

(pcAnywhere IV/LAN 4.02) 

(800) 458-5267 

1776 East Jerico Tpk. 

Inquiry 1085. 

Huntington, NY 11743 


MicroNet, Inc. 

Inquiry 1079. 


2356 Parkside Dr. 

Farallon Computing, Inc. 

Boise, ID 83712 

(Timbuktu 3.1) 


2000 Powell St., Suite 600 

Inquiry 1086. 

Emeryville, CA 94608 


Ultinet Development, Inc. 

Inquiry 1080. 

(Remote Access) 

P.O. Box 34016 

Los Angeles, CA 90034 


(remote control for OS/2 workstations) 

Inquiry 1087. 

least expensive programs I tested. 

R2LAN and pcAnywhere IV/LAN are 
both better choices for NetBIOS LANs. 
They're more elaborate, more expensive, 
and not quite as fast or as easy to use as 
Netremote + . But each has unique capa- 
bilities that may make it a better choice 
for you. If host security is your primary 
concern, R2LAN should be at the top of 
your list. Otherwise, pcAnywhere IV/ 
LAN gets my vote. It offers good secu- 
rity and has many unique features, in- 
cluding asynchronous gateway operation, 

that make the product worth DM A's ask- 
ing price. 

If you need to establish multiple simul- 
taneous sessions, Close-Up/LAN is the 
clear winner. This easy-to-use program 
supports only CGA screens, but it re- 
quires little host memory and supports 
16 sessions on each host and remote 
machine. ■ 

Robert Mitchell is a technical editor in 
the BYTE Lab. You can reach him on BIX 
as "rob_mitchell." 

386 and 486 Windows users: 

DOS lives. 

Despite what you 
may have read. 

Insufficient memory to run application; 

close one or more applications to increase 
available memory and try again. 

Windows 3.0 may have been a big When Windows 3.0 says there's not enough room to run your 
step forward for some programs. DOS programs, it's just trying to tell you it needs QEMM 5.1. 

But it was a big step backward for TA7 . , v L „ . , ,. L 

DOS. Suddenly, it was 1987 all over Wl " d ™ s , You & et a11 the s f me be f flts: 

again. Not enough room for DOS U P to 130K ™ re f mor y to u run the 

programs to run because TSRs, utilities, new § eneratl( f ° ^mory-hungry pro- 

drivers and buffers were taking up 
room your DOS programs need. 

QEMM 5.1 to the rescue 

Now, we've updated QEMM to 
provide additional memory for DOS 
programs within Windows 3.0. 

QEMM 5.1 works with the built-in 
capabilities of your 80386 or i486 
processor to find and recover unused 
memory segments. As you can see in 
the chart, there are gaps in your PC's 
memory usage above 640K. QEMM 5.1 
fills those gaps and provides more room 
for your DOS programs to run. 

And of course, QEMM 5.1 still works 
with DOS when you're not running 

grams; space for larger spreadsheets 
and database files. 


System ROM 

System ROM 

J ^B 

V Network Driver ■ 

ftlvh f.w.l.n ■ 

Network Adapter 1 

w Network Adapter 





Unused memory is like hidden gold in your 
PC. QEMM finds it and makes it available. 


DESQview 2.3 and 

DESQview 386 2.3 

for users of Windows 3.0 

They said it couldn't be done, but 
DESQview 2.3 can run Windows 3.0 
programs. Not Justin Windows "Real 
mode" but in "Standard" mode. That 
means programs can be up to 16MB. 

And it can run DOS programs and 
DOS-extended programs i.e., 1-2-3 
Release 3, side-by-side. 

DESQview 386 2.3 does all that and 
more. It lets you run 386 DOS extended 
programs like AutoCAD 386 and IBM 
Interleaf side-by-side. 

DOS, extended DOS; Windows- 
whatever standards you set, we will 
support. We're committed to helping 
you get the most out of your hardware 
and software today. And tomorrow. 

QEMM-386 System Requirements: 80386-based I>Csand PS/2s and PCs with 
80386 add-in boards. Operating system: PC DOS 204.0, MS DOS 2.04.0, Windows 
3.0. Conventional memory requirement 1.5K. 

DESQview System Requirements: IBM Peisonal Computer and 100% compatibles 
(with 8086, 8088, 80286, 80386 or i486 processors) with monochrome or coior 
display; IBM Personal System/2 • Memory: 640K recommended; for DESQview 
itself (M55K • Expanded Memory (Optional): expanded memory ards compat- 
ible with the Intel AboveBoard; enhanced expanded memory boards compatible 
with the AST RAMpage; EMS 4.0 expanded memory ards • Disk: two diskette 
drives or one dis ette drive and a hard disk • Graphi cs Card (Optional): Hercules, 
IBM Color/Graphics (CCA). IBM Enhanced Graphics (EGA), IBM PS/2 Advanced 
Graphics (VGA) • Mouse (Optional): Mouse Systems, Microsoft and compatibles 

• Modem for Auto-Dialer (Optional): Hayes or compatible • Operating System: PC- 
DOS 2.0-4.0; MS-DOS 2.04.0 • Software: Most PC-DOS and MS-DOS programs; 
programs specific to Microsoft Windows 1.03-3.0, GEM 1.1-3.0, IBM TopView 1.1 

• Media: DESQview is available on either 5-' A" or3-'A" floppy diskette. 

Trademarks: Windows, MS-DOS: Microsoft Corporation; PS/2, Interleaf, TopView: 
MM Corporation; 80386, i486, AboveBoard: Intel Corporation; 1-2-3: Lotus 
Development Corporation, AutoCAD 386: Autodesk, Inc; RAMpage: AST 
Research; Hercules; MouseSystems; Hayes; GEM, Digital Research, Inc. 

^/oOl I need increased DOS 
lv3« productivity in Windows! 

Payment method □ Visa □ MasterCard 

Expiration / 

Card # I I I | I | I I II I | I I 

Pry Product 

QEMM 386 5.1 


DESQview 386 2.3 (includes QEMM) 

DESQview 2.3 

3-V2 Each 






Shipping & Handling $5 in USA/$10 outside USA 

California Residents add 6.75% 

' Grand Total 

Please allow 3 weeks for delivery 


State Zip_ 

© 1990 QuarterdeckOf f ice Systems 

Quarterdeck Office Systems, 150 Pico Blvd., Santa Monica, CA 90405 (213) 392-9851 Fax: (213) 399-3802 

Circle 271 on Reader Service Card 

Freedom of Choice. 

At Jameco, you have the freedom to choose from 
a complete line of starter, mid-range, and full 
powered computer kits. You also have the 
freedom to build and expand these kits by 
choosing the major components that best suit 
your individual needs: from memory, monitors, 
and disk drives; to scanners, mice, and 
trackballs; to cables, power protectors, and more. 

Take a look at two of our 80386 and 80386SX 
expandable computer kits: 

Jameco 25MHz 
80386 Computer Kit 


• 80386 25MHz Motherboard, 4MB RAM 
(expandable to 8MB) 

• 101-key enhanced keyboard 

• Multi I/O Card 

• Toshiba 1.44MB, 3.5" DSHD floppy disk drive 

• Desktop computer case 

• 200 Watt power supply 

• DR DOS 5.0 by Digital Research and Diagsoft's 
QAPlus diagnostic software 




Jameco 16MHz 
80386SX Computer Kit 


• 80386SX 16MHz Motherboard, 2MB RAM 
(expandable to 8MB) 

• 101-key enhanced keyboard 

• Multi I/O Card 

• Toshiba 1.44MB, 3.5" DSHD floppy disk drive 

• Desktop computer case 

• 200 Watt power supply 

• DR DOS 5.0 by Digital Research and Diagsoft's 
QAPlus diagnostic software 




monitor extra 

Gall us for our new 1991 catalog. In it you'll find an 
extensive offering of quality computer products and 
electronic components. You have the freedom to order 
24 hours a day and if you need assistance, expert 
technicians are available from 7 am to 4 pm (PST) to 
help you with all your computing needs. Enjoy the 
freedom of choice. Gall Jameco today at (415) 592-8097. 

. on order, a 

call out 



1355 Shoreway Rd., Belmont, GA 94002 
(415) 592-8097 FAX: (415) 592-2503 

T0P nrderho^ 

2 ^ 592-8097- 

Terms: Prices arc subject to change without notice. Items subject to availability and prior sale. Complete list of terms/warranties is available upon request. 

All trade names arc registered trademarks of their respective companies. 
© 1/91 Jameco Computer Products 


reler lo 

Mail Key 1 


Circle 162 on Reader Service Card 

24 Hours a Day. 


Birds, turtles, crocodiles — just as the egg is 
nature's most efficient design for delivering complex life systems, DTK's 
KEEN-3300 Series is the ideal 386 computer with which to build your net- 
work or multi-user system. As a fileserver, networkstation or standalone 
system, its unique write-back cache (64KB/256KB) and competitive price 
make it one of the most cost-efficient, high-speed systems available. 


Over 100 full-time design and manufacturing 
engineers work together to ensure that dependability is "built-in." 
Then, QC personnel scrutinize every DTK motherboard and system to 
the most stringent standards in the industry. Over 2,000,000 satisfied 
customers testify to our reputation for quality and dependability. 


Like the egg, the basic KEEN-3300 is merely 
the beginning. Its 16 MBytes of high-speed RAM, 8 expansion slots and 
7 drive bays (server) provide the flexibility you need to expand your 
system as your requirements grow. 

The KEEN-3300 — a powerful beginning at a price that 
won't crack your budget. Call for the dealer nearest you, 1 
DTK Computer Inc., (818) 333-7533. 15711 E. Valley Blvd., 
City of Industry, CA 91744. Fax: (818) 333-5429. 

A reputation for success. 

(818) 333-7533 

(408) 436-6363 

(713) 568-6688 


(708) 593-3080 

DTK is a trademark of Data tech Enterprises Co., Ltd. 80386 is a trademark of INTEL C«rp. ^DTK Computer Inc.. 1990. 


(305) 477-7440 

Circle 99 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 100) 


Tom Badgett and Corey Sandler 


"Ultra" VGA Debuts on the MicroPaq 

< Photo 2: A 
MicroPaq board 
with an Edsun 
Labs graphics 
chip displayed 
this 35,000-color 
demo image on a 
VGA monitor. At 
press time, 
drivers weren 't 
available to run 

Photo 1: Monolithic 's 
MicroPaq 452 Ultra uses 
a custom graphics chip from 
Edsun Labs to simultaneously 
display 700,000 colors on a 
standard VGA monitor. 

On the surface, Monolithic Sys- 
tems' MicroPaq 452 Ultra looks 
like a handy multifunction board 
that enables you to install hard and flop- 
py disk drive controllers, parallel and 
serial ports, and a graphics adapter into a 
single expansion slot. But run it with a 
custom software driver on a standard 
VGA monitor, and you'll see its secret. 
An Edsun Labs Continuous Edge Graph- 
ics (CEG) chip on the board displays 
graphics images on a standard PC that ri- 
val those seen on some high-end engi- 
neering workstations. 

The Edsun CEG chip eliminates jag- 
ged oblique lines (aliasing) while dis- 
playing over 700,000 colors; standard 
VGA displays support a maximum of 256 
simultaneous colors. You can think of the 
chip design as the "TV approach" to 
computer display. Even though screen 
resolutions are only 525 lines, broadcast 
TV images don't suffer from the jaggies, 
thanks to the large numberof colors used 
in TV broadcasts. Instead of trying to 
achieve higher and higher actual resolu- 
tions, the Edsun design relies on thou- 
sands of colors and the ability to combine 
two colors in a single pixel. This fills in 
the edges of lines that would appear jag- 

ged with conventional technologies. 

The color approach to improving ap- 
parent resolution works because beyond 
resolutions of 400 lines or so, the human 
eye can't distinguish between actual res- 
olution improvements and color enhance- 
ments that produce apparent improve- 
ments in resolutions. And because the 
images run on a standard fixed-frequen- 
cy VGA display, there's no need to spend 
extra money on a high-resolution display. 

CEG Explained 

Monolithic Systems is one of the first 
vendors to ship the CEG chip in produc- 
tion versions of motherboards and multi- 
function cards (see photo 1). Monolithic 
markets the $765 MicroPaq 452 Ultra 
primarily for CAD, business graphics, 
and desktop publishing applications. 

Edsun's CEG/DAC (D/A converter) is 
a pin-for-pin replacement for most of the 
popular RAM/DAC chips used in cur- 
rent VGA display adapters, including the 
Brooktree BT471/8 and Analog Devices 
ADV476 chips. Edsun supplies its chips 
in various packages to match different 
RAM/DAC configurations. The chip it- 
self costs board manufacturers about $20 
and requires little or no hardware rede- 

sign to reside on existing VGA boards, 
according to Edsun. 

Although commercial versions of the 
hardware were shipping at press time, 
custom video drivers that support the 
CEG technology weren't available when 
we evaluated the board. Monolithic says 
it plans to be shipping drivers for Lotus 
1-2-3, AutoCAD, and Windows 3.0 by 
the time you read this. Edsun is writing 
driver software for these environments 
and is releasing code to encourage devel- 
opers to write for other applications. Ed- 
sun believes the technology could en- 
courage software developers to combine 
graphics with databases, for example. 

Software that takes advantage of the 
new chip does not store or "remember" 
every color to be used in an image. 
Rather, the application specifies some of 
the colors, and the chip calculates the 
rest. Separate red, green, and blue pro- 
cessors positioned between the color 
lookup table and the DAC output com- 
pute color points between known colors. 

CEG images are generally conversions 
of existing files, such as TIFF or TARGA 
images. The CEG format reduces storage 
requirements yet retains image informa- 
tion down to y 32 pixel, according to 
Monolithic. For example, a 640-pixel by 
480-line VGA image with 75,000 colors 
requires only 308K bytes of space. High- 
er-resolution images require more stor- 
age space, but the CEG format can still 
be more efficient than some other for- 
mats for graphics images. 

Monolithic Achievement 

Monolith ic's implementation of the CEG 
chip is a good one. It turned our standard 
VGA monitor into a surprisingly capable 
graphics station. This full-size, 16-bit 
card includes dual serial ports, a parallel 
port, an Intelligent Drive Electronics 

MicroPaq 452 Ultra 


Monolithic Systems Corp. 
7050 South Tucson Way 
Englewood, CO 80112 
(800) 525-7661 
(303) 790-7400 

Hardware Needed 

IBM AT or full-size compatible 
with a VGA monitor 



Inquiry 1061. 


JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 201 


"Ultra" VGA Debuts on the MicroPaq 

(IDE) hard disk drive interface, a dual- 
floppy disk drive controller, and the Ed- 
sun-based display adapter. 

The IDE interface is designed for the 
industry's AT intelligent drives. We ran 
the hard disk drive controller with a Con- 
trol Data Imprimis 143-megabyte hard 
disk drive with no compatibility prob- 
lems. Likewise, we used the floppy disk 
drive controllers with a variety of drives 
without a snag. 

We configured the serial ports as 
COM3 and COM4 so we could use them 
in conjunction with the existing mother- 
board-based COM1 and COM2 ports. 
You can set the serial and parallel ports 
to address all DOS-supported locations 
through on-board jumpers. Monolithic 
supplies the cables and connectors you'll 
need to hook up all the I/O ports, includ- 
ing the IDE drive. You can use jumpers 
or switch settings to disable each of the 
ports individually if you have these facil- 
ities on your motherboard. 

We plugged the MicroPaq 452 Ultra 
into a low-profile CompuAdd 386SX, and 
although the full-size card was a tight fit, 
it worked fine. Without any special soft- 
ware, the display is sharp and crisp— just 
what you would expect from a high-qual- 
ity VGA card. When we turned on the 
MicroPaq' s mode drivers, it looked like 
no other VGA display we have seen (see 
photo 2). Demonstration images from 
Edsun, supplied as part of the Monolithic 
package, shows scanned photographs, 
computer-generated art, line drawings, 
and even moving graphics with 75,000 
colors displayed simultaneously. 

The display adapter uses the Chips & 


interface is designed for 
the industry's AT 
intelligent drives. 

Technologies 82C452 video controller 
for high-performance VGA graphics in 
resolutions of 1024 pixels by 768 lines 
(this requires a multisync monitor de- 
signed to support this resolution). But 
even at the standard 640-pixel by 480- 
line VGA resolution, the results were 
striking. The extra color gives the illu- 
sion of very high resolution through sub- 
tle shading, hue, and intensities. 

Interestingly, you don't need nearly 
this many colors for truly striking dis- 
plays. Some images with "only" 3000 or 
4000 colors look like engineering draw- 
ings that we've seen on $250,000 work- 
stations. In addition, all these images 
were a relatively compact 308K bytes. 

The Micropaq did indeed remove the 
jaggies. It achieves straight lines primar- 
ily by filling in the ragged edges with 
extra color. This makes some lines ap- 
pear a bit fatter than their jagged coun- 
terparts, but the results are impressive. 

A WYSIWYG Natural 

Monolithic Systems is targeting the Mi- 
croPaq 452 Ultra for three basic applica- 

tions. One is CAD, where jaggies exist 
even at 1024-pixel by 768-line resolu- 
tions. Second, image displays, such as 
image databases or scanned-image pre- 
sentations, could use the board's multi- 
color capabilities for more realistic dis- 
plays. Finally, Windows applications 
that make use of WYSIWYG and graph- 
ics may also benefit from the antialiasing 
features. For example, italics and small 
fonts displayed in Excel or Microsoft 
Word for Windows are difficult or im- 
possible to read on conventional displays. 

The biggest short-term problem with 
the MicroPaq is the lack of applications 
that take advantage of the board's capa- 
bilities. If third-party developers decide 
to support CEG technology, we could 
see some very significant and welcome 
changes in the looks of the applications 
we use. 

At $765, the MicroPaq 452 Ultra is ex- 
pensive if you only need the video dis- 
play adapter. But Monolithic says it is 
working on a video-only version of the 
board. For users whose systems are al- 
ready configured with disk drive control- 
lers and I/O ports, it is probably better to 
wait for that version to come out. How- 
ever, if you're using separate plug-in 
cards for disk drive controllers and I/O 
ports, the MicroPaq saves slot space and 
can display images on a VGA screen that 
you truly have to see to believe. ■ 

Tom Badgett and Corey Sandler review 
hardware and software products for 
Word Association, Inc. , a consortium of 
high-tech authors. They can be contacted 
onBIXc/o "editors." 

ViVa 2400 baud Modems 

FAX It - Compress It - Send It with ViVa! 


202 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 

The ViVa 24, 24fx and 24m external 
modems expand your world with standard 
2400 baud transmission rate, built-in FAX 
capability, or MNP 5 data compression. 

All ViVa internal and external modems 
are 100% Hayes compatible and support the 
Hayes "AT" Command Set. 

ViVa modems fit easily into your IBM 
PC, XT, AT, PS/2, 386, 486 and IBM com- 
patibles and each is backed by a FIVE YEAR 

warranty -| -800-854-7600 


667 Rancho Cone jo Blvd. • Newbury Park, 
California 91320 • 805-499-5751 

Circle 66 on Reader Service Card 

They Left out Features.... 

We Left out the COMMA!! 

The only thing missing... 

is the comma in the price. If you 
look at the chart on the right you 
will see prices charged by our com- 
petition. All but one contain a 
comma. DesignCAD 3D sells for 
$399.00. Period. No Comma! 

In order to draw the complex pic- 
tures shown below it is desirable to 
have the following 3D features: 

• Interactive design with 3D 

• Blending of surfaces 

• Boolean operations such as 
add, subtract, and 

• Complex extrusions 

• Cross sectioning 

• Block scaling 

• On screen shading 

• Shaded output to printers and 

All of these competitors left out one 
or more of these desirable features 
in their standard package. They 
didn't forget the most horrible fea- 
ture -the comma. 

DesignCAD 3D offers ALL the listed 
features plus many more! 

If DesignCAD 3D has the power to 
create the 3D objectsshown below, 
imagine how it could help with your 
design project! 

DesignCAD 3D sells for $399. We left 
outthecomma. Wedidn'tthinkyou 
would mind! 


DesignCAD 3D, the latest feature- 
packed, low-cost C ADD package from 
American Small Business Computers, 
delivers more bang per buck than any 
of its low -cost competitors and threat- 
ens programs costing ten times as 
much. For a low-cost, self-contained 
3D package... DesignCAD's range of 
features steals the show. " 


AutoCAD rel. 10 

DataCAD with DC Modeler 

$ 3,Q W.Q0 

AutoCAD AEC $1,000.00 AutoShade $500.00 

I Solids $995.00 IGES translator $1,995.00 
<■ DataCAD Velocity $2,000.00 

DesignCAD 3D ver. 2.0 $ 399.00 NQexpensive options! IGESFree, Shading Free 

Mega Model 
MicroStation PC 3.0 
ModelMate Plus 2.8 
VersaCAD Design 5.4 

$9 99-00 
S 3.300.00 



MegaDraw $195, List $295, MegaShade $395 
| Customer Support Libraries $1 ,000.00 


Source: Byte Magazine 


"At $399, DesignCAD 3D was the least 
expensive package we saw, yet it was 
one of the more powerful. ..Don't be 
fooled by the remarkably low price, this 
program can really perform. " 

May 1989, page 178 

Complete 3-Dimensional design fea- 
tures make it easy for you to construct 
realistic 3-D models. With full solid- 
object modeling capabilities you can 
analyze your drawing to determine 
the volume, surface area or even 
centerof gravity! DesignCAD 3-D even 
permits you to check for interference 
between objects! Aeronautical Engi- 
neers can now find the centerof grav- 
ity for a new airplane design with a 
couple of keystrokes, The Architect 
can determine the surface area of a 
roof for decking in a matter of minutes. 
The Civil Engineer can calculate the 
volume of a lake or dam in seconds, 
The Mechanical Engineer will knowfor 
sure if certain parts fit together without 
interference. The uses for DesignCAD 
3-D are only limited by YOUR imagina- 


DesignCAD 3-D and DesignCAD 2D are 
available from most retail computer 
stores, or you may order directly from 
us. If you have questions about which 
program to purchase please give us a 
call. All you need to run DesignCAD 
3-D is an IBM PC or compatible com- 
puter with 640 K RAM memory and a 
hard disk. Both products support most 
graphics cards, printers, plotters and 
digitizers. Free Information and a demo 
disk are available by faxing (918) 825- 
6359 or telephoning: 

1 -(91 8) 825-4844 

American Small Business Computers • 327 South Mill Street • Pryor, OK 74361 U.S.A. 

Circle 24 on Reader Service Card 


Greg Loveria 


TARGA+ Lowers Cost of High-End Graphics 

I produced this hypothetical Kennedy 
Memorial using the TARGA + 
adapter's 32-bit and 16-bit modes 
with AT&T's Topas 3-D Modeler 
and Truevision 's TIPS capture 
and paint software. The main 
structure was created as a DXF wire 
frame in AutoCAD (as shown in the 
lower left). This was converted to a 
Topas Model (MDL) file using AT& Ts 
CAD translator. The model was then 
imported and rendered in the TARGA + 
adapter 's 32-bit mode using Topas. The 
still of the planned site was captured 
from videotape. The brass title plate, 
wood frame, and site still were 
reflection- and texture-mapped to 3-D 
objects created in Topas (original DXF 
file courtesy of Douglas Persson; file- 
image-to-slide conversion courtesy of 
Image Center). 

Since the mid-1980s, Truevision's 
TARGA (Truevision Advanced 
Raster Graphics Adapter) raster- 
graphics boards have stood as a corner- 
stone for professional-quality graphics 
and image generation. Medical imagers 
and TV stations were among the first to 
employ TARGA boards for creating and 
capturing images at the NTSC-compat- 
ible resolutions of 5 12 pixels by 486 lines 
in varying bit-plane pixels (bpp) and 
color depths. In short, a TARGA image 
doesn't look computer-generated; it is 
more a k i n t o T V output. 

Until now, to get such high-quality 
graphics, you'd have to spend about 
$5000 to implement 32-bit color on 
TARGA 32 adapters, which can display 
over 16 million colors per image. 
TARGA adapters also required an NTSC 
composite or an RGB analog display 
monitor with a 15.5-kHz horizontal 
scanning frequency (the standard VGA 
frequency is 31.5 kHz at 640- by 480- 
pixel resolution). Total costs were out of 
reach for many enthusiastic, but budget- 
conscious, graphic artists or computer 

Truevision's new TARGA + series ad- 
dresses all these issues and more. For ex- 
ample, the TARGA + 64 board, with 2 
megabytes of on-board memory, costs 
just $2495, 50 percent less than previous 

32-bit TARGA boards. Other TARGA + 
adapters, like the TARGA + 16 and the 
TARGA+ 16/32, retail for $1795 and 
$1995, respectively. Both boards have 1 
MB of DRAM. They differ only in the 
number of colors they can display. 

With the TARGA + series boards' 
lower prices, many users formerly priced 
out of the market can now afford raster 
imaging. This includes advertising agen- 
cies and corporate art departments that 
can use TARGA adapters for advertising 
campaigns and layouts. Professional 
printers also use raster imaging for pre- 
press work, such as electronic color sepa- 
ration of photographs, which traditional- 
ly is done by hand. 

Imaging Plus 

The TARGA + 64 adapter that I tested is 
a full-slot, 16-bit ISA board. A Macin- 
tosh model, called the Nu Vista + , is also 
available, as is a Micro Channel architec- 
ture version, the first TARGA to support 
Micro Channel machines. Two nine-pin 
D-shell connectors serve as the analog 
video I/O ports for the ISA board. 

Two proprietary on-board application- 
specific integrated circuits represent the 
major revisions in the "plus" line. The 
first, a CTL (for Condensed TARGA 
Logic) chip, helps reduce board compo- 
nent circuitry to lower manufacturing 

costs and eliminate the daughterboard at- 
tachments found on earlier TARGAs. A 
second ASIC, the TVG-MIX-V2, pro- 
vides software-controlled video mixing 
and special-effects functions. (Unlike a 
Texas Instruments Graphics Architec- 
ture graphics board, TARGA adapters 
have no on-board processor.) 

The TVG-MIX-V2 chip supports a 
host of software-controlled video special 
effects that can simulate high-end video 
production techniques such as image 
fades, image reversal, graphics over live 
video, and chroma keying. In the latter, a 
foreground video object moves against a 
color-keyed background video image, as 
when a TV weather forecaster moves in 
front of a weather map. The chip also 
controls VGA pass-through. You can 
connect a TARGA + adapter to a VGA 
card's feature bus to enable VGA text and 
graphics pass-through to the TARGA + 
adapter's RGB output monitor. 

For testing, I used an Associates Com- 
puter Supply 386/25 tower system fun- 
ning DOS 3.31 with 640K bytes of base 
memory and 8 MB of DRAM configured 
as expanded memory using QEMM soft- 
ware. A Relisys RE5120 monitor func- 
tioned as my primary VGA display. I also 
used a Relisys RE5155 multiscan moni- 
tor (operating at 15.5-kHz horizontal 
bandwidth) for RGB/TARGA output dis- 

204 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 

play and VGA text and graphics pass- 
through testing. 


Two spiral-bound reference and installa- 
tion manuals clearly explain the myriad 
settings for three on-board banks of DIP 
switches. The SW1 bank controls board 
I/O base address functions. I kept the de- 
fault address setting at 0x220, although 
eight locations are possible. I left switch 
SW2 in the default down position to con- 
trol horizontal/vertical sync output. In 
the up position, the board processes S- 
Video signals. S-Video (also known as 
S-VHS), which was originally developed 
for TV broadcasts, separates the signal 
luminance and color band widths, provid- 
ing superior image quality— 400 lines 
versus the 230-line VHS resolution. 
Bank switch SW3 controls interrupt re- 
quests; I left this in the shared interrupt 
default position, although five different 
IRQ settings are possible. 

I currently use a TARGA 16 adapter 
for imaging and animation. After remov- 
ing that board, I placed the TARGA + 64 
in the empty 16-bit slot. To enable VGA 
overlay and pass-through features, I con- 
nected one of the two ribbon cables 
shipped with the unit from the TARGA + 
adapter's 26-pin male connector to my 
Trident VGA card's edge-card-type fea- 
ture bus. The second ribbon cable ends in 
a 26-pin female connector. I used this 
cable to test Diamond Computer Sys- 
tems' SpeedStar VGA card, which has a 
26-pin male feature bus. Both cards 
functioned perfectly when connected to 
the TARGA +64. 

The TARGA + 64 adapter functions in 
two modes: standard TARGA board em- 
ulation and TARGA + mode. At the DOS 
prompt, I typed in TPLUSINI.T16 (you 
can replace "16" with 8, 24, or 32 to 
specify the proper emulation). The 
TPLUSINI command places the 
TARGA + into original TARGA mode. I 
then invoked my three-dimensional ani- 
mation program, AT&T's Topas. I was 
extremely pleased to see the software 
function perfectly. 

After exiting, I reinitialized the board 
to TARGA 32-bit emulation. When I re- 
entered Topas, the TARGA + was run- 
ning as a 32-bit adapter. I then used a 
commercial version of Truevision's TIPS 
paint and capture software to capture 
video images, as shown in the photo (a 
demo version of TIPS also comes with 
the TARGA + board). 

Again, all the software and normal 
TARGA hardware features, such as zoom 
and image digitization, functioned per- 
fectly. I didn't expect to see a difference 

TARGA + 64 


Truevision, Inc. 
7340 Shadeland Station 
Indianapolis, IN 46256 

Hardware Needed 

XT or AT with one free full-length 8- or 1 6- 
bit slot, VGA monitor, RGB multi scanning 
analog monitor, VGA card with feature 
bus I/O, and at least 640K bytes of RAM 

Software Needed 

TARGA applications software; 
applications software written specifically for 
TARGA+ required for TARGA+ mode 



Inquiry 1108. 

in the final 32-bit images, but I was 
wrong. In the 32-bpp mode, rendered ob- 
jects appeared more realistic and fluid 
than duplicate objects rendered in the 16- 
bpp mode. 

TARGA + Mode 

To invoke TARGA + operation, I put the 
command DEVICE = C : \ DOS \TAR- 
GAP.SYS into my CONFIG.SYS file 
and rebooted. TARGA + mode enables 
the VGA text and VGA graphics overlay 
and pass-through to the TARGA + adapt- 
er's RGB monitor. This gives you a one- 
monitor solution, but only if you're using 
TARGA + software specifically devel- 
oped to run in TARGA + mode. The 
TARGA + will run all original TARGA 
software, such as TIPS and Topas, after 
you reinitialize the board with TPLUS- 
INI, which disables VGA text and graph- 
ics pass-through. 

At press time, Truevision offered two 
software packages that operate in the 
TARGA + mode: the TIPS paint and cap- 
ture program and TIPS TypeRight, a 
font-generation program for TARGA 
images. Panorama + , from AT&T- 
Graphics Software Labs; i.m.a.g.e., 
from New Image Industries; Inscriber, 
from Image North Technologies, and are 
third-party applications that support 
"plus" mode. According to Truevision, 

BBS Sysops 

• Are you looking for ways to improve 
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One Phoenix Mill Lane 

Peterborough, NH 03458 


In NH 603-924-7681 

JANUARY 1991 •BYTE 205 


TARGA+ Lowers Cost of High-End Graphics 

third-party manufacturers are develop- 
ing or revamping original TARGA soft- 
ware to take advantage of the TARGA + 
mode environment. 

In the meantime, TDEMO.EXE is the 
program that really highlights the 
TARGA + mode. I input an NTSC com- 
posite VHS video signal from my VCR 
into the TARGA + video input connec- 
tor. An extremely clean and smooth tran- 
sitional fade between two TARGA True- 
vision logo images begins the demo. 

NTSC video fades in smoothly behind 
the logos. After the logos fade behind the 
live video, the moving images perform a 
reversal, or color negative. All video 
movement was clear and fluid; it actually 
looked better on the RGB monitor than 
on TV. A live video then fades into VGA 
text overlaid on a still-frame capture 
from the videotape. 

Finally, the demo displays multiple 
single-frame captures of video in rapid 
sequence. Live-video movement dis- 


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30361, USA • 404/875-8080 
FAX 404/872-1973 

played with this FX feature appeared an- 
imated. The program grabs and displays 
a video frame for about a half-second, 
causing objects to jerk from one position 
to the next, an effect similar to that of a 
strobe light on moving dancers. Video 
production equipment that performs this 
frame grab/hold/display technique alone 
can cost several thousand dollars. The 
technique is also used in music videos. 

TMODE.EXE is an interactive pro- 
gram that sets TARGA + resolution, 
pixel depth, and video format. There are 
20 possible NTSC/VGA resolutions and 
14 possible PAL display resolutions. To 
execute PAL resolutions, you must use 
the European version of the TARGA + 

After setting my board to NTSC (512 
by 486 pixels by 32 bits, noninterlaced) 
using TMODE, I used a small TSR pro- 
gram, TPLUSTSR.EXE, to switch 
among TARGA + output, VGA output, 
VGA overlay, and overlay color selec- 
tion. By keying Ctrl-Shift-F2 and then 
Ctrl-Shift-F3, I passed VGA text and 
graphics to the RGB monitor. I used a 
shareware GIF file viewer, VPIC, to 
view 640- by 480-bit and 800- by 600-bit 
by 256-color GIF pictures rescaled to the 
512- by 486-bit resolution on the RGB 
monitor. Both VGA graphics and text 
were extremely clear and readable. 

TARGA Tally 

At first, I was dismayed to find that the 
TARGA + adapter's VGA pass-through/ 
overlay modes and video-effects features 
don't function in the original TARGA 
software mode. However, this board 
creates very real possibilities for imagi- 
native software developers. I would be 
thrilled to see software that incorporates 
the TARGA + adapter's video mixing 
and graphics overlay capabilities into a 
videotape-editing software module. 
With a single-frame VTR controller 
board like DiaQuest's DQ-50P, you 
could emulate high-end mixing and edit- 
ing consoles used in TV broadcast pro- 
duction via software-controlled insert- 
edit points. 

Overall, I rate the TARGA + a winner, 
not only because you can now do raster- 
graphics imaging in true 32-bit color at 
half the price, but also because I can't 
wait to see the new software that this 
board will inspire. ■ 

Greg Loveria has used TARGA boards for 
three years as a computer graphics and 
desktop publishing consultant, animator, 
and technical writer in Binghamton, New 
York. He can be reached on BIX c/o 
" editors. " 

206 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 

Circle 322 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 323) 

The most popular PC data analysis package Is now even better. 

Now when you choose SPSS/PC+" M 4,0, not only do you get the bestrselling statistical data analysis 

software, you get a choice. A choice of the options you need. A choice of the options you want. 
Powerful options for data entry, advanced statistics, forecasting, mapping, graphics and more. 
Options to help you turn data into information. The newest edition of SPSS/PC+ .. - '■;: • 
"-, has the flexibility to meet your specific data. analysis needs.., and your budget. 

SPSS/PC+ 4.0 is... 

SPSS/PC+ 4.0 is : a My integrated, 
sophisticated group of software prod- 
ucts designed to handle all your data 
analysis needs. ■';.,- \ 

SPSS/PC+ allows you to organize, 
analyze, forecast and display data' 
' in countless ways, making it easier 
to identify patterns and trends that 
might otherwise go unnoticed. With 
SPSS/PC+, you gain added insight . 
into the relationships and meaning 
of your data. And with its graphics 
and mapping- options, SPSS/PC+ 
provides for a convincing presenta- 
tion of your conclusions. > 

Betted n 

; Along with a choice of options, the 
new.SPSS/PC+ 4.0 offers' you some- 
thing more. Like SURVIVAL for life 

; ■ table analysis, PROBIT for expected 
dosage modeling, and X11ARIMA . 

• for* smoothed, seasonally adjusted 
forecasting. And improvements to 
procedures like REGRESSION and • 

^CROSSTABS. Plusj we've updated .our 
Novell® and 3Com® network support 
and added Banyan V NES.™ SPSS/PC+ 
4.0 also supports the latest versions • 
of 4BASE? Excel™ and Lotus,® and by 
adding Graph-in-the-Box. Executive™ - 
and Maplnfo™ to our support for 
Harvard® Graphics and Graph-in-the- • 
Box,® we've created more presentation 
options than ever before. 

Circle 298 on Reader Service Card 

Than The Rest 

Whether you only choose the , 
options; you need, or choose the ; .■; 
options you've always wanted, with 
the latest edition of SPSS/P6+, you've 
chosen the best. And If you're in 
need of a comprehensive package, • 
we offer the widest range of options. 
Of, course, .-SPSS/PC* still features a 
meftuing and help system, as well 
as an on-line statistical glossary to 
help you interpret results as you go. 
And you'll always haye the training 
and support you can expect from 
SPSS; suppliers of statistical software 
to'oVer 2 million users worldwide. 

For more information on SPSS/PG+ [ 
call 312-329-3318: 

444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611 




Companies don't make the 
Fortune 100 list by accident. It takes 
hard work and the wise investment 
of capital. Which is why when they 
buy industrial PCs, seven out of every 
ten Fortune 100 companies invest 
in Texas Microsystems. 


Most people assume that an 
industrial PC will give the reliability 
needed to run critical applications 
in harsh environments, but the trade 
off can be a lack of performance 
and high cost of entry. With Texas 
Microsystems the reverse is true. 

Benchmark studies show that in 
harsh environments Texas Micro- 
systems 25/33 MHz 386 & 25MHz 
486 PCs perform as well as powerful 
desktop PCs do in office environ- 
ments. Yet the cost of our systems 
can be a pleasant surprise. 




PRODUCT 10 20 30 -10 50 60 70 80 90 100 

Norton SI [~~| Landmark V2.0 


We build our systems from 
scratch, and take nothing for granted. 
We've been designing with Intel 
microprocessors since 1974. Design 
and manufacture most of our cards. 
And by using VLSI and PAL tech- 
nology reduce component counts by 
60% and drive MTBF numbers up 
to 100,000 hours. 

Texas Microsystems innovations 
include passive backplane architec- 
ture to improve component reliability 
and reduce MTTR to less than 10 
minutes. Our 16 point shock- 

mounting techniques keep disk 
drives functioning at up to 25G 
velocities. And our 48 hour pre-test 
bum-in at over 130°F guarantees 


We've been in business for 16 
years. And you'll find Texas Micro - 
systems operating in harsh environ- 
ments at 70 of the Fortune 100 
companies, as well as delivering mis- 
sion critical solutions to the US 
Government and Armed Services. 


Two of ourmost popular systems 
are shown here. They can be con- 
figured with a vast choice of options 

from CPUs, hard disks and drives, 
CMOS RAM, video cards and dis- 
plays, and if none of these match 
your requirements we'll custom 
configure and test whatever system 
you need. 


You can buy cheaper industrial 
PCs than ours, but they may be 
camouflaged desktops that do not 
perform in extreme environments. 

At Texas Microsystems, that isn't 
the way we build systems. Industrial 
PCs and Mission Critical Micros"' 
are all we make. Repackaging office 
computers is not our business. We 
design and manufacture all our 
products from scratch, we don't 
adapt the designs of others. And 




Texas Microsystems, Inc. 
10618 Rockley Road 
Houston, TX 77099 








rant more than just another pretty face? Send the card. 
Or call 1-800-627-8700. 





_ Phone _ 
_ State _ 

. Zip. 

Are you a DVAR D Consultant □ Government Purchaser □ Corporate Purchaser D DP/MIS Purchaser □ End User 

Type of Business 

Type of Operating Environment/ Application 

1 . How many PCs does your company plan to purchase? 

Timeframe: D Within the next month D Within three months D Within six months 

2. What type of configuration are you interested in? 

D Rack-mount workstation D Benchtop workstation D Tower system D Cards 

3. Which processor do you require in your system? 

□ 286-based systems D 386-based systems D 486-based systems D Other 

4. What operating system would you use? 

.5. How many expansion slots do you need?. 

6. Do you need assistance developing specifications? D YES D NO 

7. What specifications are most important to your application? 

D Mean Time Between Failures D Mean Time To Repair □ Heat 

8. What type of custom configuration do you need? 

□ Dust. 

□ Shock. 

□ Other. 

© 1990, Texas Microsystem 
Inc. "Mission Critical Micrc 
is a trademark of Texas 
Microsystems, Inc. Other 
trademarks mentioned are 
registered, trademarked or 
service marked by their 
respective manufacturers. 

B - 1 - 91 

we're always here when you need us. 


We believe in offering excep- 
tional support, including consul- 
tation during system design. After 
sales technical support 12 hours a 
day via an 800 number. On-site 
service from General Electric for a 
full yeai; including free parts and 
labor. A 30-day ; no-questions-asked, 
money-back guarantee. And a way 
of ordering a Texas Microsystem 
that's most convenient and cost 
effective to you. 

Opposite are two Texas Micro- 
systems that offer an unsuipassed 
combination of price/performance. 
Order them direct or ask for a com- 
plete literature and information kit 
on all our systems by calling 
1-800-627-8700 now. 


Here are two of ourtop selling 
systems for business environments 
that demand mission critical com- 
puting, regardless of operating con- 
ditions. Like all our systems they 
enjoy the same engineering pedigree 
that ensures a unique combination 
of performance, reliability and value. 
Which is, after all, what you should 
expect from America's leading 
industrial micro systems company. 

And to put a little icing on the 
cake, each will include a one year, 
on-site, warranty. 

To order, call the 800 number 
below and one of our representatives 
will discuss your needs with you, give 
you an instant quote on the con- 
figuration of your choice. Then the 
system will be built to your ordei; 
tested, and shipped. 

Mission Critical Micros is a trademark ofTexas Microsystems Inc., 
all other trademarks mentioned are registered, trademarked or 
servicemarked by their respected manufacturers. 



Texas Microsystems, Inc. 
10618 Rockley Rd, Houston/Texas 77099 
Tel: 713-933-8050. Fax: 713-933-1029 



Choice of 80286, 80386, 80486 processors. 
Perfect for data acquisition, communications 
and networking applications. 
8 full length ISA slots for industry standard 

Up to 1 6MB of RAM on CPU, three half- 
height 5.25" bays for floppy /hard drives and 
one 3.5" hard drive. 

Super VGA graphics [1024 x 768 pixels] 
Also supports CGA, EGA. 
1 parallel and 2 serial ports. 
101-key enhanced keyboard with DIN 
connector on rear panel. 
220 watt power supply. 
One yeai; on site warranty included. 

Dimensions: 6.5"x 17" x 16.5," 30 lbs. 
Power 220 Watt, HOY 
Operating environment. 
Temperature: 0°Cto 55°C. [32°Fto 131 °F] 
Altitude: 15,000 feet equivalent 



- Choice of 80286, 80386, 80486 processors. 

• 18 -gauge nickel plated, steel chassis. 

• 14 full length ISA slots for industry standard 

• Boards bracketed and braced on all four edges. 

• Two 1 10 CFM fans. 

• Up to 16MB of RAM on CPU, and five half- 
height storage bays for hard drives, floppy 
and/or tape backup. 

• Super VGA graphics [1024 x 768 pixels) 
Also supports CGA, EGA. 

• 1 parallel and 2 serial ports. 

• Built in speaker, door lock, power and CPU 
reset switch. 

• 101-key enhanced keyboard with DIN 
connector on front panel. 

• 225 watt power supply: 

• One yeai; on site warranty included. 


• Dimensions: 19"x 22.18"x 6.96." Wt. 45 lbs. 

• Power 95-132/180-264 VAC, 47 to 63Hz. 

• Operating environment. 

Temperature: 0°C to 55°C (32°Fto 131°F) 
Humidity: To 95% at 40°C non- 
Altitude: 1 5,000 feet equivalent 
Vibration: .25G, 5-100Hz operating 

5G, 5-100Hz non-operating 
Shock: LOG operating at 10 Msec 

System Prices 

System Prices 













40MB HD, 
1.2 or 1.44MB 




40MB HD, 
1.2 or 1.44MB 




40MB HD, 






40MB HD, 
1.2 or 1.44MB 




104MB HD, 
1.2 or 1.44MB 




104MB HD, 
1.2 or 1.44MB 




104MB HD, 
1.2 or 1.44MB 




104MB HD, 






104MB HD, 
1.2 or 1.44MB 




104MB HD, 
1.2 or 1.44MB 


From $2,900 

Monitor not inckic 


* From 

$3,825. Rack 

mount monitor not 







Circle 319 on Reader Service Card 

Robert Mitchell 


The Compaq SLT: A Laptop Fit for the Desktop 

SLT 386S/20 


Compaq Computer Corp. 
20555 State Hwy. 249 
P.O. Box 692000 
Houston, TX 77070 

Components (as reviewed) 

Processor: 20-MHz 386SX CPU; 20-MHz 

80387SX math coprocessor 

Memory: 4 MB of system RAM; 4K bytes of 

processor cache SRAM 

Mass storage: 120-MB Conner Peripherals 

hard disk drive; high-density 3 1 /2-inch floppy 

disk drive 

Display: 10-inch VGA-compatible 

supertwist LCD with fluorescent backlighting 

Keyboard: 82-key IBM Enhanced layout 

I/O interfaces: Serial port; parallel port; 

external VGA monitor port; external floppy 

disk drive or tape drive port; expansion 

chassis port; external keypad port 


4 1 / 8 x 8 1 /2 x 13V2 inches; 14 pounds 



Inquiry 1112. 

Compaq's SLT 386s/20 has blurred 
the line between laptop and desk- 
top machines. 
The original SLT's 12-MHz 286 CPU 
has given way to a 20-MHz 386SX pro- 
cessor that uses the same 4K-byte set-as- 
sociative static RAM cache found in the 
Deskpro 386s/20. Compaq has increased 
the base configuration memory from 
640K bytes to 2 megabytes, increased 
maximum RAM from 3.6 MB to 14 MB, 
and upped maximum hard disk drive 
storage to 240 MB— that's probably more 
than most users will ever need. 

From the outside, the boxy-looking 
SLT, with its removable keyboard and 
fold-up VGA display, looks much the 
same. It still weighs in at 14 pounds, and 
the system's 4%-inch height (with the 
display folded down) makes it perhaps 
the tallest laptop on the market. It's also 
one of the most rugged. 

Name Your Price 

The entry-level Model 60 includes a2Vi- 
inch 60-MB Connor Peripherals hard 
disk drive, a 3 Vfe-inch high-density flop- 
py disk drive, and 2 MB of RAM for 
$6799. 1 tested the Model 120, which in- 
cludes a 120-MB 19-millisecond Conner 
Peripherals hard disk drive and lists for 

Compaq offers a variety of options for 
the SLT. You pay the price for Compaq's 
proprietary memory modules; my test 
machine included an extra 2 MB that 
adds $1299 to the list price. With the 
memory upgrade and a 20-MHz 80387 
math coprocessor ($699), the total price 
came to an astounding $9497. 

But don't pull out your checkbook just 
yet. The machine's confusing keyboard 
overlays make the external numeric key- 
pad ($149) a must for spreadsheet users. 
If you opt for the internal 2400-bps mo- 

dem ($599) you'll find that it cuts battery 
life to about V/i hours, so you'll prob- 
ably want an extra nickel-cadmium bat- 
tery ($149). And since the machine 
won't fit in your briefcase, you'll prob- 
ably want to buy the carrying case ($89). 

Projecting Growth 

The SLT has plenty of room to grow. If 
120 MB of disk storage isn't enough, a 
second device bay can hold another 60- 
or 120-MB hard disk drive. The machine 
doesn't have any expansion slots; for 
that, you need the expansion base ($999), 
a rather large box that holds just two 8- or 
16-bit add-in boards. 

Compaq doesn't offer an internal net- 
work adapter, so if you need to access the 
office network, you may want the expan- 
sion chassis. But you can save space on 
the desktop by forgoing the expansion 
box, installing a Xircom or D-Link par- 

210 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 

-4 Worse 



Compaq SLT 386s/20 

Compaq Deskpro 386/20 
Compaq Deskpro 386s/20 

2.0 2.6 2.6 





Better ► 






Word P""] Desktop 






□ cad □ 



Compaq SLT 386s/20 

Compaq Deskpro 386/20 
Compaq Deskpro 386s/20 













Compaq SLT 386s/20 



Compaq 386/20 



Compaq 386s/20 






For application and low-level benchmarks, results are indexed and show relative performance; for each 
individual index, an 8-MHz IBM AT running MS-DOS 3.30 = 1. For all benchmarks, higher numbers 
indicate better performance. 

The BYTE low-level benchmark suite identifies performance differences between machines at the 
hardware level; the application benchmarks evaluate real-world performance by running a standard test 
suite using commercially available applications. Application indexes include tests using the following 
programs: Word processing: WordPerfect 5.0; Desktop Publishing: Aldus PageMaker 3.0; Database: 
Borland Paradox 3.0 and Ashton-Tate dBASE IV; Compilers: Microsoft C 5.1 and Turbo Pascal 5.5; 
CAD: AutoCAD release 10 and Generic C ADD level 3 1 .1 .5; Scientific/Engineering: Stata release 2, 
MathCAD 2.5, and PC-Matlab 3.5f ; and Spreadsheet: Lotus 1 -2-3 release 3.0 and Microsoft Excel 2.1 . 

The BYTE Lab introduced version 2.0 of the DOS benchmarks in the August 1990 issue (see "BYTE's 
New Benchmarks: New Looks. New Numbers"). Benchmark results for machines reviewed under 
previous versions aren't directly comparable. To obtain a copy of the benchmarks, join the listings area 
of the byte.bmarks conference on BIX or contact BYTE directly. 

allel port network adapter, and hooking 
the office monitor and keyboard directly 
to the SLT. 

On the Test Bench 

The SLT's VGA supertwist LCD is fast, 
but it could stand improvement. Newer 
displays, such as the one in Texas Instru- 
ments' 286-based TravelMate 2000, are 
sharper and brighter, and they offer 16 
gray scales to the SLT's eight. Also, the 
SLT cuts power to the LCD when you 
hook up an external monitor— an annoy- 
ance for users who want to run desktop 

During continuous operation, the bat- 
tery life averaged from 1 Vi to 2Vi hours. 
You can extend the life of the battery by 
turning off power to the modem and 
specifying time-outs that shut down the 
display, the hard disk drive, or the entire 
system during periods of inactivity. 

Pressing the Stand By button on the front 
of the case also puts the machine into 
sleep mode. Pressing it a second time re- 
sumes operations where you left off. 

The SLT 386s/20 is plenty fast; its 
low-level benchmark scores rival those 
of the Deskpro 386/20. But the identical 
CPU index scores don't tell the whole 
story. The Deskpro 386/20's true 32-bit 
CPU performed faster memory moves, 
but the 386s/20 made up for that with 
faster Sieve, Sort, and Integer Math re- 
sults. The SLT also compares favorably 
with the 20-MHz 386SX desktop ma- 
chines BYTE has tested (see "The SX 
Turns 20," October 1990). Compaq in- 
cludes a disk-caching utility to squeeze 
out even better performance. 

Weighted Decision 

Traveling with the SLT isn't much differ- 
ent from taking your fully configured 

desktop machine on the road. It's well 
built and fast, although by today's size 
and weight standards, the SLT is a bit 

I disliked the screen. Also, the place- 
ment of the Fn key on the lower left 
corner of the keyboard is awkward (see 
the photo). I found myself constantly hit- 
ting the Fn key with the palm of my 
hand, accidentally invoking unwanted 
control functions in my application pro- 

If you're in the field for extended peri- 
ods, the SLT's power and expandability 
can't be beat. Otherwise, I'd recommend 
that you get one of the new SX notebook 
computers and leave the rest of the hard- 
ware at the office. ■ 

Rob Mitchell is a BYTE Lab technical 
editor for system reviews. He can be 
reached on BIX as tt rob_mitchell. " 

JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 211 

LANtastic'sliny RAM now has more cards to play with, 

If the presence of Micro 
Channel machines has ever stood 
between you and the joy of 
running the award-winning 
LANtastic PC Network, this is your 
lucky day. Artisoft has just added three new 
Micro Channel adapters to its compliment 
of AE-2 Ethernet, 2Mbps and Voice adapters. 

LANtastic AE-2 MC Ethernet for Micro 
Channel, a 16-bit adapter that can be used 
in either a 16-bit or a 32-bit slot, is in 100% 
compliance with IEEE 802.3 and Ethernet 
standards, and comes with on-board 16K 
RAM that is user expandable to 64K. Since 
i, y m AE-2 MC Ethernet is software 
U H compatible with Novell's NE/2000 
Am hardware, you can run Novell "out 

EDITORS' I « , i i „ 

choice 1 of the box. 

March JB, 19*9 

"^ LANtastic 2Mbps MC adapters 

are the perfect way to economically network 
small or midsize businesses with Micro 
Channel computers. Each card includes a 
lOMhz coprocessor and 32K of on-board 
dual-ported RAM, along with software- 
selectable IRQ and RAMBASE address 
settings. Artisoft's version of the NetBIOS 
standard can be loaded into and executed 
within the adapter. This plunges the 
NetBIOS draw on a PC's base RAM down to 
just 2K and off loads the network processing 
onto the adapter. The cards are easy to 
install and use inexpensive dual-twisted pair 

LANtastic Voice MC adapters ■_— 
let you save sound and speech j mjmm j 
onto disk for playback later on Wfe~~jJ| 
Micro Channel machines. Use 
them with LANtastic NOS 3.0 or above, and 

you can send voice messages |LAIv| TIAAES 

across your LANtastic network. b^I'H'j^'j' 1 ,^ 
Just pick up the telephone KfifflM 

handset provided with each Voice Adapter, 
bring up a handy on-screen menu, and talk. 
Use Voice Chat to carry on a real time 
conversation, or save the message for 
playback later in your own voice - either 
through the handset or through the Micro 
Channel machine's internal speaker. 
Now it's easier than ever to run 
LANtastic's award-winning Network 
Operating System on Micro Channel 
machines. Call 602-293-6363 or 
fax 602-293-8065. 


Revolutionizing Connectivity 

©990 ARTISOFT, LANtastic is a trademark of Artisoft. Micro Channel Architecture is a trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. 

Circle 31 on Reader Service Card 


Tom Yager 


A Workstation in a Mac's Clothing 

A/UX lets Mac, 
Unix, and X 
Window System 
applications run 
on one system and 
share the same 

A/UX 2.0 


Apple Computer, Inc. 
20525 Mariani Ave. 
Cupertino, CA 95014 

Hardware Needed 

Mac SE/30, II, llx, Ilex, llci, or llfx (Mac llsi 
requires A/UX 2.0.1) with 4 MB of memory 
and an 80-MB hard disk drive; Apple 
EtherTalk NB card (or compatible) required 
for TCP/IP networking 


On an 80-MB hard disk drive: $2395 

On a CD-ROM disc: $795 

On floppy disks: $995 

On tape; $995 

X Window System for A/UX: $350 

MacX: $250 

Inquiry 1075. 

It might seem surprising that the ever- 
friendly Mac has taken on an operat- 
ing system renowned for its unpleasant 
interface: Unix. A/UX, Apple's own 
Unix for the Macintosh, has been around 
for a while, but it was recently upgraded 
to include features that will turn some 
heads. It is now possible to have the best 
of both Mac and Unix in one box, run- 
ning at the same time. 

When Apple said it could run the Mac 
OS and Unix side-by-side, I was skepti- 
cal—but it works. There are some limita- 
tions and a bit of stumbling to go through 
yet, but Apple's solution is so elegant that 
it can raise a smile from even the most 
stubborn Mac basher. 

Rather than one environment being 
subservient to the other, the two are truly 
equal. Mac applications execute under a 
special version of MultiFinder, while 
Unix applications run in their own ad- 
dress space under A/UX. 

Experienced Mac users should have 
little trouble with the Mac OS side of 
A/UX (see the text box "The Mac Side of 
Unix" on page 214). Until you make it 
otherwise, the Unix is invisible. Once it 
is visible, however, windows containing 
Unix applications look just like normal 
Mac windows. They even show up on 
MultiFinder's list of active applications, 
and you can switch to them in the normal 
fashion. In fact, the default user interface 
for A/UX is the Mac Desktop and file 
manager. Unix files are represented and 
manipulated as though they were native 
Mac files. 

But there's more to A/UX than that. 

Taking a Bite 

I took a Mac llfx with 8 megabytes of 
memory and a RasterOps 364 display 
board, cabled up an external 300-MB 
LaCie SCSI hard disk drive, and got 
ready to install. My copy of A/UX came 
on a CD-ROM disc, so the Apple CD- 
ROM drive was connected to the SCSI 
chain as well. 

Preparing the disk is not as straight- 
forward as it could be. You must create 
separate partitions (LaCie's software 
takes care of this) for each of the Unix 
and Mac file systems. The partitions are 
oddly named ("Eschatology"? Gimme a 
break), and changing sizes outside of the 
defaults is far from intuitive. Some of 
this may be an artifact of LaCie's parti- 
tioning software, but I had to set aside 
another drive because it lacked this soft- 
ware completely; LaCie's was better 
than nothing. 

I cannot fault LaCie— its drive per- 
formed magnificently. Apple's parti- 
tioning software should work with drives 
other than its own. 

After you finish partitioning the 
drive, the A/UX installation procedure 
begins. You need to know the SCSI ID of 
the drive you're loading, but it's down- 
hill from there. After a fashion, A/UX 
installs itself. I hope I live long enough to 
see the end of massive floppy disk-based 
operating-system distributions on other 
Unix systems . The whole of A/UX fit on 
one CD-ROM disc— the perfect backup 
medium for crucial system files. 

Once you've installed the software, 
you use the Control Panel to select the 

freshly loaded drive as the boot device, 
and then reboot. Total time: about an 
hour, most of which I spent doing other 

Getting Past the Main Gate 

When A/UX comes up, after some ini- 
tialization, it displays a dialog box for 
logging in. Giving A/UX a user name 
and password gets you into not only Unix 
but the Mac side as well. MultiFinder 
mavens will notice, however, that a 
Command Window process appears on 
the applications list. Selecting that from 
the Apple menu brings the Unix Com- 
mand window to the foreground, and 
Unix users will breathe a sigh of relief — 
they'll feel that they're back in familiar 

Perched atop the Command Window 
is the regular Mac title bar. Command 
Windows are special-purpose Unix ter- 
minal emulators that share the Mac 
Desktop with ordinary Mac windows. 
They are manipulated in exactly the 
same way; there's even a menu bar asso- 
ciated with them. Under ordinary cir- 
cumstances, Command Windows and 
the Unix console are the only means of 
communicating with Unix (the console is 
typically reserved for displaying the 
error log). 

A Feel for It 

A/UX is an unusual collection of Unix 
software. The base, according to the 
uname utility, is AT&T System V release 
2. Unix followers know that release 4 is 
almost out the chute; Apple doesn't win 

JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 213 



The Mac Side of Unix 

A/UX 2.0 is a dramatic improve- 
ment over its predecessors. Earlier 
versions of A/UX were little more than a 
command-line-oriented Unix running 
on a Macintosh. With this new version, 
once you get past the log-in window that 
prompts you for a name and password, a 
Mac Desktop appears, complete with 
menu, windows, and icons. You launch 
your applications by double-clicking on 
them, print to a LaserWriter via Local- 
Talk, and select AppleShare file serv- 
ers or other networked devices via the 
Chooser desk accessory. If you use a di- 
rect-color display board such as the Ras- 
terOps 364, you can work with 24-bit 
colors using either A/UX or Mac appli- 

A clever sleight of hand is occurring 
here: A/UX is running a special version 
of MultiFinder (6.9) that supports the 
Mac environment. While other Unix 
processes (including MultiFinder) are 
preemptively shared (i.e., the CPU ser- 
vices each process for a certain time in- 
terval), the MultiFinder environment 
only supports cooperative multitasking 
(i.e., each application is supposed to 
yield control to MultiFinder at deter- 
mined intervals). Thus, a poorly writ- 
ten Mac application could hog all of 

Tom Thompson 

MultiFinder 's processing time. 

When you launch an application, an 
alert— "The application < Application- 
Name > is not 32-bit clean; opening it 
may result in a crash"— appears, with 
buttons to OK or cancel the operation. 
This warning reminds you that the 
A/UX environment uses 32-bit address- 
ing, and any Mac application that as- 
sumes a different addressing scheme 
(hence the moniker "32-bit clean") will 
die a horrible death. 

How does A/UX know if an applica- 
tion is 32-bit clean? Through a bit set in 
the application's SIZE ID = -1 resource. 
This same resource also informs Multi- 
Finder of the application's event-han- 
dling capabilities and memory require- 
ments. Most Mac applications usually 
work. (In fact, some developers use 
A/UX to proof the 32-bit addressing ca- 
pabilities of their application for another 
up-and-coming 32-bit operating system, 
System 7.0.) 

Amazingly, some INITs, cdevs, and 
FKEYs work with A/UX 2.0. Installing 
the INITs and cdevs is simply a matter 
of dragging them to the /mac/sys/Sys- 
tem Folder on the Unix volume. If you 
log out and then back into A/UX, the 
INITs install. You use ResEdit 2.0b2 to 

copy and paste FKEY resources into the 
System file in this folder. How well 
these extenders work depends primarily 
on how well they cope with the Unix file 
system. For example, After Dark 1 . lc 
and SuperClock 3.9 functioned proper- 
ly, while Adobe Type Manager could 
not locate resources stored in other files 
and failed to install. Boomerang 2.0.2, 
which tries to navigate among deeply 
nested folders, functioned erratically. 

Given these potential problems, the 
Mac environment still runs well. Many 
applications, such as Aldus PageMaker 
4.0, Adobe Photoshop 1.0, a beta ver- 
sion of Adobe Illustrator 3.0, and Data 
Translation's VideoQuill 1.0.1, ran 
smoothly. Printing documents with the 
LaserWriter 6.0.1 driver was flawless: 
the PrintMonitor spooled the pages to 
an original LaserWriter, and the output 
looked as good as anything printed from 
a typical Mac. A/UX 2.0 lets Mac users 
have their cake and eat it, too. They 
have their familiar Mac environment, 
while access to a powerful Unix operat- 
ing system is only a window away. 

Tom Thompson is a BYTE senior editor 
at large and Mac expert. You can reach 
him on BIX as "tom^thompson. " 

any points for keeping current on Unix 
developments. Grafted on top are some 
utilities, some libraries, and a file-sys- 
tem structure borrowed from BSD Unix. 
Again, the file system and other BSD- 
isms are reportedly taken from version 
4.2, which considerably predates Berke- 
ley's latest efforts. 

Underpinnings aside, the implementa- 
tion is nearly complete. I missed only a 
few things. The UUCP implementation 
is based on older (release 2) software that 
isn't as secure or as easy to manage as 
later implementations. The System V 
networking calls (i.e., the Transport 
Layer Interface) are missing, as are the 
functions for the Extended Terminal In- 
terface (an enhanced full-screen func- 
tion library). It might seem as if I'm 
knocking holes in A/UX; not at all. In 
fact, some may prefer Apple's approach. 
A/UX just feels more like BSD than Sys- 
tem V. 

The TCP/IP utilities and job control in 
A/UX have been done elsewhere, but 
Apple also threw in a host of Berkeley- 

specific utilities. Most notable are lpd, a 
network printer-sharing daemon; send- 
mail, a standard E-mail delivery mecha- 
nism; and nrof f and trof f text-format- 
ting and typesetting languages. 

One definite contribution from System 
V to A/UX is the Korn shell. Developed 
at AT&T, this follow-on to the ubiquitous 
Bourne shell is likeable almost to the 
point of being addictive. Job control is 
implemented in these and the C shell, so 
users can choose their favorite without 
losing features. 

If you'd rather not deal with shells at 
all, A/UX's Commando facility comes 
in handy. Augmenting the on-line man- 
ual pages, Commando is a command 
completion program. If you enter a pro- 
gram name (or click on its icon in the file 
manager), Commando will open up a di- 
alog box that represents the key options 
graphically. Click in the right places, 
and Commando builds and executes a 
command that gives you what you want. 

For performance, my Mac Ilf x was 

neither a barnburner nor a lumbering 
cow. I'd place it about even with a fast 
(33 MHz) 386-based Unix system, faster 
in some measures and slower in others. 
For similar cost, a 486 Unix system 
could run circles around it. If perfor- 
mance is your main consideration, don't 
bother with A/UX. 

TCP/IP with X Window on the Side 

Getting the system running on the BYTE 
Unix Lab's TCP/IP network was a bit of 
a challenge. The Apple Ethernet board I 
had was too old (revision C) to run with 
A/UX on a Mac Ilfx, so Apple had to 
ship me a new one (revision K). Once the 
new board was in, however, the system 
came right up. A/UX works through 
MacTCP (which runs on the Mac OS 
side), and the system's network address 
and other particulars are set through a 
Control Panel dialog box. 

A/UX comes standard with TCP/IP, 
Network File System, and Yellow Pages 
network services. Most of what I tested 
worked fine, but some of BYTE's other 

214 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 

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A Workstation in a Macs Clothing 

systems didn't want to run full-screen 
applications on Apple's weird terminal 
emulator. That could have been fixed by 
working up a terminf o entry, something 
I didn't take the time to do. 

I also had two versions of X Window 
System for the Mac: The X Window Sys- 
tem for A/UX, and MacX. The former 
runs under A/UX and replaces the Mac 
Desktop with a full-screen X root win- 
dow. The latter runs on the MultiFinder 
side and allows monochrome X clients to 
run on the Mac Desktop. 

X Window System for A/UX ran as I 
expected it to. Both color and mono- 
chrome X clients connected without dif- 
ficulty across the network. Display per- 
formance was unacceptable until I used 
the Control Panel to set the display bit 
depth to 8 (256 colors instead of 16 mil- 
lion). Even then, performance was not 
up to workstation standards, but that 
could have been owing to the RasterOps 
card's lack of a graphics coprocessor. 
Nothing against RasterOps there: The 
364 is not cut out for high-speed win- 
dowing system operations, but it per- 
forms well in Mac imaging applications. 

Even if a video card has 24-bit capabil- 

ity, both versions of Apple X Window are 
limited to a maximum of 8 bits. MacX 
has some additional limitations that com- 
bined to leave me feeling very uncertain 
about the product's stability. Its features 
are amazing in that it can support mono- 
chrome X clients on the Mac Desktop, 
and both monochrome and color clients 
in special scrollable windows. However, 
MacX's flaws became obvious from the 

I asked our Opus 88000-based system 
to ship an xgif (a utility that displays 
GIF graphics images) window to a color 
MacX session. The xgif window came 
up blank and didn't paint until I selected 
it. When I overlapped the xgif window 
with something else, the GIF picture was 
displayed in a rectangle around the fore- 
ground window; it was repainted to black 
again when the overlapping window was 
removed. It was also painfully slow, tak- 
ing several seconds to redraw a Motif 
window border. In general, MacX run- 
ning in its own root window seemed 
flaky; I wouldn't use it in a commercial 
environment. Its most basic capability- 
putting up monochrome X windows on 
the Mac Desktop— worked very well, 

however, and for that I can safely recom- 
mend it. 

It's a Wrap 

I can't remember when I've seen some- 
thing as appealing as A/UX 2.0. With 
the exception of MacX, Apple's integra- 
tion of Mac and Unix is seamless and 
powerful. Clever developers should start 
putting out programs soon that take ad- 
vantage of this blend, because it is truly 
not available anywhere else. 

Before Apple can start gunning for 
workstations, however, it needs to pay 
more attention to two things: price and 
graphics performance. If you don't care 
about the ability to run Mac programs, 
A/UX would be a waste. Low-end work- 
stations are more attractively priced and 
offer better graphics performance than 
even the fastest Mac. But if you need to 
run Unix without sacrificing your li- 
brary of pet Mac programs, A/UX is the 
answer. It is a thoughtful, well-crafted 
mix of two good operating systems. ■ 

Tom Yager is a BYTE Lab technical editor 
and Unix expert. You can reach him on 
BIX as "tyager. " 

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Steven Kearns 


User Interfaces, C++ Style 

li uneron 

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Are you embarrassed by the com- 
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The Bird's-Eye View 

Zinc includes a wide variety of C++ 
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can be bought separately for $200.) 
There are classes for using windows, title 
bars, pop-up and pull-down menus, fully 
editable text that supports cut/copy/ 
paste, and selectable icons and bit maps. 
Zinc also includes classes designed to 
make it easy to input and validate num- 
bers, dates, and times; for each, a wide 
variety of formats are handled automati- 
cally. Furthermore, if you have a novel 
type of input field— for instance, a field 
for inputting palindromes— it is easy to 
modify an existing input class to get what 
you want. 

Two notable classes in Zinc are help_ 
system and error _system. Your appli- 

cation can easily have context-sensitive 
help screens using the help_system 
class. The help system is less impressive 
than that in Windows 3.0; the latter has a 
hypertext appearance, while Zinc's is 
more a scrollable text display. But the 
Zinc system should be adequate for most 
programs. The error_system class pro- 
vides a consistent, simple way of report- 
ing and responding to errors throughout 
your program. 

Getting the Picture 

Zinc provides rudimentary support for 
graphics: Two-color bit maps, rectan- 
gles, lines, and text can be drawn on the 
screen. Unfortunately, Zinc does not 
make it easy to restrict drawing to a win- 
dow, a fundamental service in most user 
interfaces. Also missing is a dialog edi- 
tor, a graphical tool for designing screen 
layouts that can make user-interface de- 
sign faster. 

An important feature of Zinc is its 
ability to display on a wide variety of 
graphics boards, including various text 
modes, Hercules, CGA, EGA, and VGA, 
all from the same source code. In fact, 
Zinc includes a demonstration that 
switches display modes while the pro- 
gram is running. Zinc also provides an 
interface to the keyboard, cursor, and 
mouse that can be easily extended as new 
devices appear. C++ makes it easy to 
give different systems the same program- 
ming interface, and Zinc uses this capa- 
bility extensively. 

When running Zinc in graphics mode, 
you see a screen reminiscent of Windows 
3.0 or Presentation Manager, including 
three-dimensional buttons and borders. 
The built-in editing commands were de- 
signed to be Systems Application Archi- 
tecture compliant. 

However, I found the font that is used 
throughout the user interface to be ugly 
and hard to read, and there is no docu- 
mentation that explains how to change it. 
In addition, the toolkit does not enforce 
user-interface consistency to the same 
degree as Motif or Windows 3.0. For ex- 
ample, sometimes the "system button" 
in the upper left corner of a window will 
close a window, and sometimes it will 
bring down a menu of choices. These 
choices, of course, are under program- 
mer control, so they can be fixed in your 

Putting It to the Test 

An important criterion for judging a set 
of classes is how cohesive they are. Spe- 
cifically, after learning to use one class, 
it should be easier for you to learn an- 
other. Zinc is exceptional in this regard. 

218 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 



for Microsoft Windows 

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For example, to add a title bar, resizable 
border, and close box to a window, you 
just have to write 

myWindow + new UIW_TITLE(.. 
+ new UIW_B0RDER 


Similarly, you can add a window to the 
window manager with windowManager + 

Documentation is a crucial part of any 
toolkit, and the lack of adequate docu- 
mentation is Zinc's greatest failing. The 
Zinc package includes two attractive 
manuals, an overview/tutorial, and a ref- 
erence. While this documentation is well 
laid out and informative, there is just not 
enough of it. 

If you are content to use the 46 classes 
that Zinc provides, then the Zinc tutorial 
and reference manual are adequate. On 
the other hand, trying to subclass a built- 
in class reveals glaring deficiencies in 
the documentation. For example, there is 
no explanation of the coordinate system 
used to locate items in a window or on the 
screen. Also, the UIW_wTND0W_0BJECT 
class— the most important base class- 
has 16 public and protected member 
functions declared in the header file, yet 
the documentation lists and explains only 
two of them. 

The event messages, through which 
windows communicate with each other 
and the window manager, are never de- 
scribed. There are many other examples, 
but the bottom line is that Zinc provides 
insufficient documentation for you to 
customize the classes. 

Fortunately, Zinc Software is aware of 
the problem and promises supplementary 
documentation by the time you read this. 
The company's technical support is re- 
sponsive, friendly, and knowledgeable— 
definitely above average. 

Assuming that the documentation im- 
proves, Zinc seems to be most appropri- 
ate for Turbo C++ programmers who 
want to create modern-looking, easy-to- 
use DOS applications. It is especially 
suited for business applications requiring 
the user to enter and examine numeric, 
string, or date information. On the other 
hand, Zinc is much less useful for some- 
one writing a graphical application, such 
as a draw program or graphics simula- 
tion. ■ 

Steven Kearns received his Ph.D. in com- 
puter science from Columbia University. 
He is the president of Software Truth, de- 
veloping a next-generation programming 
environment. He can be reached on BIX 
c/o "editors. " 

220 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 

Circle 91 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 92) 

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of the 386, 486, or 860, including a 99% VAX/ 
VMS compatible FORTRAN and a dual dialect 
C which is UNIX System V and ANSI com- 
patible. Each NDP compiler is designed to take 
maximum advantage of 32-bit protected mode 
operation, including the 4 gigabyte address 
space of the processor, plus access to 

Number Smasher-860 T 

Number Smasher-860 is the highest perfor- 
mance coprocessor card ever to run in an ISA 
or EISA bus or as part of a transputer system. 
Delivers up to80 million floating pointoperations 
per second at 40 MHz and produces over 1 2 
double precision Unpack megaflops. The board 
comes standard with an ISA interface, two 
transputer link adapters, your choice of NDP 
Fortran, C++, C or Pascal for the i860 running 
under MS-DOS, UNIX or SunOS, plus 8 meg of 

high speed memory 33 MHz $6995 

40 MHz $9200 32 MB version: add $5000 

NDP NAG/860 is a Micro way port of the NAG 
workstation library to the i860 $1495 

NDP HALO 860 includes HALO Professional 
plus the Microway 860 interface library. . . .$895 

Parallel Processing 

MicroWay's IBM compatible Monoputer, Quad- 
puter and Videoputer work together using 
Inmos transputers to put the power of parallel 
processing on your desktop. 

Monoputer™— Includes one T800 and up to 
1 6 meg of RAM for parallel code development. 
The 4 MWhetstones T800 makes it the ideal 
FORTRAN engine for cost-effective execution 
of your mainframe programs from $1 1 45 

Quadputer™— This board for the AT or 386 
can be purchased with 1 to 4 transputers and 
1 or 4 meg of memory per transputer. Two or 
more Quadputers can be linked together to 
build networks of up to 1 00 or more transputers 
providing mainframe power from $1845 

Llnkputer™— Links up to 8 boards to provide 
dynamic transputer topologies $1500 

Transputer Compilers and Utilities 

Logical Systems Parallel C $595 

3L Parallel C, FORTRAN, or Pascal . . .$895 
TBUG — debugger for 3L compilers . . .$330 
ParaSoft EXPRESS — Includes transputer 
communications libraries, parallel code 
development library, C source level debugger, 

and system performance monitor $1 500 

Helios PC/s $1250 

Nexis Windows File Server $495 

T800/NAG™ — Port of the complete NAG 
mainframe library. Contains 268 functions: $2750 

coprocessors from Intel, Weitek, and Cyrix. 

If you're burning up a lot of VAX or Cray time, 
you should seriously consider the Number 
Smasher-860. It delivers super-computer 
throughput, running in an ISA bus, for about the 
price of a 486 system. With Number Smasher- 
860 and N DP C- or Fortran-860, you can recom- 
pile all of your C or FORTRAN programs and 
run them in any 286, 386, or 486 AT system. 

MicroWay is still your best source for numeric 
coprocessors and accelerators. Our 
FASTCache-SX is the most compatible AT 
upgrade available. 

For more Information, please call Microway's 
Technical Support Dept at (508) 74&-7341 . 

Number Smasher-486 T 

Personal Workstation magazine, June 1990, 
said, The Number Smasher-486 lives up to its 
name. Its numeric performance exceeds that of 
all25-M Hz systems we've tested to date. It gives 
you top 486 performance for the best price. " 
NumberSmasher-486™, a 25 or 33 MHz re- 
placement motherboard for ATs and 80386s, 
supports an optional Weitek 4167 numeric 
coprocessor and up to 16 megabytes of 
memory. Running with a 4167, our design 
delivers up to 10 megaflops. The Number 
Smasher-486 is priced from $3195. It is also a 
component of our custom tower with a 330 or 
668 meg hard disk that is priced from $6450. 

Math Coprocessors 


4167-25 $995 

4167-33 $1295 

3167-20/-25/-33 $495/ $795/ $995 

mW3167 Micro Channel-25/33 . . from $1295 

mW31 67/80387 Board $200 

8087 $80 8087-2 $115 

80287XL . . . $185 80387-16SX . . $280 
80387-16 . . $295 80387-20SX 

80387-20 ..$345 
80287XLT .$190 
287Tur o-20™ . . 



Cyrix CX83D87FasMath™ SX-16MHz $230 
20 MHz: $300 25 MHz: $380 33 MHz: $465 

386 Your AT! 

FASTCache-SX™ — The most cost effective 
accelerator available for ATs. Plugs into the 
286 socket, speeding up all applications by a 
factor of 3. Runs all 386 applications, OS/2 and 
Windows 3.0. Features 16 or 20 MHz 80386- 
SX, 4-way 32K cache (expandable to 64K) and 
a math coprocessor socket. 
1 6MHz: $495 20 MHz: $595 Cable: $95 

NUMBER SMASHER-386™ — This full-sized 
card replaces the 80286 on your IBM AT or 
compatible motherboard with an 386DX that 
runs at 20 or 25 MHz. It runs numerically inten- 
sive applications up to a factor of 60 times faster, 
while maintaining full hardware and software 
compatibility. Options include 64K of high speed 
cache memory, up to 8 megabytes of 32-bit 
memory, and an Intel 80387, Weitek, or Cyrix 
numeric coprocessor from $895 

World Leader in PC Numerics 

Corporate Headquarters: P.O. Box 79, Kingston, MA 02364 USA (508) 746-7341 

32 High St., Kingston -Upon -Thames, UK, 081-541-5466 

USA FAX (508) 746-4678 Italy 02-74.90.749 Holland 40 836455 Japan 81 03 222 0541 

Bill Calabrese 


Photo-Realism for Those with Time (and RAM) to Spare 

This image was created from the PhotoRealistic RenderMan component of 
MacRenderMan. Note the variety of surface textures and shadows used to create 
near-photographic-quality effects. 




1001 West Cutting 

Richmond, CA 94804 


Hardware Needed 

Mac II, llx, Ilex, I lei, or I If x with at least 5 
MB of RAM (8 MB recommended) and 5 
MB of hard disk space 

Software Needed 

System Tools 6.0.3 or higher, MultiFinder, 
32-Bit QuickDraw, and a modeling 
application program that outputs 
RenderMan Interface Bytestream scene- 
description data; a 24-bit color system is 
strongly recommended 



Inquiry 1060. 

Photo-realism has come to the Mac- 
intosh with Pixar's MacRender- 
Man. Derived from RenderMan, 
Pixar' s DOS-only rendering program, 
MacRenderMan is designed for serious 
Mac users who need extremely realistic 
three-dimensional renderings and have 
hardware powerful enough to fully ex- 
ploit the program's capabilities. 

MacRenderMan generates images of 
extraordinary quality by creating sur- 
faces as realistic to the eye as those in a 
photograph. But achieving this quality is 
both a time- and RAM-intensive task: 
Although my system has 8 megabytes of 
RAM, I often ran out of memory when I 
rendered some relatively simple objects 
for this review. And although I used a 
50-MHz accelerator, these small render- 
ings took about 20 minutes. If you're 
running at a more typical 25 MHz, ex- 
pect the time to be about 30 percent 

These drawbacks limit the current 
version of MacRenderMan to use by 
product designers, interior designers 
(e.g., for modeling a corner of a room), 
advertising designers, and others who 
usually work with small-scale objects. 
Architects and those who render larger, 

more detailed models without benefit of 
a mainframe will probably find Mac- 
RenderMan too time-consuming and 

Almost a Photograph 

MacRenderMan lets you create a wide 
variety of surface textures, plus motion 
blur and other effects. Most important, 
the software lets you manipulate light— a 
key ingredient in photography— to por- 
tray exactly the right mix of multiple 
light sources, amounts and angles of re- 
flections, artificial and natural effects, 
and shadow gradations. 

To create finished renderings, Mac- 
RenderMan uses a translation file called 
RIB (RenderMan Interface Bytestream), 
which in the future you'll be able to 
create with the Save As selection in third- 
party modeling programs. The RIB file 
contains not only a geometric description 
of the objects in the scene, but also the 
material properties necessary to fully 
describe the objects. These include ma- 
terial characteristics, shadows, texture 
maps, shading parameters, and the view- 
ing perspective. 

Subtle changes in the contents of the 
RIB file can make dramatic differences 

in the final image. You can use your text 
editor to change the RIB files created by 
your modeler to further define the quali- 
ties you would like displayed in your 
final rendering. You can also read the 
files as text and manipulate them in the 
text format. 

Listing 1 shows a short section of a 
RIB file describing rendering setup in- 
formation, positioning data, scene defi- 
nitions (e.g., light sources), and the geo- 
metric form of objects. Sound simple? 
Not really. This is my main objection to 
the program: To change the attributes of 
a model using the RIB file format, you 
have to revert from the Mac's graphical 
user interface to an almost-DOS environ- 
ment. Most of us Mac users bought our 
Macs to avoid doing just that. Also, there 
are additional commands that you will 
need if you want to modify shading and 

Five Components 

The MacRenderMan package comes 
with five applications, plus some sample 
libraries and tutorial demos. One of the 
applications, called RenderMonitor, is 
similar to the Print Monitor Desktop ap- 
plication available under MultiFinder. 

JANUARY 1991 • B Y T E 223 

Photo-Realism for Those with Time (and RAM) to Spare 

Listing 1: A sample RIB file. Although 

it is versatile, changing code in the 

RIB file format requires Mac users to work in a DOS-like environment. 

Display "New Slide" "framebuffer" 

Translate 2.5 


Patch "bilinear" "P" [-20 -20 

Format 128 96 1 

20 -20 -20 20 20 20 0] 

ShadingRate 10 

Patch "bilinear" "P" [-20 -10 

PixelSamples 1 1 

20 -10 -20 20 0] 


Projection "perspective" "fov" 30 

Translate 25 


Rotate -10 1 

Attribute "identifier" "name" 

Translate 0-5 


Rotate -90 1 


Translate 5 

Sphere 1-11 360 

LightSource "ambientlight" 1 

Disk -1 1.7 360 

"intensity" [.9] 

Cylinder 1.7 -1.4 -1 360 

Cylinder 1 -5 -1.4 360 



Attribute "identifier" "name" 



After you install RenderMonitor into the 
System folder, the application allows you 
to render images in the background so 
that you can continue with other work in 
the foreground. This is a great idea, but 

for the majority of the renderings I did 
for this review, the program asked me to 
quit out of all foreground applications to 
save system memory. 
One of the program's Tenderers, the 

picture-making application, is called 
PhotoRealistic Renderman. It accepts 
modeling data through the RenderMan 
interface specification format to gener- 
ate rendered 3-D images. This applica- 
tion is a cdev, and as such, you install it 
in the System folder. PhotoRealistic Ren- 
derman gives you options for choosing 
rendering size and quality. 

The second Tenderer is Vector Render- 
Man, which generates wire-frame 
images for quick evaluations of your 
model. This System-folder-residing cdev 
offers the same options as PhotoRealistic 

RenderApp is a Desktop application 
that lets you display rendered images on a 
color Macintosh monitor. You can also 
use it to display and save image files in 
the PICT format. The Tenderer can then 
use these files to generate texture maps. 

ShaderApp is a Desktop application 
for compiling shaders written in the Ren- 
derMan Shading Language (.si file) in 
the Shading Language Object file (.slo 
file). The source must be a text file. 
ShaderApp generates a shader with the 
name specified in the source file and the 
.slo suffix. 

While many computer manufacturers say they are com- 
patible, CSS Laboratories'™ MaxSys™ file servers are certi- 
fied to work with your network operating system. Our MaxSys 
386MT/33, for example, has passed testing by Novell,® 
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There are MaxSys systems with up to ten drive bays 

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systems come with a full one-year warranty, a national 800 
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they are all certified to provide uncompromising performance 
and reliability. 


Photo-Realism for Those with time (and RAM) to Spare 

Easy Installation 

Installing the program was a straightfor- 
ward procedure; I just dragged the items 
noted as System documents into the Sys- 
tem folder, and the rest into a file on my 
Desktop. You must be in MultiFinder for 
MacRenderMan to do background ren- 
dering, so I selected MultiFinder and re- 
started my Mac, and the program was 
ready to go. For this review, I used a Mac 
IIx with System 6.0.5, 8 MB of RAM, a 
DayStar 50-MHz accelerator, and 1 
gigabyte of ROM. My monitor was a Ra- 
dius 19-inch color display. 

Unlike with most Mac programs, you 
will probably need to read the MacRen- 
derMan manual to use the software ef- 
fectively. But the program is fairly sim- 
ple to operate as long as you don ' t want to 
make changes to the RIB files and your 
modeling program supports the RIB for- 
mat. There weren't many applications 
that did support RIB files as this went to 
press, but third-party representatives 
that I talked to said that they expected to 
within the next few months. According 
to Pixar, vendors are currently working 
to incorporate RIB file support in such 
programs as Vidi's 3-D Modeler, Dyna- 

ware's Dynaperspective, Intergraph's 
MicroStation Mac, MacroMind Three- 
D, Byte by Byte's Sculpt 3D, Strata's 
StrataVision 3D, Paracomp's Swivel 3D 
Professional, and Abvent's Zoom. 

The actual rendering of a model from 
a RIB file is also straightforward. I first 
went to the Chooser to select a renderer 
(I used PhotoRealistic RenderMan for 
the image shown in the photo). I then 
configured the renderer by selecting the 
quality of the drawing (Quality or Pre- 
view) and the amount of RAM I wanted 
to assign to the renderer (4 MB in this 
case) . 

Next, I selected Render App from the 
utilities file on the Desktop and went to 
the Render menu and selected Render 
Setup. Here I named the image and se- 
lected where I wanted the finished image 
to reside: in a window, a PICT file, or a 
TIFF file. I chose a PICT file. I chose the 
Render A File selection from the Render 
menu and then selected a RIB file. Then 
I just sat back and waited while the Ren- 
der Monitor processed the rendering (as I 
noted earlier, MacRenderMan asked me 
to exit from all other programs to save on 
system memory). With my 50-MHz ac- 

celerator, rendering time was about 45 

Small Projects Only 

If you need photo-realistic rendering, 
this is the package for you, as long as you 
can wait for software developers to tack 
on the RIB format to their programs and 
you can afford a fast Mac. The amount of 
ROM is not as important, because the 
finished files are not huge. 

I personally would not be able to use 
MacRenderMan as much as I would like, 
because most of my work is architectural 
CADD and animation. As I stated earli- 
er, the time the program takes to get your 
model just right would be too costly for 
architectural renderings. But for people 
who create simpler objects and who don't 
mind the DOS-like nature of the RIB for- 
mat, the program gives great photo-real- 
istic renderings with a moderate amount 
of time and effort on your part. ■ 

Bill Calabrese is MIS/CADD director of 
Design Alliance, Inc. (San Luis Obispo, 
CA), an architectural design firm. He has 
been an avid Macintosh user since 1984. 
You can reach him on BIXc/o " editors. " 

They're Satisfied. 

"I would like you to know how pleased we are with the 
CSS Labs equipment installed on our network. Your unique 
design has allowed us to grow the services to our users 
beyond what was planned in our budgets." "... the higher 
performance and reliability has been commented on by 
the network users." ". . . Also, please extend my sincere 
thanks to your technical support staff for their fantastic 
response in resolving our recent compatibility issue." 
". . . My staff was amazed that the solution was delivered 
the next day! This type of service is rare in the industry." 
—Roger Spongier, Network Service Manager, Fujitsu America, Inc. 

". . . ample provisions for drive and add-on board expansion 
make this system a fine choice in network or multiuser 
applications."— PC Magazine 

When you're evaluating a new system, it helps to know 
what experience others have had. CSS Laboratories' customer 
list is a long and happy one. Not to mention the computer 
press, who have also had some nice things to say. 

These people all agree, that CSS systems dorit just per- 
form well, they offer unsurpassed reliability anfl compatibility. 
Add to this our refutation far; customer service, and you can see 
why people are recommending us. For dealer information, call 
1-80Q-966-CSS1. Find out why we call 1 CSS Laboratories 
"A Solid Investment." 

CSS logo, CSS Laboratories. A Solid Investment. MaxSys are trademarks of CSS Laboratories, Inc. All other 
brand names and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. 
©1990 CSS Laboratories, Inc. 

"Our records confirm that over 25,000 CSS boards are 
in the field now, and judging by the low rate of return, 
their performance and integration in our systems, is 

—BobZiegler, Purchasing Manager, Datamedia Corporation 

". . . the combination of large- and small-record test 
results makes it quite impressive over the full range of 
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will yield sterling performance. . ." 
—PC Magazine 

"... a great example of a PC on steroids." "This machine 
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Circle 73 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 74) 

A Solid Investment 

As kM}OUt 
0„ A S rt eServ.oe 

DEALERS CALL (800) 966-CSSl 

California (714) 852-8161 • New York (212) 605-0290 • Canada (416) 882-0260 
Australia 61-2-808-3666 • Germany 02-51-27-91-17 



The ideal 16-inch ergonomic 
monitor for professional graphics 
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Maximum performance for CAD/CAM, spreadsheets, databases, 
WYSIWYG word processors and desktop publishing. Designed for 
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Fax (213)530-1679 

Circle 207 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 208) 



-— Images created by Jeiry D Flynn, Design Engineer, 

McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company, Kennedy Soace Center. Flonda. 
J3 Macintosh II is a registered trademark of Apple Computers Inc. 

NANAO and FLEXSCAN are registered trademarks of NANAO USA CORPORATION. 




■M r-iM 


16"-(15 \ Q, 0.2%mm^ ofWWVl^\x"~ 
W24~x)%HrSnper high resofutioh^Wnfr?0z 
high rMfihsh lato*^ -^; _ 

Hc x 30^4kHZ^V?mm&^- ^~ 
^GAr85l4M and MacEJQompatible. 


Howard Eglowstein 


A New Angle on OS/2 and Windows 

Nine virtual OS/2 
screens. Each outline 
represents an OS/2 window. 
You can move windows 
among virtual screens by 
simply dragging them to a 
new location. The nine 
buttons at the bottom of the 
screen let you select the active 
screen by simply clicking 
on either the button 
or the descriptive text. 

Wide Angle for OS/2 PM 
or Windows 


Inner Media, Inc. 
60 Plain Rd. 
Hollis, NH 03049 
(800) 962-2949 

Hardware Needed 

IBM AT or compatible 

Software Needed 

OS/2 version: OS/2 1 .2 or higher 
Windows version: Windows 3.0 or higher 


Either version: $129 

Inquiry 1111. 

You can never be too rich, and your 
desktop in a graphical user inter- 
face environment can never be too 
big. That's the thinking behind Inner 
Media's Wide Angle, a virtual desktop 
manager for OS/2 or Windows. 

If you use OS/2, you've seen the prob- 
lem. You open the OS/2 File Manager 
and a group window or two, and you've 
used up most of a standard VGA monitor. 
Next, you open a word processor to write 
a quick memo, but you need to incorpo- 
rate some data from a spreadsheet. OS/2 
can handle that by simply putting WingZ 
or Excel' s window over the top of every- 
thing else. By the time you have opened 
two applications and the "standard" 
OS/2 stuff, the cursor is lost in a sea of 
overlapping windows. 

Almost Like Having Nine Monitors 

Wide Angle makes OS/2 Presentation 
Manager think your work area is nine 
times its actual size. It's almost like 
using a single monitor with a switch box 
and nine VGA boards. 

You open applications as you normally 
would and put them in logical working 
groups. For instance, you might be 
working on a spreadsheet in WingZ 
while you are composing a sales bro- 
chure with DeScribe and PageMaker. 
WingZ likes to stretch out, so you might 
put it in a workspace of its own. Cutting 
and pasting text from DeScribe to Page- 
Maker is considerably easier when the 
two applications are together in the same 
workspace. The photo shows Wide An- 
gle's maximized window with this sam- 
ple layout. Moving windows within a 
workspace or from one workspace to an- 
other is a simple matter of dragging the 

picture of the window to its new location. 

If you put WIDEANGL.EXE in your 
STARTUP.CMD file and place your ap- 
plications together in a group named 
WIDE ANGL, Wide Angle will automat- 
ically open all your applications and put 
them in their proper location. In addition 
to the maximized view, Wide Angle 
keeps a smaller, resizable window on- 
screen with nine push-button window 
controls and a verbal description of each 
window. To change active workspaces, 
you either click on buttons 1 through 9, 
click on the text description, or double- 
click on the picture's window. 

I tested my copy of Wide Angle on a 
Compaq 386/20 running Compaq's OS/2 
1.2 with 6 megabytes of RAM. On that 
machine with three or four applications 
active, the switch-over between windows 
was almost instantaneous. I ran a version 
for Windows 3.0 on a 16-MHz 386 sys- 
tem with 5 MB of RAM and a 1280- by 
960-pixel Radius TPD/PC monochrome 
monitor. Wide Angle (the Windows ver- 
sion) handled the large screen with no 

Houdini Would Be Proud 

Clever programming is sometimes indis- 
tinguishable from magic. Wide Angle 
manages to do its job in a mere 60K bytes 
of RAM under OS/2 or Windows, no 
matter what your system configuration 
is. How? Both OS/2 and Windows have 
some primitive capabilities for handling 
large screen areas, and the engineers at 
Inner Media have found a way, through 
the use of standard application program- 
ming interface calls, to get OS/2 to ma- 
nipulate the virtual screens with little 

Another neat trick is Wide Angle's 
control panel. This is a window like any 
other, except that it likes to float auto- 
matically to the top of the current win- 
dow stack. 

You'll find that you'll want to use this 
AutoRise feature often; fortunately, it's 
always visible. If it gets in the way, you 
can reduce it to a minimized icon (the 
nine buttons shrink but stay active) or 
turn it off. 

As far as I know, there's nothing quite 
like Wide Angle on any other platform. 
The closest product I'm aware of is Step- 
ping Out on the Macintosh, from Berke- 
ley Systems. Like Wide Angle, Stepping 
Out enlarges your usable screen area, but 
it treats the enlarged area as a single vir- 
tual screen without the logical groups. 
It's up to you to remember where things 
are, and you have to do lots of scrolling 
from place to place. I much prefer Wide 
Angle's approach. It's easier to arrange 
your applications in groups and press a 
single button. 

Best of all, Wide Angle works. The 
only problem I found is that it doesn't 
know anything about screen savers. 
Wide A ngle kept popping u p on the blank 
screen after my screen saver blanked the 
display. Disabling AutoRise solved the 

Priced at $129, Wide Angle may be 
just the cure for what ails OS/2. No 
longer do you have to use the Task Man- 
ager to find a window or waste time min- 
imizing applications to get them out of 
the way. ■ 

Howard Eglowstein is a BYTE Lab test- 
ing editor. He can be reached on BIX as 
"he glow stein. " 

JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 227 

Jon Udell and Tom Thompson 


Two Bumbling Detectives 

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< WinSleuth's 
actions are selected 
through a scrolling 
set of icons, but 
the output window 
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MacSleuth can 

get confused. It 

reported that our 

Mac II ci had a 

Mac Plus keyboard 

with a keypad, 

an impossible 


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ll 1 

Dariana Technology Group, creator of 
the venerable System Sleuth DOS utility, 
has recently branched out into two new 
areas: Windows 3. and the Macintosh. 
The company 's goal was to create pro- 
grams that could call out your system and 
software configuration in a flash. Our 
reviewers found both products disap- 


A Solution in Search of a Problem 

In my PC troubleshooting toolkit, I carry 
a copy of System Sleuth, Dariana Tech- 
nology Group's handy snoop utility. It's 
a quick way to discover the amount of 
memory that is installed in a PC, the lo- 
cations that are available for add-in 
boards, the type of video adapter and 



Dariana Technology Group, Inc. 
Buena Park, CA 90620 

Hardware Needed 

286-, 386-, or i'486-based PC with 640K 
bytes of memory, a hard disk drive, and a 
compatible graphics adapter 

Software Needed 

DOS 3.1 or higher; Microsoft 
Windows 3.0 



Inquiry 1110. 

disk drive, and whether the system in- 
cludes a math coprocessor. WinSleuth 
carries on the tradition of System Sleuth 
and adds a picture of your PC from Win- 
dows' point of view. 

WinSleuth is made up of 1 1 modules, 
most of which work just like their System 
Sleuth counterparts. The General Infor- 
mation module, for example, describes 
your CPU and FPU, gives the date of the 
ROM BIOS, and identifies the number 
and type of floppy and hard disk drives. 
If you want to check out some low-level 
aspects of the environment— things like 
the partition table, TSR programs, and 
device drivers— you have to run Win- 
Sleuth under real-mode Windows. 

The Display Information module de- 
scribes your Windows display driver. It 
reports the display resolution and color 
depth, and it queries the driver (i.e., 
calls the Windows GetDeviceCaps func- 
tion) for a list of device capabilities such 
as underlining, scaling, and (in 386 en- 
hanced mode) virtual memory under the 
control of the Windows memory man- 
ager. The Windows Information module 
lists the Windows tasks currently run- 
ning and optionally lists the dynamic 
link libraries running in support of those 
tasks. Network Information summarizes 
the capabilities of the current Windows 
network driver. 

But what's WinSleuth's raison d'etre? 
You can boot DOS on a naked machine, 
run System Sleuth from a disk, and find 
out lots of useful information quickly. I 
often do just that. You can *t use Win- 
Sleuth that way, because, of course, you 
have to install Windows first. In any 
case, WinSleuth does not handle the 
basics as comprehensively as does Sys- 

tem Sleuth. Once you've got a Windows 
environment up and running, WinSleuth 
can tell you some interesting things, but I 
don't see it as the vital diagnostic tool 
that its progenitor is. 

Frankly, WinSleuth looks like a pro- 
gram thrown together in a hurry to cash 
in on Windows 3.0's popularity. It's not 
even a polished Windows 3.0 applica- 
tion. Information panes aren't scrollable, 
for example, and in one case, you can 
generate more output than will fit. 
Screens are loaded with typos, and they 
lack intelligent refresh routines. Even the 
packaging is evidence of a rush job: It an- 
nounces the company as "Dariana Tech- 
nogy." This isn't the best work that Dar- 
iana Technology Group can do. 

-/. U. 



Dariana Technology Group, Inc. 
6945 Hermosa Cir. 
Buena Park, CA 90620 

Hardware Needed 

MacSE, II, Ilex, orllfx 

Software Needed 

System 6.0.2 or higher 



Inquiry 1109. 

228 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 


Full of Contradictions 

MacSleuth 1.0 is supposed to be a diag- 
nostic aid for Mac system woes. It's a 
Mac application that uses 13 diagnostic 
modules. These modules snoop through 
the Mac's innards and produce reports 
detailing the system's hardware config- 
uration, INITs, cdevs, device drivers, 
interrupt queues, resources, and param- 
eter RAM settings, to name a few. 

Unfortunately, I found MacSleuth to 
be more of a hindrance than an aid in 
trouble-shooting. For example, it failed 
to recognize that a Mac Ilci had a 24-bit 
color board (it insisted that the display 
had only 256 colors). On a Mac II with a 
paged memory management unit chip, 
the Resources module failed to work or 
crashed the machine. Network reports 
were incomplete at best on BYTE's 
LocalTalk network, which uses a Faral- 
lon StarController and one AppleShare 
file server. 

As you click on the various module 
icons for additional information, Mac- 
Sleuth's operation becomes more erratic. 
At certain times, opening a desk acces- 
sory while in MacSleuth confuses the ap- 
plication so much that it reports incorrect 
information. For example, on the Mac 
Ilci, I got beeps when I tried to open a 
DA. MacSleuth reported that the Ilci had 
a Mac Plus keyboard— an electrical im- 
possibility, since the Plus uses a custom 
cable while the Ilci uses an Apple Desk- 
top Bus connection for its keyboard. By 
removing most of my INITs and the 
TMON debugger, I got better behavior 
out of MacSleuth, but isn't a diagnostic 
package supposed to deal with these 

Free upgrades are promised for six 
months to correct MacSleuth's prob- 
lems. However, a combination of free- 
ware, shareware, and commercial util- 
ities can provide the same information 
for far less than the $149 that MacSleuth 
costs. For example, you could use Randy 
Dees' AT View DA (shareware, $5) to 
examine your LocalTalk network, and 
Ken McLeod's freeware MacEnvy cdev 
to report on your system hardware, at- 
tached monitors, and parameter RAM. 
Symantec's SUM II disk utilities ($149) 
has an application that gives you an ex- 
haustive report on drivers, interrupt 
queues, and memory while providing 
hard disk drive recovery tools as well . ■ 

—T. T. 

Jon Udell and Tom Thompson are BYTE 
senior editors at large. You can reach 
them on BIX as "judell" and "tom_ 
thompson, " respectively. 



g^ ave an amazing 60% of the desk or counter space now taken by a standard 

3 keyboard and enjoy improved functionality at the same time. Actual size is 
273 x 152mm (10.75" x 6.0"). The new MICROTYPE Keyboard is rapidly gaining 
acceptance as a truly advanced alternative to the original IBM layout for many applica- 
tions. Reliability of the MICROTYPE has been amply proven through extensive use in 
trading areas of several major stock exchanges as well as in many banks, brokerages, 
stores and at factory work stations. 

Space is saved by compressing rows (not columns) and eliminating wide borders. 
Re-arranging and elevating the auxiliary key clusters also saves space while improving 
accessibility with reduced eyescan and head movement. Keys have full travel with a 
light tactilly responsive touch. All standard features such as auto-repeat, caps, num 
and scroll lock are included on the MICROTYPE. 

PC XT/AT, PS/2 IBM and clone compatibility. Available in US and most European 
language versions. Made in USA with 1 year warranty. 

Order direct from stock with 15 day full return privileges. VISA, MasterCard, Eurocard 
charges and COD accepted. 

USA 1-800-DATALUX Fax 703-662-1682 $124.50 + 6.00 s/h 

EUROPE 44+306-76718 Fax 44+306-76742 £99.00 + VAT + P&P 

CANADA 514-694-0870 Fax 514-694-0871 $189.00 Cdn + s/h 

OEM and reseller volume discounts available. Keytop legend and color customization 

V . . beautifully sensitive and handles 
both typists with light touch and those 
who really bang away. . . '.' 


'.' . This could be the perfect layout for 
an enhanced keyboard that must fit into 
a small area ..." 


A new Space-saver product from DATALUX 
— Microtype keyboard and LCD monitor 
combination. VGA resolution, backlit, 
supplied with adaptor card. Call for price 
and availability. 

datalux Corporation 

2836 Cessna Drive 
Winchester, Virginia 22601 


Euro House 

Curtis Road, 11 Old Water Road 

Dorking, Surrey, UK 

Circle 82 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 83) 

JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 229 


Reviewer's Notebook provides new information— including version updates, 
new test data, long-term usage reports, and reader feedback— on products 
previously reviewed in BYTE. 

Ease of Use in Lotus Agenda 

Lotus Development opened up new 
territory when it released Agenda, 
its personal information manager 
(PIM), two years ago. This was new ter- 
ritory in that pioneering users of the first 
release were assailed by arrows flaming 
with difficulty and encountered seem- 
ingly endless hardships as they navigated 
Agenda's learning curve. 

It wasn't just that Agenda was chal- 
lenging to learn: It was based on new 
database and information management 
concepts that were not easy to grasp. 

Agenda 2.0 


Lotus Development Corp. 
55 Cambridge Pkwy. 
Cambridge, MA 021 42 

Hardware Needed 

IBM PC or compatible with 640K bytes of 
RAM and a hard disk drive 

Software Needed 

DOS 2.1 or higher 



Inquiry 1204. 

Agenda 2. now 
supports math to 
make filing 
expense reports 
easier, and its new 
streamlined date 
includes a pop-up 

Agenda stored data in items, which could 
have assignments to categories, which in 
turn could have parent or child catego- 
ries. Agenda approached object orienta- 
tion, yet it didn't completely fit the ob- 
ject-oriented model. 

To make matters worse, Agenda ap- 
plications were (at least at first) user- 
defined, impaling users with their own 
inabilities to understand Agenda. 

Some pioneers survived, and others 
didn't. I was one of the survivors. For 
over a year and a half, I used Agenda to 
keep track of my contacts, telephone con- 
versations, appointments, and other bits 
of information. I developed a love/hate 
relationship with Agenda. 

I loved Agenda because it could com- 
pile lists of the information I put into it 
and otherwise make sense of it all auto- 
matically, as a good secretary might do. 
As my database grew, I hated Agenda for 
its clumsy way of handling a large list of 
categories— which sometimes made the 
program so slow that my 25-MHz 386 
computer couldn't sort through my daily 
notes even if I left it running all night. In 
fact, without a good disk-caching pro- 
gram installed, the old version of Agenda 
would run my computer's hard disk drive 
almost constantly. 

Canned Applications 

To level out the learning curve, Agenda 
2.0 includes four "starter" applications 

that Lotus claims are so easy that you can 
become productive with Agenda in only 
30 minutes. Even though that's a lot to 
promise, Lotus is probably right. Any- 
one should be up and running with one of 
the applications in very little time. Profi- 
ciency may come later, but that's fair. 

The applications are Activities Plan- 
ner for tracking tasks and appointments 
(an updated version of the planner appli- 
cation released with Agenda 1.01), Ac- 
count Manager for tracking sales calls, 
People Manager for tracking the goals of 
people you manage, and Information 
Sifter for sorting information that comes 
from external sources like E-mail. 

And that's what makes Agenda 2.0 so 
much easier to learn— it comes with ap- 
plications ready to use. Now, new users 
can spend their time learning how to run 
an application, rather than having to 
learn the conceptual underpinnings of 
how Agenda does its magic. 

With Activities Planner, for example, 
you might simply type in a note (Agenda 
calls a note an item) like "Meet Joe for 
lunch at noon next Tuesday." Agenda 
will automatically set the date to what- 
ever day next Tuesday happens to be. 
That way, when you call up your sched- 
ule for next Tuesday, your lunch with Joe 
will be plugged in at 12:00. Agenda will 
file the note (in Agenda-ese, it assigns 
the item) to the activity mentioned in the 
note, so that later you'll be reminded to 
fill in the amount you spent to track your 
expenses. The only thing you might need 
to do is enter Joe's name in the people 
column. I say "might" because once 
Agenda recognizes a name in a note, it 
automatically files the note under the 

None of this is new to Agenda— you 
could make the old version do the same 
things. But now you don't have to teach 
Agenda how to do them. Also, Agenda 
2.0 now supports simple math (see the 
photo). Thus, when you enter the amount 
of that lunch with Joe, Agenda will auto- 
matically total an expense report for you 
by week, month, type of expenditure, 
and so on. 

A Rewritten Agenda 

Beyond the canned applications, Agenda 
2.0 is a rewrite of the program that at- 
tempts to improve performance. No, it's 
not a redesign of the basic concepts of the 
original Agenda. And that's good news, 

230 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 

because those concepts, once you get the 
hang of them, work pretty well. 

As for the problem of relentless disk 
access, a change in how Agenda manages 
memory dramatically improves perfor- 
mance on databases with large category 
lists. (The category list is all the individ- 
ual things— such as people, activities, 
and tasks— that Agenda keeps track of.) 
Because Agenda is comparing the note 
text to the text of each category, it needs 
the complete category list in memory. 

If the list was too large to fit into your 
computer's memory along with the pro- 
gram, as my list of over 3000 people and 
products was, the old Agenda had to 
swap parts of the list to and from the hard 
disk. Even using a disk cache, the swaps 
took an incredible amount of time—in 
my case, the better part of a day just to 
evaluate dates. 

Thankfully, Agenda 2.0 takes advan- 
tage of more efficient expanded memory, 
if you have it (if you don't, you'll want 
it), to load the category list there. With 
my database, which has grown consider- 
ably, Agenda 2 . uses a little more than a 
megabyte for expanded memory. Most 
important, though, it can evaluate all the 
dates in a fraction of the time of the old 

That's partly because Agenda 2.0 
deals with dates in a more efficient way. 
In the earlier release, you had little con- 
trol over dates, and many users pro- 
grammed their own categories to handle 
dates. That typically increased the size 
of the category list by 365 (a category for 
each day of the year) just to have a sched- 
ule calendar. 

Not only did that cause problems, cre- 
ating more disk swaps for a larger cate- 
gory list, but every day Agenda would 
also try to evaluate each date category 
against the entire database. Agenda 2.0 
solves the problem by introducing cate- 
gory types specifically for dates. The 
category types are so efficient that the 
"when" category can track all sched- 

Combined, the enhancements in mem- 
ory management and date handling make 
Agenda usable again on my database. My 
old love/hate relationship with it has 
ended— the hate part of it, that is. There 
are other good PIMs, like IBM's Cur- 
rent, you might consider. But neither 
Current nor any of the others will do so 
much categorizing for you automatically; 
nor will they allow you as much flexibil- 
ity as Agenda 2.0— and none are that 
much easier to learn. Now, my biggest 
complaint with Agenda is that it doesn't 
fit into my coat pocket like a Day-Timer. 
—Dennis Allen 

Expanded Linking in Folio Views 

Pi | Edit ftixt Search brouys Links Options 


liijportcxt links are used for different purposes. They are often used to build 
d tdblc of contents or Menu, to link to <t footnote* or to execute a query. 

Program links drc used to execute another progran on your computer. They can 
enhance an infobase by linking to graphics, audio, animation, video* or any 

Try sone of these 
links, then 

To follow a — 

■Sons examples of links 

2^B88 ■ 

link, just 

v Footnote link 

TAB your 

V Quern link 

cursor to a 

» Graphic link (bftw) 

link token and 

- Craphic link CUCfl color 


press ENTER. 

» Audio link (voice) 
- Audio link (nusic) 

IsSoftwre User Hutu I 

ENTER to open new view or follow link (TAB to *«), »/- to cycle windows 

Folio Views 2. 
adds hypertext 
linking to external 
sources so that you 
can link graphics 
or sound to an 

Another upgraded product worth 
considering is Folio Views 2.0, a 
program that manages very large 
amounts of textual information. In a nut- 
shell, Folio Views fully indexes your text 
and then compresses the text and index 
into a single file typically half the size of 
the original ASCII text file. That alone 
was a remarkable feature in the first re- 
lease, because a full-text index can eas- 
ily exceed the size of the text file. 

But Folio Views was not without its 
problems. First, it had its biggest prob- 
lem with scrolling through text. Another 
problem was that although Folio Views 
offered some hypertext linking, it was 
limited to a single database (which Folio 
calls an infobase). And finally, prepar- 
ing text for Folio Views' proprietary for- 
mat took a great deal of time and pa- 
tience, because you had to manually 
insert formatting commands and other- 
wise translate a document from its origi- 
nal format. 

Folio Views 2.0 fixes all those prob- 
lems. The text scrolling should be fast 
enough to keep any browser happy. Al- 
though you can't whiz through a Folio 
Views document as though it were a Xy- 
Write (one of the fastest word processors) 
document, you can browse text comfort- 
ably—and even as fast as most ordinary 
word processors. 

As for the hypertext linking, two new 
features in Folio Views 2.0 make all the 
difference. First, you can link to external 
sources, like another infobase. Second, 
because you can now exit Folio Views 
and run another program (leaving just a 
lOK-byte kernel behind), you can make a 
hypertext link to another program. In 

other words, you could create a link to a 
CD-ROM or to a program (e.g., Viewer, 
which is included) that displays graphics 
or produces sound (see the photo). May- 
be that doesn't make Folio Views a mul- 
timedia product per se, but it might make 
for interesting hypertext documents. 

To make document conversions eas- 
ier, Folio Views now automatically con- 
verts text and data from over 40 formats 
(e.g., XyWrite and other popular word 

When I first tested Folio Views (see 
"Text Retrieval with a Twist," July 1989 
BYTE), I liked it a lot— even with its 
shortcomings. Now, with those short- 
comings fixed in Folio Views 2.0, 1 like 
it even more. ■ 

—Dennis Allen 

Folio Views 2.0 


Folio Corp. 

2155 North Freedom Blvd., Suite 150 

Provo, UT 84604 

(800) 543-6546 


Hardware Needed 

IBM PC or compatible with 512K 
bytes of RAM 

Software Needed 

DOS 3.0 or higher 



Inquiry 1205. 

JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 231 

Professional developers require 




by Boston Business Computing 
EDT+ 5.0, the only complete 
emulation of DIGITAL'S VAX EDT, 
is 50% faster than its predecessor 
and features multiple windows, 
interfaces for EVE, EMACS, vi 
and WPS, 132-column mode, 
status line and ruler, keystroke 
macros and much more. 30-day, 
money-back guarantee and free 
customer support and updates for 
60 days. For MS-DOS and UNIX 

LIST: $295 PS Price: $279 

FaslFaxts 342-001 

Circle 262 on Reader Service Card 



386 Max 5.0 $109 
386|DOS Extender by Pharlap 495 

DESQview386 189 

F77-EM32 + Lahey Ergo 1 055 

FoxBASE+/386 479 

Metaware High C 386/486 9 1 9 

MetaWare Pascal 386/486 839 

NDP Fortran w/VM 829 

NDP C - 386 829 

QEMM 386 95 

VM-386 229 

WATCOM C8.0 386 Prof. 1 1 55 

WATCOM C8.0 386 Stand. 795 

Zortech C + + 386 Dev. 865 


ARITY Combination Package 989 

LISPC 269 

PC Scheme 85 

TransLISP PLUS w/source 99 

PDC Prolog Compiler 239 




Turbo Debugger & Tools 


Visible Computer:80286 



BAS-C Commercial 


dB/LIB Professional 


MS QuickBASIC V4.5 




QuickPak Prof. V3.16 



Instant C 769 

Lattice C - 6.0 Compiler 1 89 

Microsoft C 6.0 349 

Microsoft QuickC 69 

WATCOM C8.0 Prof. 439 

WATCOM C8.0 Stand. 359 


Dan Bricklin Demo II 1 85 

EasyCase Plus 275 

EasyCase Plus Prof. Pack 365 
EasyFlow 1 35 

Instant Replay III 99 

Matrix Layout 211 

MetaDesign by Meta Software 287 
Pro-C 2.0w/Workbench Combo735 
ProtoFinish by Genesis 211 

Show Partner F/X 198 

Visible Analyst 





Realia COBOL 



C Asynch Manager 3.0 1 39 

Essential COMM by S. Mtn. 259 

Greenleaf Comm Library 329 

QuickComm 129 


Clipper 5.0 

FoxBASE + - V2.1 



Cause Professional 499 

CLARION Prof. Dev. V2.1 549 

D the data language 199 

Magic PC 379 

Paradox V3.5 569 

R:BASE 3.1 499 


AdComm for Clipper 279 

Artful. Lib 289 
BALER Spreadsheet Compiler 399 

CLEAR + for dBASE 179 

Comet Multi port 169 

dBASE BlackBox 65 

dBASE Online 129 


dBX/dBport 425 

dGE 4.0 279 


dSalvage Professional 195 

FLIPPER Graphics Library 1 79 

FUNCky.LIB 179 

Genifer - code generator 269 

Net Lib 229 

Pro Clip 149 
R&R Relational Reportwriter 139 

R&R Code Generator 1 29 

Scrimage 139 

SilverComm Library 229 

SilverPaint 119 


by Rainbow Technologies 
The SentinelScout is a hardware 
key that attaches externally to the 
parallel port of an IBM PC or 
compatible to enable execution of 
authorized program copies. It 
does not interfere with printer 
operation, hard disk installs or 
backup copies. Featuring a fixed- 
response security system unique 
to each device, the economical 
SentinelScout offers a level of 
execution control perfect for 
lower-cost programs. 
LIST: $295 (kit of 10 keys) 
PS Price: $265 
FastFaxLt 1313-001 

UI2 Touch & Go 

by Wallsoft 

UI2 Touch & Go is a subset of The 
Ul Programmer 2, Developer's 
Release for less experienced pro- 
grammers. It has a screen painter 
and integrated data dictionary and 
comes with the GENSYS template 
system, customized application 
generation without programming. 
GENSYS handles almost all 
application development needs, 
'right out of the box'. UI2 Touch & 
Go generates dBASE 111+ and IV, 
Clipper, FoxBASE+, FoxPro, 
Quicksilver and dBXL programs. 
LIST: $395 PS Price: $319 

FastFaxls 212-011 

. : : 

Hijaak Release 2.0 

by Inset Systems Inc. 
HiJaak 2.0 is a graphics 
conversion and capture utility that 
translates more than 36 graphics 
file formats. HiJaak provides 
batch conversion capability from 
the DOS command line or from 
the user interface. Supported 
formats include GEM, PICT l&ll, 
MAC, TIF, and support for more 
than 16 group 3 fax devices. A 5K 
pop-up provides capture function 
of text screens, graphics screens, 
and laser printer output. 
LIST: $199 PS Price: $189 

FasiFaxis 1085-003 

BTree/ISAM v3 

by Softfocus 

A powerful, portable indexed file 
manager for C programmers. 
Supports multiple indices, fixed or 
variable length records, rich 
assortment of key types, and 
single or multi-user operation. 
The latest release of a flexible, 
fully-functional and well 
documented product. Currently in 
use by thousands worldwide. All 
C source included along with 
complete documentation and 
example programs. Portable to all 
operating systems and C 
compilers, no royalties. 
LIST: $179 

PSPricc:$149 w/source 
FastFaxis 209-002 



more than just products... 


by Glcnco Engineering Inc. 
Hardlock attaches externally to 
any printer port on an IBM PC/ 
clone and permits execution of a 
protected application. Hardlock, 
the highest security in hardware 
keys, features a programmable 
variable response chip with an 
optional 1 28 bytes of memory. Kit 
includes: 5 Keys, unique Crypto- 
Programmer board, programmer's 
and non-programmer's software 
interface, demos, and application 
notes. Eight bit bus version 

LIST: $377 PS Price: $359 

FaslFaxts 2994-001 

M++ 2.0 

by Dyad Software Corporation 
The M++ library is a complete, 
standardized, multidimensional 
array language extension to C++, 
giving you the same powerful 
array handling capabilities that 
have accelerated development in 
advanced scientific languages for 
years. Now in C++, DOS/ 
Windows/Unix, C++ 2.0 
compatible libraries. No 
Royalties. New! M++ Modules: 
M++ SUM, M++LSM,and M++ 
OPTIM: Advanced statistical, 
generalized least squares, and 
optimization classes. 
LIST: $295 PS Price: $279 

FaslFaxts 3138-001 



Architect Workstation 

by Interactive 
When you need a high- 
performance graphical UNIX 
workstation for your develop- 
ment needs, see the company 
that sold the first commercial 
UNIX product! The Workstation 
Developer combines a PC's 
dedicated processing with the 
computing power of a minicom- 
puter and provides the ability to 
create customized, networked 
software for workstation applications. Other UNIX packages available. 

LIST: $1995 (1-2 Users) PS Price: $1850 

LIST: $1000 (Mulli-uscr upgrade) PS Price: $ 919 


FaslFaxts 1614-103 


by Software Products Intl. 

Turn your ideas into market-ready 
applications in just weeks with 
Open Access III! Easily edit, run, 
and debug your programs in the 
environment. Get data entry and 
report forms and support for 
windowing, light-bar menus, and 
3-D graphics to make creating your 
applications a snap! Open 
architecture with a C language 
interface lets you add change or 
add features. And Open Access III 
even has its own compiler! 
LIST: $695 PS Price: $489 

FaslFaxts 1759-007 

Tom Rettig's Library 


UI2 Developer's Release 






Dis Doc Pro 


Multiscope for DOS 


Periscope IV 


RE:Source by Genesoft 


SoftProbe 86/TX 


Sourcer 486 w/BIOS pre-proc. 1 49 




ASMFLOW Prof. 179 

C-DOC 139 

CLEAR+forC 169 

Codan 349 

Buzzwords dANALYST 269 

The Documentor 245 

Hyperinterface II Combo 239 

INSIDE! 119 

MKS Lex & Yacc 1 99 


PC-Lint 120 

Plink/LTO 439 

PolyMake 1 59 

PVCS Professional 439 

ROM-Link 339 

.RTLINK - by Pocket Soft 279 

.RTLINK Plus 419 

Source Print 67 

TLIB 5.0 Version Control 1 25 

Zortech C++ Tools Call 



Cheetah 1 03 

Epsilon 109 

KEDIT 139 

QEditTSR 89 

Sage Professional Editor 249 

SPF/PC-V2.1 129 

Vedit+ 139 


Eclipse 386 560 

Exsys Professional 478 
Logic Gem by Sterling Castle 89 
Personal Consultant Plus 1999 


Accsys for Paradox w/source 739 


C-Data Manager 279 

CodeBASE 4 279 

CQL - w/ source 365 

c-tree Plus by Faircom 529 



Faircom Toolbox Prof. 1 1 59 

WKS Library 149 

XQL 649 


FOR_C w/source 789 

Lahey FORTRAN F77L 549 

Lahey Personal FORTRAN Call 

MS Fortran Opt. Compiler 309 



C Tools Plus -V6.01 98 

C Utility Library 189 

Greenleaf SuperFunctions 239 

Opt-Tech Sort 119 

Turbo C Tools by Blaise 109 


Bar Code Library w/Source 369 

Essential Graphics v3.0 349 

Graphic 319 

graphics-Menu 165 

G SS Graphics Dev't Toolkit 699 

HALO 279 

HSC Sunscan 289 

LaserControl 139 

MetaWINDOWS 209 


PCX Programmer's Toolkit 229 


Aegis 55 

ALL Chargecard 399 

Capital Equipment Corp. 

OS/RAM32 0M 225 

OS/RAM8 0M 299 

OS/RAM4 0M 179 

DigiCHANNEL COM/8i 875 

DigiCHANNEL MC/8i 949 


S martCache ST506 1 099 

SmartCache RLL 1099 

SmartCache ESDI 1099 

Disk Mirroring Module 685 

Emerson UPS 

Model 10 UPS 169 

Model 20 UPS 319 

Model 40 UPS 699 

AccuCard 209 

AccuSaver 69 

EtherCard Plus 239 

EtherCard Plus/A 349 

Erasable Optical Drive Call 

Hardlock Kit by Glenco 369 

IIT Adv. Math Coprocessors 

3C87-25 450 

3C87-33 559 

2C87-20 329 

2C87-12 279 

Intel Math Coprocessors 

80387-25 555 

80387-33 675 

J T Fax 9600 595 

KickS tart I 179 

KickStart II 399 

KickStart III 689 

LANStorLANl50S 1599 

LaserStor WORM Drive 3295 

Personal Modem 2400 179 

QX/12K Modem 699 

QX/V.32C Modem 1349 

Seagate ST- 125-1 20M 299 

Seagate ST-4096-1 80M 639 

Seagate ST-251-1 40M 339 

SentinelScout (kit of 1 keys) 265 

SpeedStor AT 320S 1999 

Smartmodem 2400 (Ext.) 359 

The Shadow SVGA1024K 319 

VGA WONDER 5 12K 359 



The Programmer's Shop is 

UNIX 386 Compiler 

1 by Zortech, Inc. 
I Zortech's C++ V2.1 386 compiler 
1 for UNIX makes it easy to port 
^ applications among DOS, DOS 
386, OS/2, and SCO UNIX 386. 
With the same tight, fast, globally 
optimized code of the DOS and 
OS/2 versions, the compiler takes 
full advantage of the 386. 
Included is an ANSI/UNIX/Zortech 
C++ compatible library. 
LIST: $500 PS Price: $439 

FastFaxls 1108-4)45 


dBXL/LAN 519 

Btrieve for DOS 479 

Netware SQL 519 

Netware C Interface 239 


Intek C++ 80386 298 

M++ by Dyad Software Corp. 279 

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AI: Metamorphosis 
or Death? 

239 AFs Identity Crisis 

by Bob Ryan 

249 Overturning 

the Category Bucket 

by Bill Thompson and 
Bev Thompson 

259 The Real-Time Expert 

by Thomas J. Laffey 

267 AI in Practice 

by Martin Heller 

281 Putting the Experts to Work 

by Daniel W. Rasmus 

Solving the Unsolvable 

by Marge Sherald 

289 Real Artificial Life 

by Richard Marlon Stein 

300 Resource Guide: 
Intelligent Software 

Is artificial intelligence dead? If it's 
not, it is without doubt undergoing a 
major transition, but whether that 
change precedes a death or a rebirth 
into a different form, I cannot say. The 
chasms within the AI community are 
widening to create the appearance of var- 
ious disciplines, rather than different 
branches of the same tree. Which way AI 
as a whole— if such a concept exists any- 
more—is headed is a good question. 

Whatever happened to the promise of 
the past? A I was supposed to inherit the 
earth, according to its proponents. What 
is the nature of an intelligent system, 
anyway? A I was supposed to make the 
creation of intelligent machines possible. 
In "AFs Identity Crisis" Bob Ryan ad- 
dresses the questions of definition, valid- 
ity, and direction that plague AI today. 

Webster's provides several definitions 
for intelligence, including "the ability to 
apply knowledge to manipulate one's en- 
vironment" and "the act of understand- 
ing." These definitions are applicable to 
artificial intelligence as well. The ability 
to categorize knowledge is the primary 
means by which an AI system acquires 
its form of understanding. In "Overturn- 
ing the Category Bucket," Bill and Bev 
Thompson discuss the classical view— 
and a new view— of categories. 

One AI area that has born the brunt of 
early failures is expert systems. Some of 
the first attempts were so amateurish as 
to invite scorn. However, first attempts 
are often just that— attempts. Since those 
early days, expert systems have matured 
a great deal. In "AI in Practice," Martin 
Heller roams DEC's corridors and ex- 
plores many practical applications of ex- 
pert systems that are in use there— appli- 
cations that may give you ideas of your 
own for applying expert systems. 

Another application for expert sys- 
tems is the "assistant" programs that 

function as intelligent guides for new or 
unskilled workers and consolidate the 
knowledge of various experts. In "Put- 
ting the Experts to Work," Daniel W. 
Rasmus discusses some current micro- 
computer applications of expert systems. 
And in the text box "Solving the Unsolv- 
able," Marge Sherald looks at the capa- 
bilities of systems formed by hybridizing 
expert systems and neural networks. 

Expert systems have made inroads 
into a lot of areas, even such bastions of 
traditional programming as real-time en- 
vironments. The constraints of real-time 
systems, and the response times required 
of them, make the advice of experts an 
increasingly valuable commodity. In 
"The Real-Time Expert," Thomas J. 
Laffey looks at the advantages of expert 
"help" in monitoring and controlling 
complex real-time systems. 

One area that lies on the outer fringes 
of AI is artificial life. It does not, how- 
ever, lie on the outer fringes of reality. 
One example of an artificial life organ- 
ism is a computer virus— hardly a strang- 
er to any of us. Artificial life as a field, 
however, is relatively unknown— but not 
for long. In "Real Artificial Life," Rich- 
ard Marlon Stein takes the wraps of f arti- 
ficial life. Strange as it may seem, evolu- 
tion, through its infinite variety, can 
provide an unlimited number of solutions 
to engineering problems. 

Is AI dead? Not yet, but it's either go- 
ing through the throes of a terminal ill- 
ness or the agony of childbirth. Certainly 
some areas once considered the exclusive 
domain of AI are alive and well. But 
whether they will move out permanently 
on their own or regroup under AI's um- 
brella, I don't know. And I won't pretend 
to match my predictive powers against 
the likes of Minsky and Winograd. 

—Jane Morrill Tazelaar 
Senior Editor, State of the Art 

236 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 


JANUARY 1991 •BYTE 237 



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Identity Crisis 

What's important and what isn 't? 
What to keep ? What to discard? 

Bob Ryan 

For an outsider, pe- 
rusing some of the 
current literature in 
the field of artifi- 
cial intelligence borders on 
voyeurism. One part of you 
wants to shut the blinds, to 
turn away from the evident 
soul-searching going on, 
while another part is fascinat- 
ed by the skeletons that prom- 
inent AI researchers are start- 
ing to rattle. 

Probably because it is such 
a young field— and in part be- 
cause it was once overhyped 
to the point of absurdity— AI 
is undergoing an identity cri- 
sis. B. Chandrasekaran of 
Ohio State writes, "AI is in- 
ternally in a paradigmatic 
mess. There is really no broad 
agreement on the essential na- 
ture or formal basis of intelli- 
gence and the proper theoreti- 
cal framework for it" (see 
reference 1). 

Roger Schank of the Institute for 
Learning Studies (Evanston, IL) puts it 
another way. Talking about the public's 
identification of AI with expert systems 
and the criticism of AI from researchers 
in related fields of study, Schank states, 
"AI is in a serious state of disruption" 
(see reference 2). The resolution of this 
crisis— if it can ever be resolved— will 
determine whether AI can provide the 


kind of intelligent systems that will make 
all the work, and all the introspection, 

What Is AI? 

Ask a dozen different researchers the 
question "What is AI?" and you get a 
dozen different answers. Such is not the 
case with more mature disciplines, such 
as physics, medicine, and chemistry. To 

some people, this is evidence 
that AI can't be classified as a 
science and that it is, rather, 
simply a software-engineer- 
ing discipline that has taken 
on airs. But this view dis- 
counts the fact that every ma- 
ture science was once imma- 
ture and groping for defini- 

Patrick Winston, director 
of the MIT Artificial Intelli- 
gence Laboratory, has stated 
that the primary goal of AI is 
to make machines smarter 
(see reference 3), and many 
researchers agree. They see 
AI as a search for methods 
that will make computers far 
more intelligent (or at least 
make them act as if they were 
more intelligent) and, there- 
fore, more useful. 

Another oft-stated goal of 
AI is to investigate the nature 
of intelligence. From his 
work on robotics with Sey- 
mour Papert, Marvin Minsky of MIT 
developed the theory of agent-based in- 
telligence that he laid out in his 1986 
book, The Society of Mind (see reference 
4). Minsky doesn't differentiate between 
human and machine intelligence; his 
work is as much an investigation into the 
psychology of humans as it is about the 
quest for intelligent machines. 
Alan Bundy sees the confusion over 

JANUARY 1991 -BYTE 239 


the definition of A I as a result of the 
many kinds of AI. He identifies three 
primary kinds: applied AI, which is the 
use of AI in commercial products; cogni*- 
tive science, where AI is used to investi- 
gate the nature of intelligence; and basic 
AI, which is the exploration of computer- 
based techniques for simulating intelli- 
gent behavior (see reference 5). 

According to this view, AI is an engi- 
neering discipline that develops commer- 
cial products— primarily expert systems; 

it is an engineering science that develops 
computational techniques for simulating 
intelligence and discovers their proper- 
ties and interrelations; and it is a natural 
science that investigates the mind. 

The fact that there are many kinds of 
AI leads to confusion among observers 
and AI workers alike. The work being 
done by one researcher may have no rele- 
vance to an engineer trying to install an 
expert system for a client. Such divisions 
also make it difficult to judge the prog- 

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ress or even the validity of AI as a whole; 
each field of endeavor must be judged on 
its own merits and using its own criteria. 

Is AI Valid? 

For much of its existence, the AI field 
has been dogged by questions about its 
basic validity. Some questions are moti- 
vated by the fact that, in the past, AI 
promised much more than it could de- 
liver. Other questions concern the theo- 
retical foundations of A I. 

The fundamentals of A I were laid 
down in the decades preceding and fol- 
lowing World War II. In "Computing 
Machinery and Intelligence," Alan Tu- 
ring drew on earlier work that showed 
that formalized deduction— an aspect of 
intelligent reasoning— was a kind of 
computing, and that computing could be 
described as the manipulation of sym- 
bols. He came to the conclusion that, in 
theory, machines of the type we've come 
to call Turing machines can think (see 
reference 6). 

This concept laid down the theoretical 
groundwork for the first researchers in 
AI, who equated Turing machines with 
computers and who came to identify 
computers not as muscle-bound numeric 
calculators but as symbol manipulators. 
The fundamental assumption of AI, as 
stated by two of its founding theorists, is 
that "a physical symbol system has the 
necessary and sufficient means for gen- 
eral intelligent action" (see reference 7). 

According to this view, any system, 
such as a computer, that can process and 
manipulate symbols can be intelligent. 
The underlying assumption is that the 
human mind is simply one instance of a 
physical symbol system, and that what is 
termed "intelligence" is an artifact of 
that system. 

Almost from its inception, this as- 
sumption has come under attack. The at- 
tacks have taken two forms: emotional 
arguments made by those who don't want 
to share the special status accorded hu- 
man intelligence with machines, and 
logical arguments aimed at the assump- 
tions that AI makes about intelligence. 
Some of the latter have been motivated by 
what many think is the lack of general 
success in the AI field. 

For example, Terry Winograd of Stan- 
ford University thinks the fundamental 
view of intelligence that underlies AI is 
"shallow and inadequate." The prob- 
lem, according to Winograd, is not the 
"insufficient development of the tech- 
nology," but the "inadequacy of the 
basic tenets." He states, "There is no 
reason but hubris to believe that we are 
any closer to understanding intelligence 

240 BYTE- JANUARY 1991 

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than the alchemists were to the secrets of 
nuclear physics." 

In Winograd's view, "The very notion 
of 'symbol systems' is inherently linguis- 
tic and what [AI researchers] duplicate in 
[their] programs ... is really a form of 
verbal argument, not the workings of the 
mind." Winograd believes that a broader 
understanding of intelligence is neces- 
sary before a machine can display cre- 
ativity, insight, judgment, or even com- 
mon sense (see reference 8) . 

Eric Dietrich also takes issue with the 
theoretical basis of AI. He sees it as 
"based on a mistaken theoretical as- 
sumption: the idea that we now know 
what kind of computing thinking is." 

Dietrich believes a robust science of 
intelligent systems will be established, 
but not from current AI. Such a science, 
he states, would not assume that we know 
what kind of computing thinking is; in- 
stead, "It is the goal of such a science to 
tell us what thinking is, and if it is com- 
puting, to tell us what kind of computing 
it is" (see reference 9). 

To many people in the field, however, 
the question of whether physical symbol 
systems are necessary and sufficient for 
intelligence— whatever that is— is irrele- 
vant. Their goal is to make machines 
smarter by learning how to represent and 
manipulate real-world knowledge with 
a computer, without worrying about 
whether the thinking their machines do 
is in any way related to human thought. 

Most of the practical advances in AI 
come from this group. Their attitude to- 
ward the debate over whether machines 
can ever be intelligent was summed up by 

Ronald Brachman of Bell Labs in his 
overview of the knowledge-representa- 
tion field in the 1980s, where he stated, 
"Regardless of the ultimate cogency of 
the arguments against formal AI, work 
in [knowledge representation] proceeded 
without heed" (see reference 10). 

Certainly, the question of what consti- 
tutes intelligence is important not only to 
A I, but to science and society in general. 
But it is clear that those people who, in 
Bundy's classifications, are working in 
basic and applied AI are more interested 
in producing smarter computers than in 
creating an intelligent entity. So, al- 
though questions remain concerning the 
ultimate validity of symbolic AI as a 
model of the human mind, such ques- 
tions have yet to have a great impact on 
researchers who pursue symbolic A I as 
an engineering science. 

Connectionism Ascendant 

From its beginnings in the mid-1950s, 
AI has been divided into symbolic ap- 
proaches to simulating reasoning and 
nonsymbolic approaches. The most pop- 
ular of the latter type are neural net- 
works, which use the physical structure 
of the brain as their basic model. 

Neural networks consist of many sim- 
ple processing units called neurons that 
are interconnected and work in parallel. 
Neurons are arranged in layers and are 
connected both to neurons in the layer 
above and to those in the layer below. 

The network is then trained to asso- 
ciate certain inputs with certain outputs. 
Thus, neural networks don't use discrete 
symbols to represent knowledge, but rely 

on weighted connections between neu- 
rons. The training provides the weight- 
ing factor. The importance of connec- 
tions gives this field of study its name: 

In the 1960s, there was considerable 
excitement about a class of connectionist 
machines called perceptrons, which con- 
sisted of an input layer, a middle layer, 
and an output layer. Much of the excite- 
ment in perceptrons came from the 1962 
publication Principles of Neurodynamics 
by Frank Rosenblatt (see reference 11). 

By the end of the decade, however, the 
lack of practical results and the problems 
in scaling from small systems to large 
ones had cooled the interest in percep- 
trons within the AI community. The 
final knock on perceptrons came in Per- 
ceptrons by Marvin Minsky and Sey- 
mour Papert (see reference 12), who, at 
that time, were doing work with symbol- 
ic and connectionist systems. 

In a clear analysis, Minsky and Papert 
proved conclusively that perceptrons 
were inherently limited. In their final 
chapter, they expressed the belief that ex- 
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layer system would be fruitless. 

No one disputes the conclusions that 
Minsky and Papert reached about per- 
ceptrons. Many connectionist research- 
ers, however, still take issue with the in- 
clusion of the conjecture about multilayer 
systems, even though Minsky and Papert 
did identify the investigation of multi- 
layer systems as an important research 
goal. Connectionists blame Minsky and 
Papert for the tailspin connectionism as 
a whole went into in the 1970s, when 

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grants for that type of research were dif- 
ficult to obtain. 

But connectionist research did go on, 
ironically along the lines suggested by 
Minsky and Paper t. People began inves- 
tigating the capabilities of multilayer net- 
works and developed new neuron types 
and connectionist architectures that 
overcame the limitations of perceptrons. 
Such developments, however, did noth- 
ing to mend the rift between connection- 
ists and the rest of the AI community. 

By the mid-1980s, the renaissance in 
connectionism was well under way, and 
the AI establishment began to take no- 
tice. Minsky and Papert reissued Percep- 
trons in 1987. In the new prologue, they 
state, "Some readers may be shocked to 
hear it said that little of significance has 
happened in this field." By significant, 
they mean that "there has been little 
clear-cut change in the conceptual basis 
of the field." 

I n the epilogue, however, they go on to 
state their belief that connectionism is an 
important part of their view of the brain 
as "large numbers of relatively small dis- 
tributed systems arranged by embryol- 
ogy into a complex society that is con- 

trolled in part (but only in part) by serial, 
symbolic systems that are added later" 
(see reference 12). 

As connectionist machines continue to 
produce results in areas such as speech 
recognition and machine vision— areas 
formerly the exclusive reserve of symbol- 
ic AI— the debate about which method 
is best for representing and processing 
knowledge will intensify. Some AI re- 
searchers believe that, in some areas, the 
future belongs to connectionism. 

Brachman writes that the fact that con- 
nectionist systems can handle noise bet- 
ter than symbolic knowledge-representa- 
tion systems "seems to indicate that con- 
nectionist systems will eventually take 
over the role now being played by tradi- 
tional [knowledge-representation] sys- 
tems." In comparing connectionist and 
symbolic knowledge representations, he 
states, "When one looks at the natural 
world, it becomes apparent that the sym- 
bol-manipulation view of intelligence 
... is the more radical view" (see refer- 
ence 10). 

How will this symbol ic/connectionist 
debate play out? That's an open question. 
With a decade of steady progress behind 

it, connectionism, in the form of modern 
neural networks, is clearly here to stay 
and is perhaps better suited to acquiring 
and representing knowledge about the 
real world than is symbolic AI. 

When it comes to manipulating that 
knowledge, however, symbolic AI still 
can't be beaten. Undoubtedly, as old an- 
tagonisms wear thin, there will be more 
research into systems that combine both 

Issues to Investigate 

With all the controversy surrounding A I, 
it isn't hard to find lines of investigation. 
For the cognitive scientists, the questions 
revolve around the nature of intelligence, 
and how and if computers will ever be 
able to achieve it. Over the next decade, 
the question of the physical-symbol hy- 
pothesis, and of any theories that try to 
supplant it, will be uppermost. 

In an interesting way, Schank has tied 
the issues he thinks are most important 
in AI to the definition of A I. His point is 
that AI is not defined by the methodolo- 
gies it uses but by the problems those 
methodologies address. As he puts it, "A 
rule-based system is not an AI program 

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just because it uses rules or was written 
with an expert-system shell. It is an A I 
program if it addresses an AI issue." 

Because issues constantly change, 
Schank notes that the definition of A I is 
also changing. But he does point out 10 
issues that he thinks will endure: 

• Representation: At the heart of AI is 
the question of how to best represent 
knowledge in a computer. 

• Decoding: How do you get real-world 
knowledge into an internal representa- 
tion? In some AI fields, such as voice 
recognition or machine vision, decoding 
is the central issue. Schank thinks that 
decoding systems and representation sys- 
tems must be considered together when 
building a system. 

• Inference: AI systems must be better 
able to extract meaning from input. They 
must be able to infer meaning from lim- 
ited clues. 

• Control of combinational explosion: 
Putting it simply, an intelligent program 
must know when it knows enough about a 

• Indexing: Schank sees knowledge re- 
trieval not as a search problem but as the 
optimization of the organization and la- 
beling of memory. AI systems must be 
able to get at what they know. 

• Prediction and recovery: An AI system 
should be able to make predictions about 
events in its area and be able to explain 
when the predictions go awry. 

• Dynamic modification: In Schank' s 
view, the ability of a system to change its 
internal representations based on experi- 
ence—in other words, learning— is the 
quintessential AI issue. 

• Generalization: AI programs need to 
be able to draw generalizations from dif- 
ferent experiences. 

• Curiosity: Schank believes that truly 
creative computers could surpass human 
beings and that AI must become familiar 
with investigations of creativity in other 
fields. (See reference 2.) 

Whither AI? 

From fundamental questions of intelli- 
gence to the issues and characteristics an 
intelligent system must address, AI has 
many possible venues to explore. In the 
short run, however, sorting out what's 
important and what isn't, and what to 
keep and what to discard from the past, 
will keep AI in a state of turmoil. And 
the only way to decide what to keep and 
what to throw away is to find out what 
works. As Schank says, "The time to 
build is now." 

What effect will this have on us? In the 
near future, it will simply mean better, 

more intelligent expert systems. In time, 
it will mean computers that are better 
able to communicate with us, anticipate 
our needs, and solve our problems. ■ 


1. Chandrasekaran, B. "What Kind of In- 
formation Processing Is Intelligence?" In 
Foundations of AI: A Source Book. Edited 
by Derek Partridge and Yorick Wilks. 
Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University 
Press, 1990. 

2. Schank, Roger C. "What Is AI Any- 
way?" The AI Magazine, vol. 8, no. 4, 

3. Winston, Patrick H. "Artificial Intelli- 
gence: A Perspective." In A I in the 1980s 
and Beyond. Edited by W. Eric, L. Grim- 
son, and Ramesh S. Patil. Cambridge, 
MA: MIT Press, 1987. 

4. Minsky, Marvin. The Society of Mind. 
New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986. 

5. Bundy, Alan. "What Kind of Field Is 
AI?" In Foundations ofAI: A Source Book. 
Edited by Derek Partridge and Yorick 
Wilks. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Uni- 
versity Press, 1990. 

6. Turing, Alan. "Computing Machinery 
and Intelligence." Mind. N.S. 59, 1950. 
Reprinted in Computers and Thought. 
Edited by E. Feigenbaum and J. Feldman. 
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963. 

7. Newell, Allen, and Herbert A. Simon. 
"Computer Science as Empirical Inquiry: 
Symbols and Search." Communications of 
the ACM, vol. 19, no. 3, 1976. 

8. Winograd, Terry. "Thinking Machines: 
Can There Be? Are We?" In Understand- 
ing Computers and Cognition: A New Foun- 
dation for Design. By Terry Winograd and 
C. Fernando Flores. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 
1986. Reprinted by Addison- Wesley, 1987. 

9. Dietrich, Eric. "Programs in the Search 
for Intelligent Machines: The Mistaken 
Foundations of AI." In Foundations of AI: 
A Source Book. Edited by Derek Partridge 
and Yorick Wilks. Cambridge, U.K.: 
Cambridge University Press, 1990. 

10. Brachman, Ronald. "The Future of 
Knowledge Representation." Extended ab- 
stract in Proceedings of the Eighth National 
Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Men- 
lo Park, CA, and London, U.K.: AAAI 
Press. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990. 

1 1 . Rosenblatt, Frank. Principles of New o- 
dynamics: Perce ptrons and the Theory of 
Brain Mechanisms. Washington, DC: 
Sparta Books, 1962. 

12. Minsky, Marvin, and Seymour Paper t. 
Perceptrons: An Introduction to Computa- 
tional Geometry. Cambridge, MA: MIT 
Press, 1969. Revised 1987. 

Bob Ryan is a BYTE technical editor. You 
can reach him on BIX as "b. ryan. " 

246 BYTE* JANUARY 1991 


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the Category Bucket 

Categories are central to a human being 's picture of reality — 
and to knowledge representation and reasoning in AI 

Bill Thompson and Bev Thompson 

Although Webster 
would have you 
believe different- 
ly, categorization 
and classification are not the 
same thing— at least not in 
AI. Classification methods, 
which assign objects to cate- 
gories, are discussed in detail 
in numerous books and arti- 
cles, but categorization is 
often not given the same at- 
tention. However, it is impor- 
tant not only to certain AI 
methods, but also to how 
human beings think and rea- 
son about the world. 

We form categories about 
physical objects and abstract 
concepts. They help us make 
sense of the world we live in. 
Because of the fundamental 
connection that categories 
have with thought processes, 
a theory of categorization is 
central to our basic picture of 
reality. It is also central to 
knowledge representation and reasoning 

Our own curiosity about categories be- 
gan after reading Women, Fire and Dan- 
gerous Things by George Lakoff (Uni- 
versity of Chicago Press, 1987), which 
provides a systematic discussion of what 
categories are, how they are used, and 
what they reveal about the mind. An 
awareness of the new views of categoriza- 


tion, expounded by Lakoff and others in 
the fields of cognitive science, linguis- 
tics, anthropology, and psychology, 
forms a steady thread through much of 
the work in these fields. 

What Is a Category? 

There was a time when you could simply 
present the definition of a category and 
encounter almost no dissent. In the clas- 

sical view, a category is a 
group of objects whose mem- 
bers all share certain similar 
properties. The shared prop- 
erties alone define category 
membership. A category is 
thus viewed as a kind of buck- 
et with objects either inside or 
outside the container. 

This classical view has 
been predominant for the past 
2000 years in Western philos- 
ophy and science. Its applica- 
bility has been a background 
assumption that has formed a 
basic building block of many 
techniques and theories in 
many fields, including AI. 

In this view, the properties 
that define a category are con- 
sidered to be more primitive 
concepts than the category it- 
self. This belief prompted 
theoreticians to search for 
ways to identify an ultimate 
set of primitives to which all 
other concepts could be re- 
duced. For Aristotle, these primitives in- 
cluded substance, quantity, relation, 
time, position, status, activity, and pas- 
sivity. However, it's basically impossible 
to define an ultimate set of primitives. 
Even Aristotle was unable to settle on 
one definitive set. 

In 1629, Leibniz sought to represent 
primitives as prime numbers. He repre- 
sented compound concepts by multiply- 

JANUARY 199 1 • B Y T E 249 


ing the prime numbers of the primitive 
concepts together. (In fact, he invented 
the first calculating machine in order to 
simplify his computations.) A little less 
than 300 years later, with the availability 
of computers, Roger Schank's concep- 
tual-dependency graphs and semantic- 
net theories in computational linguistics 
echoed a similar theme. 

A New Interpretation 

The classical notion of a category as 
a container for objects sharing similar 
properties is now rapidly losing accep- 
tance. The impetus behind this dissatis- 
faction came primarily from research in 
psychology, linguistics, and anthropol- 
ogy. Notably, Eleanor Rosch and her 
colleagues at the University of California 
at Berkeley were involved in pioneering 
work that questioned the basic definition 
of a category. Rosch examined certain 
implications of the classical theory. 

Rosen's criticism of the classical view 
is described by Lakoff: "First, if catego- 
ries are defined only by properties that 
all members share, then no members 
should be better examples of the category 
than any other members. Second, if cate- 
gories are defined only by properties in- 
herent in the members, then categories 
should be independent of the peculiar- 
ities of any beings doing the catego- 

Contrary to these implications, ex- 
perimental evidence indicated that, in 
general, categories have best examples 
called prototypes and also that human 
characteristics are integral to the process 
of categorization. 



classical notion of a 

category is now rapidly 

losing acceptance. 

Categories and AI 

The view of human reason that follows 
from the classical notion of a category is 
described by Lakoff as "the mechanical 
manipulation of abstract symbols which 
are meaningless in themselves but can be 
given meaning by virtue of their capacity 
to refer to things either in the actual 
world or in possible states of the world." 

Once you accept this view, it i s a n easy 
next step to assume the possibility of a 
nonhuman or machine intelligence. This 
position holds that thought is disembod- 
ied; that is, it is not at all dependent on 
the characteristics of the "thing" doing 
the manipulation. This idea of categori- 
zation, sometimes referred to as objectiv- 
ism, has been steadily losing ground, 
however, and currently only the propo- 
nents of the so-called "strong view" of 
AI favor it. 

Once you question the classical defini- 
tion of categories, an alternate view of 
reason emerges. In that theory, categori- 
zation, and thus reason, cannot be sepa- 
rated from human experience and imagi- 
nation. This theory of embodied reason 

















Number of appendages 








With rule-based systems, you often classify objects using a decision tree. 
The limitation of such a system is that the structure of the tree predefines the 
categories available. 

implies some interesting propositions. 
Among them, the mind is not separate 
from the body, and there is not a correct 
"God's-eye view of the world." Lakoff 
has termed this philosophical position 
experiential realism or experientialism. 

Categorization and Classification 

In A I, many of the most well known 
techniques deal with some type of classi- 
fication of data. In classification, the 
goal is to identify the category or class to 
which an object belongs. It is assumed 
that the possible categories are known 
before classification begins. Methods 
commonly used for classification include 
rule-based expert systems, induction sys- 
tems, neural networks, and genetic algo- 
rithms. In a rule-based system, you con- 
struct a decision system that represents 
the understanding of an expert. This 
knowledge either is already well defined 
or is massaged into an orderly structure 
by knowledge engineering. Many expert 
systems are based implicitly on decision 

It's easy to see how the decision-tree 
model follows the classical theory of cat- 
egories. Each leaf of the tree is a cate- 
gory—a bucket into which you place a 
classified object. Membership in the 
category is based solely on properties 
that the objects in the bucket share. For 
example, in the tree shown in the figure, 
membership in the category Insecta is de- 
termined solely by the presence of anten- 
nae and six appendages. 

This representation suggests that for 
each of these objects, the properties de- 
scribing them and their categories are 
well-defined "things" that exist in the 
"real world." Membership in the final 
category is an all-or-nothing proposition. 
No objects are better or worse members 
of the category. Although many schemes 
have been proposed to allow measures of 
uncertainty in the classification process, 
they are often poorly understood by the 
experts building the systems and thus 
have met with limited success. 

Since building decision trees is such a 
labor-intensive process, many AI re- 
searchers attempt to construct methods 
that can learn rules from existing data. 
Induction systems, neural networks, and 
genetic algorithms are examples of such 
methods. In each of them, the system 
"learns" by being trained with sample 
data. This data usually contains a set of 
objects along with information describ- 
ing selected characteristics of each object 
in the data set. In order to learn, these 
systems must also be provided with the 
known category in which each object be- 
longs. The learning method uses the 

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sample set to construct a series of rela- 
tionships that will allow the system to 
predict the categories of new objects. 
Table 1 shows a typical sample set for a 
learning algorithm. 

Of the three techniques, induction is 
the closest to basic rule-based systems. 
Most induction systems examine each at- 
tribute used to describe the objects (the 
columns in table 1) and decide which one 
most evenly partitions the objects. In- 
duction is basically a counting method 
that shares the classical bias for fixed 

Genetic algorithms and neural net- 
works work in ways that are philosophi- 
cally closer to the modern notions of cat- 
egorization. It's interesting to note that 
even the names of these techniques are 
derived from biological systems, imply- 
ing a search for a more "embodied" 
theory of learning. 

Genetic Algorithms 

Genetic algorithms represent the proper- 
ties of objects with a string of bits (see 
table 2). The algorithm first creates bit 
patterns— randomly or based on some 
heuristic— that represent a rule for classi- 
fication. For example, using the scheme 
in table 2, you can encode the proposition 
"if there are more than six appendages 
and it's a sea creature with antennae, 
then it's of the order Decapoda" with the 
bit pattern 01 1010100 10. 

Next, the algorithm tests the generated 
rules against a sample set. This testing 
may be somewhat complicated, forcing 
the generated rules to bid for the privi- 
lege of being tested against an element in 
the sample set. Based on bidding suc- 
cesses and failures, the algorithm as- 
signs strengths to the generated rules. 
Because the strengths of the rules are 
constantly changing, this process is an it- 
erative one that passes through the sam- 
ple set many times. 

At intervals, the genetic algorithm is 
invoked to select rules from the set to 
mate, mutate, and die. The rules are 
chosen based on probability according to 
the strength assigned to each generated 
rule. The operation of both phases of this 
technique tends to identify and reward 
"successful" bit patterns by replication. 
These bit patterns, which represent 
groups of properties, constitute catego- 
ries that emerge as significant in the gen- 
erated rules. Category formation is very 
fluid, and boundaries shift as emerging 
category patterns influence the model. 
You can observe these relationships by 
examining the evolution of the genetic 

Learning in Neural Networks 

A neural network is made up of layers of 
neurons: an input layer, one or more mid- 
dle layers, and an output layer. Neurons 
can be adapted to handle numeric, sym- 


Table 1 : The induction learning method uses the sample set of data to 
construct a series of relationships. Knowledge of these relationships will 
enable the system to predict the classes of new objects. 


Appendages Habitat Antennae Usefulness 


Horseshoe crab >6 Sea No None 



6 Land Yes Food 



>6 Land No None 



>6 Sea Yes Food 



6 Land Yes Silk 


bolic, and image data. Each input neuron 
represents one property described in the 
sample set. The output is usually a classi- 
fication category based on the internal 
state of the middle layers of neurons. 

The training set of a neural network is 
a set of objects whose properties are pre- 
sented as input to it. The algorithms used 
in the model adjust the strengths of the 
connections among the neurons until 
they achieve the desired output. Since the 
readjustment changes the response of 
previously tested objects, the method 
loops through the training set and refines 
the connections until it reaches some op- 
timum conditions. Like the genetic algo- 
rithm, the operation of the neural net- 
work relates the objects' properties to 
categories in a manner difficult to de- 
scribe in classical terms. 

Although genetic algorithms and neu- 
ral networks take the interesting first 
step of representing a category as some- 
thing other than a single group of objects 
sharing similar well-defined properties, 
this doesn't mean that they approximate 
human reasoning methods. Researchers 
who subscribe to the nonobjective view 
of reasoning will be quick to remind you 
that no matter how clever the manipula- 
tion of symbolic representations, reason- 
ing is not an abstract process separable 
from the "wetware" that performs it. 
Lakoff's book contains numerous exam- 
ples of metaphors and image-schematic 
structures that illustrate this point. 

Forming Categories 

All the learning systems described thus 
far require a sample set of objects that 
have already been classified. This im- 
plies that for a given set of objects, you 
already know which categories exist and 
how the